South Asia

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Information about South Asia

Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Charlo


Slide1:  India Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Maldives Geography:  Geography Warm or Hot year round Monsoons = heavily influence the climate Karakoram Range & Himalayas form northern border and separate south Asia from the rest of Asia MONSOONS:  MONSOONS Bengal Famine:  Bengal Famine Bengal Famine occurred in 1943 under UK rule Estimated 4 million people died of starvation in one year World’s worst recorded food disaster Green Revolution:  Green Revolution After gaining independence, “Green Revolution” focused on improving farm output Used modern technology & science to increase food production planted 2 crops per year Built dams to control water from monsoons in order to get 2 harvests a year 2nd part was to use improved seeds that could withstand drought, diseases and produce more yields Between 1947-1980, farm production increased 30% Saint of Calcutta:  Saint of Calcutta Economy:  Economy Factories produce cotton textiles, iron, steel Oil & sugar refineries Rich deposits of coal, iron ore, manganese American businesses have recently opened in India making them an important source for computer software Cottage Industry:  Cottage Industry Government:  Government Largest democracy in the world Parliament has 2 houses Council of States=senate, House of people=reps Prime minister appointed by leading party Jawaharlal Nehru/ Prime Minister:  Jawaharlal Nehru/ Prime Minister Indira Ghandi:  Indira Ghandi Environmental Challenges:  Environmental Challenges Economic growth has brought damages to the environment Water & land have been polluted from coal burning, industrial wastes, & pesticides Ganges = one of the world’s most polluted rivers India’s animals have greatly reduced in numbers PESTICIDES:  PESTICIDES History:  History 4,000 years ago first Indian civilizations built cities along the Indus river In 1500’s Aryans settled Pakistan area Aryans set up kingdoms in northern India combined their beliefs with the locals to create Hinduism Buddhism started in 500 bc but was driven out by 300 bc AD700 Muslims brought Islam from SW Asia ARYANS:  ARYANS Slide20:  Hindus worship a supreme being that can take on many different godlike and animal like forms Combined Aryan beliefs and Indian cultures Hinduism believes in reincarnation Cows are believed to be sacred and that you should not kill any animals Believe in Karma = that ones actions determine your place in rebirth Have more than 33,000 deities REINCARNATION:  REINCARNATION Slide22:  Hindu Trinity: Brahma, Siva, Vishnu Vishnu Slide23:  Lord Brahma Slide24:  Siva Slide25:  High and Low In the Caste System Brahman Untouchable Caste System:  Caste System Hinduism organized society into castes based on ancestry People could not move from one caste to another Certain occupations belonged to castes married and always stayed within your caste Caste system still influences today but has been declared illegal Caste system dated back to 1000 b.c. Ghandi urged people to abandon the practice Classes of the Caste System:  Classes of the Caste System 5 major classes/varna Brahmans = priestly class Kshatriyas = warriors & officals Vaisyas = merchants & craftspeople Sudras = peasants & workers, did manual labor, most of population, rights were limited Untouchables = people who did not fit in the 4 original varna, 5% of society, No one associated with them YOGA:  YOGA History:  History British ruled India from 1700’s to mid 1900’s British were able to make large profits off of items they built; roads, railroads, seaports, plantations, mines, & factories Mohandas K. Ghandi led a non-violent resistance movement to free India from British rule India won its Independence in 1947 Mohandas K. Ghandi:  Mohandas K. Ghandi History:  History Muslims were afraid that there voices would not be heard by the Muslim majority East & West Pakistan were created on both sides of India as Muslim homelands In 1971, East Pakistan became Bangladesh Culture:  Culture More than 1 billion = population 18 official languages/ Hindi is most widely used/ English is used in business and government 70% of people live in farming villages Government is trying to improve living conditions for village people Geography:  Geography 2x size of California Mostly hot, dry desert/ temperate in northwest, arctic in north K2:  K2 Khyber Pass:  Khyber Pass KASHMIR TERRITORY:  KASHMIR TERRITORY HISTORY:  HISTORY Since gaining independence, Pakistan has had many changes in government Mohamed Al Jinnah – was the first prime minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto – first elected prime minister of a Muslim nation Most