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Published on September 18, 2014

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NATURAL SCIENCE ASSIGNMENT TOPIC COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUE Submitted by SONU.T.S Register No: 13361019 Emmanuel College of B.Ed Training Vazhichal

INTRODUCTION Collaborative learning is a personal philosophy not just a classroom technique. In learning situations where pupils comes together in groups, it suggests a way of dealing with pupils which respects and highlights individual groups member’s abilities and contributions. The ender lying premise of collaborative learning is based on consensus building through co-operation by group members, in contrast to competition among group members. Collaborative learning involves the development of collaborative communities, where group or pairs of learners interact to learn and solve authentic problems, fosters constructive learning. CONTENT Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves group of learners working together to solve a problem, task or create a product. Collaborative learning is based on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the participants talk among themselves. It is to the talk that learning occurs. Collaborative advocates distrust structure and allow students more in forming friendship and interest groups. Students’ task is stressed as a means for working things out. Collaborative learning is based upon the following principle 1) Working together results in a greater understanding than would likely have occurred if one bad worked independently. 2) Opportunity exist to become aware through classroom experiences>of relationship between social interactions and increased understanding. 3) Spoken and written examinations contribute to this increased understanding. 4) Some elements of this increased understanding are un predictable. 5) Participation is voluntary and must be freely entered into Collaborative learning is a relationship among learners that requires positive interdependence(a sense of sink or swim together),individual accountability (each of as has to contribute and learn),inter personal skills (communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution ),face to face promoting interaction, and processing (reflecting on how well the team is functioning and how to function even better) ELEMENTS OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING Collaborative is instruction that involves students working in teams to accomplish a common goal, under conditions that include the following elements.

1) Positive interdependence: Team members are obligated to relay on one another to achieve the goal. If any team member fails to do their part, every one suffers consequence. 2) Individual accountability: All students in a group are held accountable for doing their share of the work and for mastery of all of the material to be learned. 3) Face to face promotive interaction: Although some of the group work may be parceled out and done individually, with group members providing one another with feedback, challenging one another’s conclusions and reasoning, and perhaps most importantly, teaching and encouraging one another. 4) Appropriate use of collaborative skills: Students are encouraged and helped to develop and practice trust. Building leadership, decision-making, communication, and conflict management skills. 5) Group learning: Team members set group goals, periodically asses what they are doing well as a team and identify changes they will make to function more effectively in the future. SIGNIFICANCE OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING 1) Learning is an active process whereby learners assimilate the information and relate this new knowledge to a frame work of prior knowledge. 2) Learning requires a challenge that opens the door for the learners to actively engage his/her peers, and to process and to process and synthesis information rather than simply memorize and regurgitate it 3) Learners benefit when exposed to diverse view points from people with varied backgrounds. 4) Learning flourishes in a social environment where conversation between learners take place .During this intellectual gymnastics, the learner creates a framework and meaning to the discourse. 5) In the collaborative learning environment, the learners are challenged both socially and emotionally as they listen to different perspective, and are required to articulate and defined their ideas. In so doing the learners begin to create their own unique conceptual frame works and rely society on an expert’s or a text’s framework. ADVANTAGES OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING 1)Develops higher level thinking skills. 2)Promotes students faculty interaction and familiarity.

3) Increase student retention. 4) Build self esteems in students. 5) Enhances student’s satisfaction with the learning experience. 6) Promote a positive attitude towards the subject matter. 7) Develop oral communication skills. 8) Develops social interaction skills. 9) Promote positive race relations. 10) Creates an environment of active, involved, exploratory learning. 11) Uses a team approach to problem solving. While maintaining individual accountability. 12) Encourage diversity understanding. 13) Encourage student’s responsibility for learning. 14) Involves students in developing curriculum and class procedure. 15 Students explorer alternate problem solutions in a safe environment. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES Group Discussion Group Discussion is a general unstructured discussion of an issue or topic by the group. Individual members are free to contribute or not contribute. Hints: ♦ This is the most common form of collaborative learning. It is also the form that requires the most skill to use successfully. ♦ Ideally, everyone is actively involved in the discussion and the discussion topic is of equal interest to all group members. ♦ When group discussion is successful, it is difficult to determine if there is a discussion leader. ASSIGNED DISSCUSSION

