SP 10

60 %
40 %
Information about SP 10
Education

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 5: Intrinsic Motivation Self-Confidence Related Topics :  Chapter 5: Intrinsic Motivation Self-Confidence Related Topics Psychology of Sport September 21-26, 2006 Class #10-11 Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate :  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college football coach requires his players to witness the castration of a bull. The owner of a professional sports team has her players look at a picture of her dog's grave. A Little League coach offers $20 to any player who hits a homer. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate :  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college basketball coach leaves the bench in the middle of a game and sits in the stands, giving "high-fives" to fans and the mascot. A college tennis coach vows to shave her head if her team wins the conference championship. A college men’s basketball coach requires his team to play a version of “strip poker” for missed free throws. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate :  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A college football coach removed the team’s logo from the players’ helmets and told them they would have to earn the logo back. A college basketball coach kicked her players out of their plush locker room and made them practice in their own clothes. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate :  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A Major League baseball coach agrees to dye his hair if his team wins three games in a row. He later wondered if he did the right thing…:  He later wondered if he did the right thing… Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate :  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate Piniella said after the third victory that he intended to rescind his offer to dye his hair if the Devil Rays had not won because he thought the pledge had the potential to become a hindrance to the team. “The color of my hair has nothing to do with wins and losses.” The winning streak ended abruptly with an 11-3 loss. Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate:  Coaches’ Attempts to Motivate A high school football coach uses fake blood to stage his own shooting in the school cafeteria. A high school wrestling coach bites the head off a sparrow to motivate his team. Would this make you swim faster???:  Would this make you swim faster??? Why Study Motivation? :  Why Study Motivation? Why do people participate in sport and exercise? What motivated you as an athlete, student, etc.? Why do they drop-out? What demotivated you? How do you motivate your athletes, students, clients? Motivation:  Motivation The underlying processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs or wants Direction, intensity of behavior/effort… Sustaining that direction and intensity over time Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation:  Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation EXTRINSIC: Motivated by external rewards. Performing an activity to achieve instrumental outcomes. Impact of Rewards on Behavior :  Impact of Rewards on Behavior What types of things make you want to improve or perform better? What types of things are most rewarding? Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation:  Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation INTRINSIC: Inner striving to be competent, master task Engage in interesting activities to seek and achieve optimal challenges. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation:  How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Assess both situational and personal factors. Think interaction! Structure situations to meet people’s needs. Provide for successful experiences. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation:  How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Reward contingent on performance. Use verbal and nonverbal praise. Vary content & sequence of practice drills. How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation:  How to Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Involve athletes / students / clients in decision making. Set realistic performance goals. Recognize that YOU are a critical part of the motivational climate! But be careful of overjustification… :  But be careful of overjustification… Example: Child cleaning his/her room… Why do they do it? Why Study Self-Confidence?:  Why Study Self-Confidence? Gardner, never an NCAA champion, never a world medalist, ended Karelin's string of three Olympic gold medals and 13-year unbeaten streak by winning the 2000 Olympic super heavyweight wrestling gold medal 1-0 "When did I think I could beat him? About 10 minutes ago," Gardner said. “I kept saying, I think I can. I think I can.' But it wasn't until it was over that I knew I could.” What is Self-Confidence?:  What is Self-Confidence? A belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior What is Self-Confidence? :  What is Self-Confidence? Winner of 8 Grand Slam events Ranked #1 for 263 consecutive weeks in the 1970s 1991 US Open, 39 years old, ranked 174th and needing a wild-card to get in. Won his opening round match against Patrick McEnroe, lasting 4 hours and 18 minutes, and ending at 1:35 AM! Rallied from behind throughout the tournament to make it the quarter finals before bowing out. Jimmy Connors What is Self-Confidence?:  What is Self-Confidence? The whole thing is never to get negative about yourself. Sure, it’s possible that the other guy you’re playing is tough and that he may have beaten you the last time you played. And, OK, maybe you haven’t been playing all that well yourself. But the minute you start thinking about these things you’re dead. I go out to every match convinced that I’m going to win. That’s all there is to it. Jimmy Connors Types of Self-Confidence :  Types of Self-Confidence OPTIMAL: Realistic sense of what you can accomplish. Realistic goals, playing within yourself. Types of