advertisement

Southeast Asia Conference 08

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Southeast Asia Conference 08

Published on November 27, 2008

Author: vicmanlapaz

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An ExChange of Policies and Learnings

November 25-26, 2008
Davao City
advertisement

A REPORT TO THE SANGGUNIANG PANGLALAWIGAN NG ILOILO Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation Project UNEP- IWMC-TAWMB, 2007-2008 By Jessica Calfoforo Salas, Project Manager

Iloilo Province Panay Island

 

Project Area: The Tigum Aganan Watershed

The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Area – 52,669 ha Population – 419,973 persons, 391 villages Rainfall, Rainy Season, 6 mos. – 1600 mm Rainfall, Dry Season, 6 mos. - 345 mm Overseeing Body - The Tigum Aganan Watershed Management Board: Municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Cabatuan, Sta. Barbara, Pavia, San Miguel, Oton, Iloilo City, NIA, DPWH, PIA, MIWD, CPU, KSPFI, Irrigators’ Association, KAPAWA

Area – 52,669 ha

Population – 419,973 persons, 391 villages

Rainfall, Rainy Season, 6 mos. – 1600 mm

Rainfall, Dry Season, 6 mos. - 345 mm

Overseeing Body - The Tigum Aganan Watershed Management Board: Municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Cabatuan, Sta. Barbara, Pavia, San Miguel, Oton, Iloilo City, NIA, DPWH, PIA, MIWD, CPU, KSPFI, Irrigators’ Association, KAPAWA

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

PROJECT CONCEPT FRAME WORK Provide Man-made storage: in soil & cisterns Rainwater Potential Community Application Annual Average Rainfall Dry Season Rainfall Rainy Season Rainfall Dry Season Rainfall – 50% Rainy Seaso Rainfall + 50% Average Annual Rainfall +/ - 50% Protect Natural Storage: Old Growth Forest & Groundwater Projections in Sub Basin 17, 14, 12, 10 and 6 GIS Maps Sub-Basin Maps Mianas Micro Watershed:f forested Upland agriculture: Alimodian, Cabatuan, Sta. Barbara Lowland agriculture: Oton Pavia, Built Up area Iloilo City, Built up area

Natural Storage Storage in Groundwater Storage in Forest Soil

Storage in Ground Water Only 10% of the runoff reaches the ground water

 

 

An example: Maraget Sandstone aquifer Recharge Dry Season Ave540 mm/year or .054m 3 7,781.9 CMD MIWD DATA EXTRACTION 2007 = 10,380 CMD Max. 1 pump capacity @ 20 lps = 15,552 CMD. Capacity of total present facility (9 pumps) = 205 lps Outcrop area is 52.6 km 2 Since MIWD is serving only 24% of the city population, it is possible that total actual extraction is far more than the recorded extraction of MIWD.

Ground Water Supply Condition “ Although a relatively large amount of deep ground water exists at the center of the Iloilo plain, its development has already exceeded the sustainable level.” p.15 JISRADP study Low efficiency in MIWD wells indicates lowering ground water level (Engr. Calasara, MIWD Operations Manager) . “ It would be difficult to develop the deep groundwater in the other area because of its low potential as investigated by the test well in the field survey.” p. 18 JISRADP study Further studies may be needed to define the aquifer

“ Although a relatively large amount of deep ground water exists at the center of the Iloilo plain, its development has already exceeded the sustainable level.” p.15 JISRADP study

Low efficiency in MIWD wells indicates lowering ground water level (Engr. Calasara, MIWD Operations Manager) .

“ It would be difficult to develop the deep groundwater in the other area because of its low potential as investigated by the test well in the field survey.” p. 18 JISRADP study

Further studies may be needed to define the aquifer

STORAGE IN FOREST SOIL Rain on Land Surface Runoff Evaporate Infiltrate In Sub-surface soil Through the soil profile

Trees at Maasin Watershed 90.6% survival rate at sub project

 

Issues: Poor biodiversity Mono-cropping in large areas: bamboo, mahogany, gmelina Accelerated spread of invasive species No cutting of harvestable stands in a plantation-8 to 12 yrs old Drying of rivers & creeks during summer & drought Observations Today 33-year old plantation 7-12 year old trees

Dry Busay Creek

Dry Bungol Waterfall

A Dry Fishpond

Witnesses to a Lost Swamp Tigbaw, Kagang, Tabun-ak, Badyang

Influence of Ground Cover on Surface Runoff and Soil Loss Taken from Study on Sediment Condition in the Jaro and Iloilo River Basins , Iloilo Flood Control Project. , DPWH. Fig. 4.2, p84.”

