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Spanish Grammar Review

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Information about Spanish Grammar Review
Education

Published on December 11, 2008

Author: pookiebooda

Source: slideshare.net

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A handout with common Spanish II grammar topics
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SP III Grammar Review Direct Object Pronouns • replace the nouns that receive the action • placed before the conjugated verb or after and attached to the infinitive or present participle me nos te os lo, la los, las Examples: -Me gusta la gorra. ¿Dónde la compraste? -Yo la compré en Modells. - ¡Qué bien! Yo voy a comprarla allí también. -Pues, ahora está en venta. Están vendiéndola por sólo diez dólares. El Comparativo Tan + adjective + como…………………as ____ as Mas + adjective + que…………………..more ____ than Menos + adjective + que……………….less ____ than Tanto, a (s) + noun + como …………..as many ____ as Mas + noun + que ………………………..more ____ than Menos + noun + que ……………………..less ____ than Examples: María es tan bonita como su hermana. Pablo es más inteligente que Juan.

El Comparativo (cont’d) Yo tengo tantos libros como ella. Ana escribe menos cartas que su amiga. El Superlativo El, la, los, las + más + adjective ………………..the most ___ El, la, los, las + menos + adjective …………….the least ___ El, la, los, las mejor …………………………………..the best ___ El, la, los, las peor …………………………………….the worst ___ El, la, los, las mayor ………………………………….the oldest ___ El, la, los, las menor ………………………………….the youngest ___ El, la, los, las + noun + mas/menos + adjective……the most/least ___________ ______________ Examples: La más bonita es Sara. Los menos atléticos son ellos. La mejor profesora es la Sra. Resende. El equipo mas famoso es los Yankees. Sara es la mayor hija de la familia. Los Verbos Reflexivos • verbs that express action done to oneself • must have the reflexive pronoun before the conjugated verb or after and attached to the infinitive or present participle

Los verbos reflexivos (cont’d) Reflexive pronouns: me nos te os se se Example: Me lavo el pelo cada día. Él se cepilla los dientes antes de salir de la casa. Isabel está maquillándose. Después de/Antes de • must be followed by an infinitive verb después de + infinitive ………………. after verbing antes de + infinitive …………………… before verbing Example: Nos lavamos las manos antes de comer. Yo me ducho después de trabajar en el jardín. Demonstratives Adjectives: Este, esta, estos, estas ………………..this, these (here) Ese, esa, esos, esas …………………….that, those (there) aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas ……that, those (far away)

Pronouns: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas …………………this one, these (ones) ése, ésa, ésos, ésas ……………………..that one, those (ones) aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas …..that one, those (ones) Preterite * simple past action, happened once *words to indicate preterite: ayer, anteayer, hace dos años, esta mañana, anoche Endings: -AR -ER & -IR é amos í imos aste asteis iste isteis ó aron ió ieron Imperfect *past tense that describes people, places, or situations, *expresses continuous or habitual action; “used to verb” or “was verbing” *words to indicate need for imperfect: generalmente, a menudo, muchas veces, todos los días, siempre, nunca Endings: -AR -ER & -IR aba ábamos ía íamos abas abais ías íais aba aban ía ían

IR & SER in the Imperfect Ir yo iba nosotros íbamos tú ibas vosotros ibáis él ellos ella iba ellas iban Ud. Uds. Ser yo era nosotros éramos tu eras vosotros eráis él ellos ella era ellas eran Ud. Uds. Possessives Adjectives before the noun: mi (s) nuestro, a (s) tu (s) vuestro, a (s) su (s) su (s) Adjectives after the noun: mío, a (s) nuestro, a (s) tuyo, a (s) vuestro, a (s) suyo, a (s) suyo, a (s) Pronouns: el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas el nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras el vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas

Present Progressive *continuous action in the present *compound tense using estar and the present participle estoy estás -ar verb w/-ando está + estamos -er or –ir verb w/-iendo estáis están *spell changes that happen in the preterit happen in the present participle (ex. dormir => durmieron => durmiendo) *pronouns appear before the conjugated verb (estar) or after and attached to the present participle Ex. Me estoy lavando el pelo (or) Estoy lavándome el pelo. Imperfect Progressive Expresses action that was happening continually in the past. estaba estabas estaba + present participle (-ando, -iendo) estábamos estabais estaban Yo estaba caminando por el parque cuando me mordó un perro.

Preterite and Imperfect – using them together Remember that the preterite is a simple, one-time action in the past and that the imperfect is a continuous action in the past (happening over time). ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/ imperfect preterite Yo estaba mirando la tele cuando sonó el teléfono. María estaba estudiando cuando se acostó con el libro en la mano. Present Subjunctive Used in order to express doubt, denial or disbelief. The sentence must have two clauses separated by “que” with two different subjects. Formation: take the yo form present tense, drop the “o” and add the present subjunctive endings a amos as áis a an Ex. Yo dudo que él venga a la fiesta. Es posible que haga sol manana. Creo que vaya a llover este fin de semana.

Imperfect Subjunctive Used in the same way the present subjunctive is used. Most commonly appears with the conditional tense to express what would happen… Formation: take the 3rd person plural of the preterite, take off the “ron” and add the ending. There are two sets of endings to choose from… ra ramos se semos ras rais ses seis ra ran se sen Ex. Si fuera flor, sería margarita porque son bonitas. Yo compraría un coche nuevo si tuviera el dinero. Por vs. Para POR: • Approximate time or duration (for, during, in, per) • Manner or means (by) • Movement (along, through, by, via, around) • Exchange (for, in exchange for) • Cause, motivation, or benefit (for, because of, on behalf of, for the sake of) • Agent or cause of an action (by) • Por ciento = percent, por hora = per hour • Por + infinitive = because of, for reason of

PARA: • A destination (for, to) • A purpose, goal, or objective (for, by) • A point of view (for) • A point of reference or comparison (for) • Para + infinitive = in order to (verb)

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