Self-Confidence:  Types of Self-Confidence DIFFIDENT: Lacking confidence. Fear of failure, high degree of self-doubt. Use ego-protective behaviors. Types of Self-Confidence :  Types of Self-Confidence FALSE CONFIDENCE: Unfounded confidence in abilities. Cocky, arrogant. OR Act to cover up diffident attitude. Models of Self-Confidence:  Models of Self-Confidence Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1977) Competence Motivation Theory (Harter, 1978) Multidimensional Model of Self-Confidence (Vealey et al., 2002) Self-Efficacy Theory :  Self-Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy Beliefs in one’s capabilities Four fundamental elements Successful Performance Vicarious Experience Verbal Persuasion Emotional Arousal Self-Efficacy Theory:  Self-Efficacy Theory Successful Performance Athlete needs to be successful Set realistic goals For example: T ball; shooting at 8 foot hoops Self-Efficacy Theory:  Self-Efficacy Theory Vicarious Experience Watching then copying the model (participatory modeling) Can also be accomplished through use of video In youth leagues, besides coach often stars of the team provide the modeling Verbal Persuasion :  Verbal Persuasion Skinner’s operant learning techniques apply here Stay positive Emotional Arousal:  Emotional Arousal Emotionally ready and optimally aroused Too many stressors can interfere here Individual differences Many of the traits of over-achievers apply here as well…:  Many of the traits of over-achievers apply here as well… Compared to those who doubt themselves those high in self-efficacy: They work harder They work longer Achieve at a higher level Martin (2002):  Martin (2002) Long-distance wheel-chair athletes were confident if they were: Meeting performance goals Overcoming performance obstacles Training under difficult circumstances Competence Motivation Theory:  Competence Motivation Theory Achievement motivation based on an athlete’s feeling of personal competence Can lead to high competence motivation or no competence motivation at all See Figure on page 108 Weiss and Horn (1990):  Weiss and Horn (1990) Looked at the effects of underestimating their own performance Important to accurately access personal competence Black and Weiss (1992):  Black and Weiss (1992) Coaches and parents play a significant role in competence motivation Psychological Momentum   in Sport :  Psychological Momentum   in Sport A positive or negative change in cognition, affect, physiology, and behavior caused by an event or series of events that will result in a change of performance and outcome Models of Psychological Momentum :  Models of Psychological Momentum Antecedents-Consequences Model Multidimensional Model Projected Performance Model Antecedents-Consequences Model:  Antecedents-Consequences Model An event triggers the perception of psychological motivation A slam dunk in basketball, homerun in baseball, turnover, etc. Multidimensional Model of Self-Confidence :  Multidimensional Model of Self-Confidence Sport confidence defined: the belief or degree of certainty individuals possess about their ability to be successful in sport Based on: personality trait of sport confidence (SC-trait) particular competitive orientation These two factors predict the situation specific level of sport confidence which allows you to predict performance Multidimensional Model:  Multidimensional Model Momentum is either positive or negative after a precipitating event Affected by: Athlete experience Opponent factor Effects of Negative Self-Confidence:  Effects of Negative Self-Confidence Worse performance. Increased self-defeating talk and behavior, slumps. Nancy Kerrigan example. “Olympic dreams do come true. She's been through so much to deliver this performance. What a great moment for Nancy Kerrigan”. Scott Hamilton-CBS television 1994 Lillehammer Games Projected Performance Model:  Projected Performance Model Psychological momentum and improved performance are not necessarily related Idea that ups and downs even out “If I’m on, I find that confidence just builds... you feel nobody can stop you. it’s important to hit that first one, especially if it’s a swish. Then you hit another, and...you feel like you can do anything.” ~Lloyd Free (a.k.a. World B. Free):  “If I’m on, I find that confidence just builds... you feel nobody can stop you. it’s important to hit that first one, especially if it’s a swish. Then you hit another, and...you feel like you can do anything.” ~Lloyd Free (a.k.a. World B. Free) Hot hand phenomenon What is the “Hot hand”?:  Belief that success breeds success, Failure breed failure 100 basketball fans: 91% thought “player has better chance of making a shot after having just made his last two or three shots than he does after having just missed his last two or three shots.” Given a player who makes 50% of his shots, subjects thought that shooting percentage would be... 61% after having just made a shot 42% after having just missed a shot 84% thought “it’s important to pass the ball to someone who has just made several shots in a row.” What is the “Hot hand”? (Gilovich, Vallone, & Tversky, 1985) “Yankee Clipper” hits again!:  “Yankee Clipper” hits again! Joe Dimaggio, New York Yankees Baseball’s Longest Hitting Streak:  Baseball’s Longest Hitting Streak Joe DiMaggio, 1941 Yankees, 56 games Halted by Cleveland Indians After 1 game, started another 16 game streak Had 3 other streaks of at least 20 games Had 61 game streak in minor leagues Turned down “Heinz 57”deal Other Baseball Streaks:  Other Baseball Streaks Pete Rose, 1978 Reds, 44 games Ty Cobb, 1911 Tigers, 40 games Jimmy Rollins, 2005 Phillies, 36 games August 23 to October 2 Were these athletes IN THE ZONE?:  Were these athletes IN THE ZONE? Maybe Successful Trials Influence Later Attempts Increased confidence can result in more relaxed, focused play Frustration from Failures can interfere with future performance Widely reported among athletes On the other hand…:  On the other hand… Even when flipping a coin, often times long sequences of Heads are observed, by