POLICY DIALOGUE AT IWMC Revisited Assumptions and their Scientific Bases

Reference No. 1 . Fact Sheet, Tree and Forest (Dept of Environment Conservation, New York State) “ Trees provide protection for our watersheds. The forest floor, to which trees add leaves and decaying wood, acts as a sponge and store water. “ If the forest floor is a SPONGE, a tree is a PUMP that transpires water into air make rain for the land . “ A medium-sized tree (40 to 50Ft tall) will drink 10,000 gallons of water from the soil in a growing season. “ Forest soil 36-inches deep can absorb and hold as much as 18 inches of rain, or nearly 1 million gal per hectare.

“ Trees provide protection for our watersheds.

The forest floor, to which trees add leaves and decaying wood, acts as a sponge and store water.

“ If the forest floor is a SPONGE, a tree is a PUMP that transpires water into air make rain for the land .

“ A medium-sized tree (40 to 50Ft tall) will drink 10,000 gallons of water from the soil in a growing season.

“ Forest soil 36-inches deep can absorb and hold as much as 18 inches of rain, or nearly 1 million gal per hectare.

“ A medium-sized tree (40 to 50Ft tall) will drink 10,000 gallons of water from the soil in a growing season. “ Baltimore City Watershed experimented with converting open areas to young pine forests. The result was a decline in water yield of 283,000 gallons per year. If the forest floor is a SPONGE, a tree is a PUMP that transpires water into air make rain for the land .

“ A medium-sized tree (40 to 50Ft tall) will drink 10,000 gallons of water from the soil in a growing season.

“ Baltimore City Watershed experimented with converting open areas to young pine forests. The result was a decline in water yield of 283,000 gallons per year.

If the forest floor is a SPONGE, a tree is a PUMP that transpires water into air make rain for the land .

Reference # 2. Media Release by Ellen Wilson, Jeff Haskins/ Coimbra Sirica at Business Communications “ Trees Overplayed as Solutions to World’s Water Problems, Finds Sweeping Report from UK’s Tropical Forestry Research Programme Misguided Views on Water Management Have Encouraged Major Investments in Water Resource Projects that are Ineffective or Counterproductive, says Report. Calls on Policymakers to Design Water Projects Based on Scientific Evidence of Benefits .”

“ Trees Overplayed as Solutions to World’s Water Problems, Finds Sweeping Report from UK’s Tropical Forestry Research Programme

Misguided Views on Water Management Have Encouraged Major Investments in Water Resource Projects that are Ineffective or Counterproductive, says Report.

Calls on Policymakers to Design Water Projects Based on Scientific Evidence of Benefits .”

Reference # 3 Internet Posting http:/www.guardian.co.uk “ Research Pours Cold Water on Moisture Conservation Role for Forests.” By Tim Radford, science editor Friday, July 29, 2005, The Guardian

“ Research Pours Cold Water on Moisture Conservation Role for Forests.”

By Tim Radford, science editor

Friday, July 29, 2005, The Guardian

Reference # 4: Mallin Falkenmark, “Water Management and Ecosystems” Living with Change , TEC Background Papers No. 9. Global Water Partnership Technical Committee . “ Motherhood statements on forests and water which are against scientific evidence: Forests increase rainfall – Forests increase runoff – Forests regulate flows – Forests reduce erosion – Forests reduce floods. “ A more questioning attitude is advised. The challenge of Adaptive Management is to uphold two incompatible imperatives: Respect the ecosystem imperative and commit to a set of human livelihood imperatives”

“ Motherhood statements on forests and water which are against scientific evidence:

Forests increase rainfall – Forests increase runoff – Forests regulate flows – Forests reduce erosion – Forests reduce floods.

“ A more questioning attitude is advised. The challenge of Adaptive Management is to uphold two incompatible imperatives: Respect the ecosystem imperative and commit to a set of human livelihood imperatives”

Reference # 5 – Watershed Magazine, Jan-June, 2005 “Flip flop Hydrology” by Albert Nauta Expert meeting led by Director Romeo T. Acosta (FMB-DENR, ) drafted joint statements which included: “ Plantation forestry or forest regeneration on grassland or crop will greatly reduce annual water yields (approx 400-700 mm/yr) due to their high water use. “ Forest clearing leads to increased annual water yield but seriously impairs infiltration opportunities. This is due to gradual soil degradation or extensive compacted areas.

