# Space WebQuest

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Published on December 9, 2007

Author: dlwilson

Source: slideshare.net

## Description

A WebQuest designed to merge physics and technology education for high school students.

Student Page Title Introduction Task Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] A WebQuest for 11th Grade Technology Education Designed by: Daniel Wilson [email_address] Based on a template from The WebQuest Page Process

Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] Recently, NASA’s fledgling Spaceploration program launched its first in a series of state-of-the-art space exploration vehicles. These one of a kind ships are the world’s finest reusable, multiple-flight, personnel carrying launch vehicles. However, a tragedy has befallen the crew of the first of these ships, Orbit. Only minutes after launch, the Orbit spacecraft, traveling at nearly 3000 miles per hour, collided with a high-flying bird. The resultant damage has made it impossible for Orbit to return to Earth safely. It is the mission of NASA’s Extreme Circumstances Team (ECT) to devise a manipulator arm capable of repairing the damaged Orbit aircraft before time runs out. Can a robotic arm that will fix the damage be able to be built in the next week?

Student Page Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] As part of the Extreme Circumstances Team, your job will be to design a the “arm” portion of a robotic manipulator in order to fix the damaged Orbit. This arm must: Be 5 meters long when fully extended Be able to withstand an axial force of 100 N Be able to withstand a transverse load of 200 N Contain at least two joints Each joint much be able to withstand a torque of 1 kN-m Each joint must be able to have a range of motion > 120 degrees The entire arm can weigh no more than 250kg This arm is crucial to the survival of the men and women aboard the Orbit! Title F = 200N F = 100N

As part of the Extreme Circumstances Team, your job will be to design a the “arm” portion of a robotic manipulator in order to fix the damaged Orbit.

This arm must:

Be 5 meters long when fully extended

Be able to withstand an axial force of 100 N

Be able to withstand a transverse load of 200 N

Contain at least two joints

Each joint much be able to withstand a torque of 1 kN-m

Each joint must be able to have a range of motion > 120 degrees

The entire arm can weigh no more than 250kg

This arm is crucial to the survival of the men and women aboard the Orbit!

Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] This is a very large project! Follow these steps to save the astronauts: Create a team of 2 students Decide which student will design the arm material (more math and physics oriented) and which student will design the joint (more research oriented) Both of you will use any online resources available to research materials, motors, and gears. Some very helpful websites include: www.mcmaster.com – great for raw materials, motors, and gears www.matweb.com – material properties Remember these useful equations: Mass: m = V ρ Torque: T = Fd Maximum axial stress in a beam: σ = F/A Maximum bending stress is a beam: σ = My/I where I is the area moment of inertia The total stress is the vector sum of these two components and can not exceed the yield stress of the material being used Make a list of components that appear to be good choices for this application and rate them using 5 categories of interest (strength, weight, cost, etc.) Choose the best components based on the sum of ratings To turn in: Material to be used for the “arms” with calculations showing that the arm will not break Motors to be used Data sheet for the motors with load holding capability highlighted Gears to be used Cost of all parts to be used σ = My/I m = V ρ T = Fd σ = F/A

This is a very large project! Follow these steps to save the astronauts:

Create a team of 2 students

Decide which student will design the arm material (more math and physics oriented) and which student will design the joint (more research oriented)

Both of you will use any online resources available to research materials, motors, and gears. Some very helpful websites include:

www.mcmaster.com – great for raw materials, motors, and gears

www.matweb.com – material properties

Remember these useful equations:

Mass: m = V ρ

Torque: T = Fd

Maximum axial stress in a beam: σ = F/A

Maximum bending stress is a beam: σ = My/I where I is the area moment of inertia

The total stress is the vector sum of these two components and can not exceed the yield stress of the material being used

Make a list of components that appear to be good choices for this application and rate them using 5 categories of interest (strength, weight, cost, etc.)

Choose the best components based on the sum of ratings

To turn in:

Material to be used for the “arms” with calculations showing that the arm will not break

Motors to be used

Data sheet for the motors with load holding capability highlighted

Gears to be used

Cost of all parts to be used

Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] Beginning 1 Developing 2 Accomplished 3 Exemplary 4 Score Arm Material Selection Material selected meets some constraints and will not support imposed loads. Few if any calculations. Material selected meets some constraints and will not support imposed loads. Calculations are brief and inaccurate. Material selected meets most constraints and has been shown to support imposed loads. Calculations are close to accurate and predict maximum stresses in arm. Material selected meets all constraints and has been shown to support imposed loads. Neat, clean, and accurate calculations to accurately predict maximum stresses in arm. Motor and Gear Selection Motor not selected. Motor (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) is unknown. Motor selected has a (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) equal to or greater than that needed from constraints. Pertinent information is absent from data sheet. Motor selected has a (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) equal to or greater than that needed from constraints. Pertinent information on data sheet is highlighted. Report Quality Report incomplete Descriptions of selected parts are confusing and vague. Report may seem hard to follow at times. Descriptions of selected parts are satisfactory and complete. Report may seem hard to follow at times. Descriptions of selected parts flow well and are easy to understand. Report is concise and well-organized.

Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] Design and implementation are critical components of every part of our technical world. In this assignment you were given a problem with certain constraints (limitations) on the solution. Every design challenge in the real world involves some sort of constraint (strength, weight, cost, manufacturability, etc). This assignment was written to help prepare you for real-world design problems. You built skills in the areas of conceptual design, supplier research and distribution, as well as reporting. If you are interested in this and any other kind of design work, check out these resources: http://www.usfirst.org/ - FIRST Robotics Competition http://www.soinc.org/ - Science Olympaid http://www.cmesa.org/ - MESA (Math, Engineering, Science, Achievement)

Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] McMaster-Carr Homepage (n.d.). Retrieved December 8, 2007 from McMaster-Carr Web site: www.mcmaster.com MatWeb Homepage (n.d.). Retrieved December 8, 2007 from MatWeb Web site: www.matweb.com

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion A WebQuest for 11th Grade Technology Education Designed by: Daniel Wilson [email_address] Based on a template from The WebQuest Page

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page This lesson was designed as an assignment for Colorado State University’s Education 331 class. The purpose of this lesson to merge a science-based class learning the basics of forces and stresses with a “real-life” design problem. This lesson will provide insight into the world of engineering while teaching students to apply their physics knowledge to create a useful product. In this lesson, a fictional NASA spacecraft , the “Orbit,” has hit a bird during launch. Because there is too much damage to the spacecraft for safe re-entry, the students must design a robotic arm that will be able to fix the damaged spacecraft. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page This lesson is designed for an advanced 11 th to 12 th grade science or technology class. Prior knowledge of basic material mechanics is critical for this lesson. Conceptual understanding of torque, moment, shear stress, and bending stress is critical. Additionally, basic knowledge of material mechanics equations would be beneficial. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Literacy Standards Addressed: The information literate student: STANDARD 1: accesses information efficiently and effectively. STANDARD 2: e valuates information critically and competently. STANDARD 3: uses information accurately and creatively. Colorado Model Content Standards: Students understand the processes of scientific investigation and design, conduct, communicate about, and evaluate such investigations. Physical Science: Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and energy. Earth and Space Science: Students know and understand the processes and interactions of Earth's systems and the structure and dynamics of Earth and other objects in space. Students know and understand interrelationships among science, technology, and human activity and how they can affect the world. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

The information literate student:

STANDARD 1: accesses information efficiently and effectively.

STANDARD 2: e valuates information critically and competently.

STANDARD 3: uses information accurately and creatively.

Students understand the processes of scientific investigation and design, conduct, communicate about, and evaluate such investigations.

Physical Science: Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and energy.

Earth and Space Science: Students know and understand the processes and interactions of Earth's systems and the structure and dynamics of Earth and other objects in space.

Students know and understand interrelationships among science, technology, and human activity and how they can affect the world.

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Create a team of 2 students – the teacher should strongly consider ensuring that at least one of these group members has a strong ability with mechanics. Decide which student will design the arm material (more math and physics oriented) and which student will design the joint (more research oriented) Both of you will use any online resources available to research materials, motors, and gears. Some very helpful websites include: www.mcmaster.com – great for raw materials, motors, and gears (this website has a fairly intuitive search bar on the left side of the page, but some coaching on how to search may be required) www.matweb.com – material properties (this website is immense, and hence there are often over 100 entries for a given material. You will need to help students discern what qualifies as an appropriate entry) Remember these useful equations: (basic knowledge of these equations should be known before this assignment is disseminated) Mass: m = V ρ Torque: T = Fd Maximum axial stress in a beam: σ = F/A Maximum bending stress is a beam: σ = My/I where I is the area moment of inertia The total stress is the vector sum of these two components and can not exceed the yield stress of the material being used Make a list of components that appear to be good choices for this application and rate them using 5 categories of interest (strength, weight, cost, etc.) Choose the best components based on the sum of ratings To turn in: Material to be used for the “arms” with calculations showing that the arm will not break Motors to be used Data sheet for the motors with load holding capability highlighted Gears to be used Cost of all parts to be used Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion This is a very large and involved activity, and will likely take several weeks to complete. Allow at least 2 full periods of research on the computer. It would be advised to use this lesson as a “capstone” project for a technology or science class.

Create a team of 2 students – the teacher should strongly consider ensuring that at least one of these group members has a strong ability with mechanics.

Decide which student will design the arm material (more math and physics oriented) and which student will design the joint (more research oriented)

Both of you will use any online resources available to research materials, motors, and gears. Some very helpful websites include:

www.mcmaster.com – great for raw materials, motors, and gears (this website has a fairly intuitive search bar on the left side of the page, but some coaching on how to search may be required)

www.matweb.com – material properties (this website is immense, and hence there are often over 100 entries for a given material. You will need to help students discern what qualifies as an appropriate entry)

Remember these useful equations: (basic knowledge of these equations should be known before this assignment is disseminated)

Mass: m = V ρ

Torque: T = Fd

Maximum axial stress in a beam: σ = F/A

Maximum bending stress is a beam: σ = My/I where I is the area moment of inertia

The total stress is the vector sum of these two components and can not exceed the yield stress of the material being used

Make a list of components that appear to be good choices for this application and rate them using 5 categories of interest (strength, weight, cost, etc.)