Chance alone Gambler’s Fallacy: “… I have lost so many times in a row, surely the next time I play I will win!” Gender Differences in Self-Confidence:  Gender Differences in Self-Confidence Title IX has changed opportunities given to females Overview of Title IX:  Overview of Title IX In 1972, this legislation was passed to banned sexual discrimination in college sports and academics. Athletics have created the most controversy with regards to title IX. The main issues that were decided on being created as equal in intercollegiate athletics are: athletic financial aid (scholarships), accommodation of athletic interest and abilities, and any other benefit a sports program would receive. Title IX states: “No person in the U.S., on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving financial aid.” What Does Title IX Cover?:  What Does Title IX Cover? Recruitment Admissions Financial Aid and Scholarships Facilities and Housing Course Offerings and Access Educational Programs and Activities Counseling Health Insurance Benefits and Services Marital and Parental Status Athletics Employment Assistance The Effects of Title IX on Sports Among the Genders:  The Effects of Title IX on Sports Among the Genders Since the initiation of Title IX in the early 1970’s, there has been a massive jump in the amount of females participating in sports at the high school level (see next slide) Effects of Title IX:  Effects of Title IX More Recent Growth in NCAA Participation as a Whole:  More Recent Growth in NCAA Participation as a Whole Even from the 1980’s to the 1990’s, the amount of male participants in NCAA sports has increased by more than 12,000, where as female participants have increased by more than 16,000 (see next slide) NCAA Participation:  NCAA Participation Gender Differences in Self-Confidence:  Gender Differences in Self-Confidence Nature of Task Some sports are better than others Available Information Clear info and feedback Social Comparison Cues Cooperation better than competition Integrated Theory of Motivation:  Integrated Theory of Motivation Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators Focus is on long-term motivation Self-Determination Theory ingredients applied here (see next slides) Definition of Self-Determination:  Definition of Self-Determination Self-determination refers to the natural desire of most people to be in personal control of their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior Begins shortly after birth and continues throughout life Determined by the skills, beliefs and attitudes, and knowledge as well as opportunities to exercise personal control All persons have the desire and are capable of some degree of self-determination Self-Determination Theory :  Self-Determination Theory Deci and Ryan (1985, 1991) Three main components: Competence Autonomy Relatedness Competence:  Competence Self-efficacy very important Prerequisite for motivation But we need more… Autonomy :  Autonomy Independence is very important; to be in control Must have this to achieve self-determination Deci: Competence without autonomy makes us an “efficacious pawn” Confident he or she can do it but only does it for a reward Remove the reward, he or she doesn’t do it Relatedness:  Relatedness The basic need to relate to others Without this full potential is not realized and can lead to amotivation (see nest slide) Amotivation:  Amotivation No motivation Neither intrinsic or extrinsic Ntoumanis et al. (2004) 21 children with amotivation All were low in need for autonomy, feelings of competence, and relatedness Self-Determination is Important for Young Adults:  Self-Determination is Important for Young Adults Increases motivation Encourages socially acceptable behavior Promotes self-awareness Increases responsibility Enhances learning Encourages a sense of personal control Self-Determination is Important for Young Adults:  Self-Determination is Important for Young Adults Enhances independence and interdependence Improves self-esteem Encourages individuals to create a vision Enhances quality of life Enhances inclusion Promotes self-advocacy Develops decision-making skills Can Self-Determination Be Taught?:  Can Self-Determination Be Taught? Yes! Skills and attitudes that lead to self-determination can be taught Skills to make arrangements in the atmosphere and environment of the school can be taught too Parents, teachers, administrators, counselors, psychologists and other service providers all play important roles in developing or inhibiting self-determination during transition Can Self-Determination Be Taught?:  Can Self-Determination Be Taught? Teachers can: Infuse skills training into their curriculum Promote a school and classroom environment that encourages self-determination Families can: Provide opportunities and support for their adolescents to exercise self-determination Work with the school to encourage curriculum efforts and provide real-life experiences for practicing self-determination Can Self-Determination Be Taught?:  Can Self-Determination Be Taught? Counselors, psychologists, social workers, and other support services staff can: Support a school climate that promotes self-determination Team with classroom teachers Incorporate instruction through their own departments Administrators can: Establish self-determination as an important element of the school climate Support teachers through in-service opportunities Supporting and Encouraging Self-Determination:  Supporting and Encouraging Self-Determination Characteristics of environments that support and encourage self-determination include: Availability of self-determined role models Curriculum variables Opportunities for choice Patterns of response to student behaviors Availability of student supports Credits:  Credits Several slides prepared by: http://www.monm.edu/department/phy-ed/jones/PHED190sportpsychology.ppt http://cc.ysu.edu/~gjkerns/pdfs/Are%20You%20In%20The%20Zone.ppt http://www2.canisius.edu/~rossk/title%20ix%20power%20point.ppt http://www.isbe.state.il.us/spec-ed/ppt/mod3_pp_slides.pps