Expert meeting led by Director Romeo T. Acosta (FMB-DENR, ) drafted joint statements which included:

“ Plantation forestry or forest regeneration on grassland or crop will greatly reduce annual water yields (approx 400-700 mm/yr) due to their high water use.

“ Forest clearing leads to increased annual water yield but seriously impairs infiltration opportunities. This is due to gradual soil degradation or extensive compacted areas.

Reference 6: GWP TEC # 9 Terrestrial ecosystems consumed 2/3 of the rainfall over the continents, a total of 71,000 km3/year and temperate and tropical forests/woodlands consume 40,000km3 of this or 56%. Other areas consuming rain are croplands, grasslands, swamps and marshes, tundra and desert and other systems.

Terrestrial ecosystems consumed 2/3 of the rainfall over the continents, a total of 71,000 km3/year and temperate and tropical forests/woodlands consume 40,000km3 of this or 56%. Other areas consuming rain are croplands, grasslands, swamps and marshes, tundra and desert and other systems.

Reference # 7. Calder, The Blue Revolution: Land Use and Water Resources Management. Earthscam, London, UK, 1999 The perception that forests are good for the water environment and for water resources has grown out of observation that linked land degradation with less forest and rehabilitation and conservation with more forest. Reference # 8. Savanije, “New Definition for Moisture Recycling and Relationships with Land-Use Changes in the Sahel” Journal of Hydrology , 1995.

The perception that forests are good for the water environment and for water resources has grown out of observation that linked land degradation with less forest and rehabilitation and conservation with more forest.

Recommendations to Enhance Storage in Natural Forest Understand forest soil Use natural Regeneration Assisted natural regeneration Rainforestation Protect biological diversity Protect forest from exotic and invasive species Create buffer zones Study erosion pattern, protect rivers

Understand forest soil

Use natural Regeneration

Assisted natural regeneration

Rainforestation

Protect biological diversity

Protect forest from exotic and invasive species

Create buffer zones

Study erosion pattern, protect rivers

INTEGRATION OF RAINWATER HARVESTING

Steps Taken Rainwater Harvesting Project UNEP & IWMC-TAWMB GIS Mapping/ study of the rainfall and the land characteristics of the watershed Stakeholders’ assembly and planning Identification of demonstration areas for rainwater harvesting Integration of rainwater harvesting in the municipal and provincial development plans.

GIS Mapping/ study of the rainfall and the land characteristics of the watershed

Stakeholders’ assembly and planning

Identification of demonstration areas for rainwater harvesting

Integration of rainwater harvesting in the municipal and provincial development plans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Demo for Lowland agriculture Demo for artificial recharge Demo for forest enhancement Demo for upland agriculture Demo for household storage Demo for Forested Area Demo for Household Storage Demo for Upland Storage Demo for Lowland Storage Demo for Built Up Area Storage

RWH Applications for the Maasin Watershed to Mitigate Impact of Exotic Tree Plantation

A Watershed Planted with Exotic Trees May take 20 years for trees to stabilize and trees may stop drinking much water but no storage in forest soil may be formed due to inability of organisms to decay exotic leaves. (University of Minnesota, Cornell University & ESSC (Ateneo University opinions). Fast growing exotic species mature and die in 15 to 20 yrs

Plantation creates dry soil. Rainwater ponds could help enrich soil and help growing trees in commercial plantation Water pits

Rainwater Harvesting Technology

Some types of rainwater catchment facilities Natural Depression Infiltration ponds & canals Dry Pond Detention Ponds

Camilo Sacupon Rainfed farm: Yield – 120 sacks/cropping x 3 cropping or 6 tons a year for 2 hectares. NIA average is 3.3 tons/hectare With 1,250 m2 mother tank and 100 m2 daughter tank, water can support 3 cropping of rice in a 2 ha. service area.