Assigned Discussion Leader One person in the group is asked to present on a topic or review material for the group and then lead the discussion for the group. This person should not be the regular group leader. Hints: ♦ When assigning a discussion topic to individual members of the group, you may need to be prepared to allow a little time for the person leading the discussion to prepare for the discussion. ♦ This technique works best when everyone or nearly everyone in the group is given an assignment to be the “expert” on. Clusters In clusters, group participants are divided into smaller groups for discussion. They may also be allowed to self-select the small group they want to be in. After discussing the assigned topic, the cluster may report their finding to the last group. Hints: ♦ Make sure that each group is provided flip chart paper or assigned a space on the blackboard. ♦ Allow time for each group to report back to the large group. You have to assign someone from each group to report back. Buzz Groups A variation of clusters, buzz groups are set up to brainstorm ideas as quick as possible. Ideas are always shared with the large group. Hints: ♦ Small groups should always assign one person to be a recorder and one person to be a spokesperson. ♦ Create a list of ideas when shared with the large group. When sharing, recorders can cross out their small group ideas that have been shared. Group Survey

Each group member is surveyed to discover their position on an issue, problem or topic. This process ensures that each member of the group is allowed to offer or state their point of view. Hint: ♦ A survey works best when opinions or views are briefly stated. Be sure to keep track of the results of the survey. Turn to your Partner and…(TTYP) Group members work with a partner on an assignment or discussion topic. THINK/PAIR/SHAIR Group members think about a question or topic individually, then share their thoughts with a partner. large group summarized sharing also occurs. WRITE OR PAIR SHARE Same as think/pair/ share, but the student most develop a written response on their on before sharing. NOTE TAKING PAIRS Students combine information from their individual notes to create an improved partner version. JIGSOW In Jigsaw, group members are broken into smaller groups. Each small group works on some aspect of the same problem, question, or issue. They then share their part of the puzzle with the large group. Hints: ♦ Jigsaws, when used properly, make the group as a whole dependent upon all of the subgroups. Each group has a piece of the puzzle. ♦ When using a Jigsaw, make sure you carefully define the limits of what each group will contribute to the topic that is being explored. Individual Presentation

An individual presentation is an uninterrupted presentation by one person to the group. Group members present on a topic, question, or issue to the group. Unlike an “Assigned Discussion Leader” this is a formal presentation delivered to a captive audience. Hint: ♦ Use of individual presentations should typically be used sparingly and only when independent research is required. Share Round Robin Generate ideas by speaking in order, moving from one student to the next. Use to structure brainstorming sessions and ensuring that all students participate. Hint: ♦ A student can “pass,” but be certain to establish the expectation that you will return to him/her. Critical Debates Students take the side of an issue that is in opposition to their personal views, then argue that side of the issue. This methods helps students develop critical thinking skills and challenges assumptions. Hint: ♦ This method works well in dueling partners, or works well when a larger group is divided into two. ♦ Also can work as a “four corners” method or continuum line. Three-Step Interview Student in partners, interview each learn to another pair. This method helps students network with each other and develop communication skills. Learning Cell Students develop questions individually, then quiz each other based on these questions. A facilitator can compile all questions for future use as practice quizzes/exams. Hint: ♦ Encourage students to create quiz questions based on notes, books, and other resources.

♦ Encourage a variety of questions (based on Bloom’s taxonomy) for deeper understanding. Fish Bowl Form two concentric circles. The smaller, interior group discusses a topic, while the larger outside group observes. Hint: ♦ Describe how this activity presents students with an opportunity to model or observe group processing behaviors. ♦ Reverse roles as needed. ♦ Rotate perspectives as an observer.

CONCLUSION Collaborative learning puts students together to work in heterogeneous groups. All perspectives of all learners are utilized for enriching learning; all are seen as equal contributors, collaborating to achieve a mutual goal. Collaborative consultation encourages shared responsibility in planning and decision making. REFERENCE Elizabeth F. Barkley, K. Patricia Cross &Claire Howell Major, Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty, Wiley publication, 2004. Edwin Mason, Collaborative Learning, Algora Publishing, 1972 www.wikipidea.com.

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