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

sp10 gemasp

Technics SP-10 Power Supply New 5 year warranty SH10-E SH-10EA replacement PSU
Read more

Christopeit Fitness-Station SP 10 de Luxe, Schwarz Rot ...

Die Fitness Station SP 10 de Luxe garantiert ein Training für Oberkörper, Arme, Bauch und Beine mit individueller Belastung durch die mitgelieferten ...
Read more

Sennheiser SP 10/10 ML - - Mit dem Sennheiser Premium ...

SP 10/10 ML - - VoIP,Gesprächskontrolle - Anrufe annehmen und beenden,Software Upgrade Support,Echo unterdrücken,Unified Communications,Music mode,USB ...
Read more

Sennheiser SP 10/10 ML - - Sennheiser SP 10 and SP 10 ML ...

SP 10/10 ML - - Softphone (PC),Call control - Answer/end call,Software upgrade support,Echo canceller,Unified Communications,Music mode,USB,Road Warrior ...
Read more

Christopeit SP 10 de Luxe Preisvergleich - billiger.de

Christopeit SP 10 de Luxe Multistationen: 12 Angebote ab 229,00 EUR (Stand 29.01.2016). 10 Nutzerbewertungen: 5 von 5 Sternen. Preisvergleich mit TÜV ...
Read more

Szkoła Podstawowa Nr 10 im. Grzegorza Piramowicza

DZIEŃ OTWARTY - zapras... W dniu 29 lutego 2016 r. o godzinie 18.00 zapraszamy na spotkane informacyjne rodziców / opiekunów kandy...
Read more

Remington Model SP-10 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Remington Model SP-10 is a gas-operated, semi-automatic shotgun chambered in 10-gauge (3½"). The design is based on the Ithaca Mag-10. [3] References ...
Read more

Christopeit Fitness-Station SP 10 Deluxe - Lidl ...

Christopeit Fitness-Station SP 10 Deluxe im LIDL Online-Shop kaufen. Ihre Vorteile: 30 Tage Rückgaberecht Schneller Versand Flexibler Ratenkauf
Read more

Remington Modell SP-10 – Wikipedia

Das Remington Modell SP-10 ist eine gasbetriebene und halbautomatische Schrotflinte des US-amerikanischen Herstellers Remington Arms. Beschaffenheit. Der ...
Read more

Christopeit SP 10 - Testberichte und Preisvergleich von Shops

Christopeit SP 10 - Kraftgerät mit Testberichten und Angeboten ab € (Stand ) im Preisvergleich bei dooyoo.de - Kaufberatung und Tests für Christopeit ...
Read more