Andres Calfoforo Jr. Yield of 1.5 ha., 120 sacks / ha. or 6 tons for 1.5 hectares With 2,500 sq.m pond, water can support 3 croppings of rice and other selected crops such as pepper, tomatoes, etc. NIA’s cost to provide irrigation to 1 hectare of riceland is P250,000 to P600,000 / hectare

Income Diversification

Artificial Recharge

 

Potential Benefits of Integrating Rainwater Harvesting Retains and stores rainwater during rainy season Helps mitigate flooding: urban & rural Reduces use of processed public system water Reduces use of river stream flow to allow downstream use Recharges shallow ground water A tool for managing water demand

Retains and stores rainwater during rainy season

Helps mitigate flooding: urban & rural

Reduces use of processed public system water

Reduces use of river stream flow to allow downstream use

Recharges shallow ground water

A tool for managing water demand

IMPACT of EXTREME WEATHER VARIABILITY

Extreme weather; major disasters Increase in frequency and magnitude 76% of the 100-year flood events occurred during the last half of the century Cost of direct damage increased 5 times since 1980 Drought areas on earth surface doubled from 1970 to 2000.

Increase in frequency and magnitude

76% of the 100-year flood events occurred during the last half of the century

Cost of direct damage increased 5 times since 1980

Drought areas on earth surface doubled from 1970 to 2000.

World’s Major Flooding

The most vulnerable ones Are those in developing countries, because of High poverty level Poor financial resources High dependence on ecosystem functions for livelihood: Agriculture Fishing Tourism Weak institutions Limited awareness re. Climate Risk Resiliency High prevalence of communicable diseases (HIV, TB)

Are those in developing countries, because of

High poverty level

Poor financial resources

High dependence on ecosystem functions for livelihood:

Agriculture

Fishing

Tourism

Weak institutions

Limited awareness re. Climate Risk Resiliency

High prevalence of communicable diseases (HIV, TB)

Philippines’ Inherent Vulnerability to Extreme Weather Variability Geographical location – an archipelago in a ring of fire Large mountainous terrain Narrow coastal plain Interior valleys UNDP Report on disaster: Philippines is highest in # of tropical cyclones with average of 20 cyclones a year. Third highest in terms of people impact

Geographical location – an archipelago in a ring of fire

Large mountainous terrain

Narrow coastal plain

Interior valleys

UNDP Report on disaster:

Philippines is highest in # of tropical cyclones with average of 20 cyclones a year.

Third highest in terms of people impact

Impact of Typhoon Frank on the natural resources of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Leon – total eroded land is 660 m with 30-40 m high Wells covered with soil Aganan River changed course San Miguel 800 meters length, eroded land, 2-6 m wide Pavia Household water resources contaminated

Leon – total eroded land is 660 m with 30-40 m high

Wells covered with soil

Aganan River changed course

San Miguel

800 meters length, eroded land, 2-6 m wide

Pavia

Household water resources contaminated

Maasin Waterfalls eroded, 3 hectares wide River embankment erosion, 300 m long River width 50 m.widened 30,000 trees damaged in plantation Creeks damaged, decreasing 20% surface water supply Observation that terraced farms have less damage

Maasin

Waterfalls eroded, 3 hectares wide

River embankment erosion, 300 m long

River width 50 m.widened

30,000 trees damaged in plantation

Creeks damaged, decreasing 20% surface water supply

Observation that terraced farms have less damage

How may RWCS help communities adapt to climate variability User has to manage demand (discipline in use of water) Low cost Adaptable to individual situation, needed in extreme weather variability. Control of own’s resources Encourages total community involvement Protects river & ground water ecosystems Green house gas contribution is 50% less compared with urban piped water system/ lesser than centralized irrigation system

User has to manage demand (discipline in use of water)

Low cost

Adaptable to individual situation, needed in extreme weather variability.

Control of own’s resources

Encourages total community involvement

Protects river & ground water ecosystems

Green house gas contribution is 50% less compared with urban piped water system/ lesser than centralized irrigation system

Stakeholders’ Assembly to raise awareness and generate recommendations

Steps in the integration process: TAWMB Planning to integrate rainwater harvesting recommendations to the TigumAganan Watershed Management Plan. Approval of the ammended Watershed Management Plan 2008-2010 by the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board. Municipal Planning Workshops in 5 municipalities to integrate stakeholders’ recommendations in the municipal development plan. Approval of the Municipal Development Plan and the Annual Investment Plan

TAWMB Planning to integrate rainwater harvesting recommendations to the TigumAganan Watershed Management Plan.

Approval of the ammended Watershed Management Plan 2008-2010 by the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board.

Municipal Planning Workshops in 5 municipalities to integrate stakeholders’ recommendations in the municipal development plan.