recently there has been a military takeover in Pakistan and that is who is in control today Mohammed Al Jinnah:  Mohammed Al Jinnah Benazir Bhutto:  Benazir Bhutto People:  People 70% live in rural villages/live in small homes of sun dried clay or in tents Major language = Punjabi & Sindhi Official language = Urdu-only 9% speak it English is used in government 97% are Muslim Islamabad:  Islamabad Geography:  Geography Borders the Bay of Bengal Size of Wisconsin mild winters/ hot, humid summers/warm rainy monsoon season Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers flow through the plains Cyclones bring tidal waves from the bay of Bengal Cyclone:  Cyclone Bay of Bengal:  Bay of Bengal Economy:  Economy Most people earn living by farming Rice is the main crop = can be harvested 3x per year because of plentiful rainfall & fertile soil Cannot grow enough food for all of its people Farmers have limited tools & outdated farming methods Additionally floods drown crops & cause food shortages Bangladesh Home:  Bangladesh Home ND Bengal Bouts:  ND Bengal Bouts People:  People Came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan Bengali = Language 133.5 million people, one of the most densely populated countries in the world 80% of people live in rural villages Dhaka:  Dhaka Geography:  Geography Between China and India/ slightly larger than Arkansas Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in the south Nepal’s land forms a stairway to the Himalayas-world’s highest mountain range Geography:  Geography Home to 8 of the highest mountains in the world Mt. Everest = World’s highest = 29,035 ft. Sir Edmund Hillary:  Sir Edmund Hillary First person to reach the summit of Mt. Everest May 29, 1953 along with Sherpa, Tenzig Norgay, set foot on the summit of Everest Kathmandu = Capital:  Kathmandu = Capital Government & Economy:  Government & Economy Parliamentary Democracy, governed by prime minister/King appoints a p.m. Hereditary rule ended in 1951 Economy depends on farming Clothing & carpets = most valuable export Have few roads or railroads Has little trade with outside world Culture:  Culture Most people trace their heritage to northern India & Tibet Sherpa = guided mountain climbers Hinduism = official religion, Buddhism is also prominent Siddartha Gautama:  Siddartha Gautama Geography:  Geography Tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys;severe winters and cool summers in the Himalayas East of Nepal ½ the size of Indiana Himalayas are the major landform Economy:  Economy 90% of people are subsistence farmers/most live and work in fertile mountain valleys People herd cattle, yaks Bhutan is trying to develop the economy but is slowed by the mountains – Building roads is difficult & there are no railroads Built hydroelectricity plants from rushing mountain waters – Exports electricity to India Tourism is new industry but is limited by government to protect cultural traditions YAKS:  YAKS People:  People 900,000 population Most live in rural villages Was once called the “Hidden Holy Land” because of its isolation and devotion to Buddhism For many years Bhutan was ruled by strong kings In 1998, they began moving towards democracy and the king has agreed to share power with the legislature DZONGS:  DZONGS Geography:  Geography Lies off southeast coast of India size of WV Island of white beaches, dense forests, and abundant wildlife Monsoon winds and heavy rains combine with the island’s warm temperatures and fertile soil to make it a good place to farm Economy:  Economy For centuries the economy prospered because of its location on important ocean route between Asia & Africa People:  People Used to be known as Ceylon, it was renamed Sri Lanka in 1972 which means “brilliant land” after they gained independence Britain ruled the island from 1802-1948 Today there is a republic government with a president who carries out ceremonial duties, but the real power is held by the prime minister Sinhalese Tamils:  Sinhalese Tamils These are the two major ethnic groups in Sri Lanka Sinhalese = live in southern & western parts of the island, speak Sinhalese, are Buddhist, 74% of population Tamils = 18% of population, live in the north & east, speak Tamil, are Hindus Sinhalese Tamils:  Sinhalese Tamils Since 1983, Tamils and Sinhalese have fought a violent civil war Tamils want to set up their own independent nation because they feel they have not been treated well by the Sinhalese Maldives:  Maldives Made up of about 1200 coral islands/atolls Tourism is the largest industry/Fishing =2nd Used to be a British colony Independent in 1968 Has flat,white sandy beaches Wow, Mr. Idlewine is Funny:  Wow, Mr. Idlewine is Funny No, He is Not

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