Choose the best components based on the sum of ratings

To turn in:

Material to be used for the “arms” with calculations showing that the arm will not break

Motors to be used

Data sheet for the motors with load holding capability highlighted

Gears to be used

Cost of all parts to be used

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Only one teacher is needed to implement this lesson, however, bringing in a professional from the field of engineering to assist the students with the design process would be beneficial. Additional necessary resources include: Computer lab with at least 15 computers having internet access Calculators for each group Word processing software Printing capability www.mcmaster.com www.matweb.com Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

Only one teacher is needed to implement this lesson, however, bringing in a professional from the field of engineering to assist the students with the design process would be beneficial. Additional necessary resources include:

Computer lab with at least 15 computers having internet access

Calculators for each group

Word processing software

Printing capability

www.mcmaster.com

www.matweb.com

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page The product of this lesson should be a concise (~2 page) report on the material selected for the arms with detailed math showing it will not fail, as well as a motor/gear combo that will output enough torque (~1000Nm) to overcome stated forces. Don’t worry too much about how the gears will mesh with the motor or how the motor will attach to the arms. If students seem to have solved the physics problem and found a solution for parts and materials online that is acceptable, the lesson is a success! Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion Beginning 1 Developing 2 Accomplished 3 Exemplary 4 Score Arm Material Selection Material selected meets some constraints and will not support imposed loads. Few if any calculations. Material selected meets some constraints and will not support imposed loads. Calculations are brief and inaccurate. Material selected meets most constraints and has been shown to support imposed loads. Calculations are close to accurate and predict maximum stresses in arm. Material selected meets all constraints and has been shown to support imposed loads. Neat, clean, and accurate calculations to accurately predict maximum stresses in arm. Motor and Gear Selection Motor not selected. Motor (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) is unknown. Motor selected has a (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) equal to or greater than that needed from constraints. Pertinent information is absent from data sheet. Motor selected has a (load carrying rating) * (gear ratio) equal to or greater than that needed from constraints. Pertinent information on data sheet is highlighted. Report Quality Report incomplete Descriptions of selected parts are confusing and vague. Report may seem hard to follow at times. Descriptions of selected parts are satisfactory and complete. Report may seem hard to follow at times. Descriptions of selected parts flow well and are easy to understand. Report is concise and well-organized.

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page The WebQuest model is best suited for learners who can navigate the Web on their own and can read the kinds of material commonly found on the Web. We can stretch the format to reach primary-aged learners, developmental English Language Learners and special populations by creating a facilitated WebQuest, one that requires an adult or older peer to drive things. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion Ask student to redefine problem in his/her own words Look for key words such as “stress,” “materials,” and “design” Ask student to draw what they think a robot arm might look like Make sure arm has only two joints and is very simple Direct student to McMaster website Search for materials such as steel, aluminum, carbon fiber, and fiber glass in the window provided Select at least 3 possible materials and look up their yield and ultimate stresses on MatWeb There will be many materials on MatWeb. Just choose one that looks reasonable. Use provided equations to determine if material will be strong enough Stresses from equations should be < yield stress for metals and < ultimate stress for composites Search for motors on McMaster’s website taking note of their torque ratings – choose at least 3 possible motors Search for gear boxes on McMaster’s website taking not of gear ratio Assure (gear ratio)*(motor torque) is > 1000Nm

Ask student to redefine problem in his/her own words

Look for key words such as “stress,” “materials,” and “design”

Ask student to draw what they think a robot arm might look like

Make sure arm has only two joints and is very simple

Direct student to McMaster website

Search for materials such as steel, aluminum, carbon fiber, and fiber glass in the window provided

Select at least 3 possible materials and look up their yield and ultimate stresses on MatWeb

There will be many materials on MatWeb. Just choose one that looks reasonable.

Use provided equations to determine if material will be strong enough

Stresses from equations should be < yield stress for metals and < ultimate stress for composites

Search for motors on McMaster’s website taking note of their torque ratings – choose at least 3 possible motors

Search for gear boxes on McMaster’s website taking not of gear ratio

Assure (gear ratio)*(motor torque) is > 1000Nm

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Design and implementation are critical components of every part of our technical world. Teaching students how to design products from scientific theory is an essential element in making science personal. In this assignment, students were given a problem with certain constraints (limitations) to the solution. Every design challenge in the real world involves some sort of constraint (strength, weight, cost, manufacturability, etc). This assignment will help students prepare for real-world design problems. Students will build skills in the areas of conceptual design, supplier research and distribution, as well as reporting. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

[ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page McMaster-Carr Homepage (n.d.). Retrieved December 8, 2007 from McMaster-Carr Web site: www.mcmaster.com MatWeb Homepage (n.d.). Retrieved December 8, 2007 from MatWeb Web site: www.matweb.com Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion

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