Approval of the Municipal Development Plan and the Annual Investment Plan

PROJECT RECOMMENDATIONS submitted to the PROVINCIAL LEGISLATIVE BODY

Surface Water – Storage in the Forest Restoration of damaged areas in the forest (slopes and riverbanks). Restoration of endemic species and biodiversity at the Maasin Watershed Soil enhancement in afforested areas and agro-forestry areas. Use of appropriate farming methods, especially in the upland. Institutional support: ordinances, sustainable upkeep of the upland through payment for environmental services

Restoration of damaged areas in the forest (slopes and riverbanks).

Restoration of endemic species and biodiversity at the Maasin Watershed

Soil enhancement in afforested areas and agro-forestry areas.

Use of appropriate farming methods, especially in the upland.

Institutional support: ordinances, sustainable upkeep of the upland through payment for environmental services

Ground Water Storage Inventory and monitor ground water extraction Limit sealed areas as part of CLUP Pre-decision as to the volume of ground water to be used/ extracted Use artificial ground water recharge, where needed, provide incentives and create a TWG to implement program Institutional Support – IEC, ordinances, creation of a Ground Water TWG at IWMC

Inventory and monitor ground water extraction

Limit sealed areas as part of CLUP

Pre-decision as to the volume of ground water to be used/ extracted

Use artificial ground water recharge, where needed, provide incentives and create a TWG to implement program

Institutional Support – IEC, ordinances, creation of a Ground Water TWG at IWMC

Rainwater Harvesting Integrate rainwater harvesting in municipal and provincial development plan Create a program to promote and provide fund for rainwater harvesting in government buildings. Require rainwater facilities for all new buildings as part of permit requirement. Require upland farms to use appropriate farming methods to control erosion, particularly use of terraces and ponds Encourage farmers and provide incentives to use rainwater ponds to irrigate their farms. Integrate Rainwater Harvesting in water and sanitation programs to provide water to households in rural and remote areas

Integrate rainwater harvesting in municipal and provincial development plan

Create a program to promote and provide fund for rainwater harvesting in government buildings.

Require rainwater facilities for all new buildings as part of permit requirement.

Require upland farms to use appropriate farming methods to control erosion, particularly use of terraces and ponds

Encourage farmers and provide incentives to use rainwater ponds to irrigate their farms.

Integrate Rainwater Harvesting in water and sanitation programs to provide water to households in rural and remote areas

e n d

Add a comment

Related pages

Southeast Asia Conference - ATM Industry Association

ATMIA and RBR would like to invite you to attend ‘Southeast Asia ATMs 2016 conference’, the only dedicated ATM conference in this fast-growing region.
Read more

BankTech Asia '08 Conference & Exhibition

The success of BankTech Asia ?07 established the event as THE VENUE where vendors meet decision makers from Southeast Asia?s banking industry.
Read more

Retail Banking Research - Southeast Asia ATMs 2016

Shangri-La Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand 28th and 29th April 2016. Southeast Asia ATMs 2016 is the only dedicated ATM conference in this large and rapidly ...
Read more

Southeast Asia Conference - Conferences - Office of the ...

› Southeast Asia Conference; Conference on The American Experience in Southeast Asia, 1946-1975; Program; Videos and Transcripts; Vietnam Photo Gallery;
Read more

South East Asia SharePoint Conference - Collaboris - A ...

South East Asia SharePoint Conference Dates: 08 – 09 Nov, 2011; Location: Singapore; Address: Grand Copthorne Waterfront Hotel; Website: http://www ...
Read more

UNODC at the 4th Annual Conference of the Asian ...

UNODC at the 4th Annual Conference of the Asian Criminological Society Meeting in Korea. Seoul (Republic of Korea), 29 August 2012-The 4th Annual ...
Read more

IIAS Newsletter 11, Winter 1997, Southeast Asia 08

The 3rd Euroviet Conference will hold its bi-annual conference 2&endash;4 July 1997 at the University of Amsterdam. The International ...
Read more

Agenda | South-East Asian Private Equity Conference

South-East Asian Private Equity Conference Agenda 2015: Time: Agenda: 08:00 - 08:30: Registration: 08:00 – 08:45: Breakfast: 08:45 – 09:00:
Read more

GHS Review Conference for Southeast Asia - www2.unitar.org - /

GHS Review Conference for Southeast Asia 21-23 May 2013 3 Opening Statements Prof. Mazlin Bin Mokhtar, Director of the Institute of Environment and Development
Read more

Southeast Asia Offshore Summit 2015 | August 25th ...

Southeast Asia Offshore Summit 2015 was held in Darwin, Australia on August 25th. Details on the event include dates, location and map, description, early ...
Read more