advertisement

Solutions Fayoum

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Solutions Fayoum
Education

Published on September 29, 2008

Author: mahmouda100

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Solutions : Solutions Types of solutions Properties of solutions Water properties Acids, bases & Buffers Properties of colloidal solutions : Properties of colloidal solutions Tyndall effect Light pass through a colloidal solution  reflection of light by particles  light spots under ultra microscope & black background. Brownian movements Tyndall spots are continuously in motion due to particle bombardment by the solvent molecules. Separation of colloids : Separation of colloids Dialysis: Crystalloids can pass through semi-permeable membrane of a bag immersed in running water while colloids are retained. Filtration: Passage of crystalloids through semi-permeable (Cellophane) membrane. Precipitation: Globulins by ½ concentrated ammonium sulfate sol. while Albumin by fully conc. Sol. Ultracentrifugation: Rate of sedimentation proportionate to density of molecules. Electrophoresis: Migration of charged molecules within an electrical field depends on molecular weights and charges (type and number) Properties of solutions : Properties of solutions Diffusion: Spread of solute molecules throughout the solvent by kinetic energy. Viscosity: Resistance of flow of the solution in a tube by intermolecular forces and friction with the tube side. Surface tension: Osmosis : Osmosis Attraction of solvent molecules by the solute molecules. That occurs by passage of solvent through semi permeable membrane till equilibrium reached. Osmotic pressure is needed to prevent osmosis Osmotic pressure is directly proportionate to solute concentration. - Hypertonic solution - Hypotonic solution - Isotonic solution Solution with osmotic pressure equals to 0.9 % NaCl (Saline) Slide 8: Osmosis is the movement of solvent through a membrane to equalize the concentration on both sides Importance of Osmosis in vivo : Importance of Osmosis in vivo Affects urine formation and urine volume. Diuretics increase Na excretion. Diabetes mellitus associated with glucose escape in urine causes polyuria. Affects the extracellular fluid volume. Albumin in blood cause an osmotic pressure that helps directing ECF to drain into blood. On hypoalbuminemia  decreased Osmotic pressure  accumulation of ECF  Edema. Water characteristics : Water characteristics In H2O each H atom linked to the O by covalent bond. Both H atoms are on the same side of the O atom  dipole character (O carries partial negative charge (Oσ-) while H atoms carry partial positive charge (Hσ+). Each O atom in H2O is attached to 2 H atoms by covalent bonds and by 2 Hydrogen bonds of other two water molecules via weaker non covalent hydrogen bonds. Thermal properties related to H bonding. Solvent properties either solvation spheres or hydrotropy. Water characteristics : Water characteristics Thermal properties related to H bonding. - Energy is needed to break these bonds after temperature of water melting (0ºC) - On boiling at 100ºC, water molecules free one another and vaporize. Solvent properties either solvation spheres or hydrotropy. - Due to dipole of water attracting both positive and negative ions more than the ions attract each other. Intermolecular forces : Intermolecular forces Covalent bonds: due to electron sharing between two atoms. Non covalent forces Acids , Bases and Buffers : Acids , Bases and Buffers Acids are H2O dissociated (ionized) substances  H+ (proton donors) Bases = Substances + H2O  OH- Solutions in water are classified into three types according to its pH: Acids , Bases and Buffers : Acids , Bases and Buffers pH : - Log [H+] H2O dissociation  10-7 H+ (protons) So, -log [10-7 ] = 7 pH of pure H2O is 7 = neutral pH pH + pOH = 14 If a solution has pH > 7  Basic sol. If a solution has pH < 7  Acidic sol. Buffers : Buffers Or Slide 16: Action of a buffer Blood Buffers : Blood Buffers H2CO3 / HCO3 - (Carbonic acid/Carbonate) Acid PO4 / Alkaline PO4 (NaH2PO4/ Na2HPO4) Acid protein / Proteinate (H-Proteinic acid/ Na proteinate) Hemoglobin / Oxy hemoglobin (in RBCs) Slide 18: Blood pH: Carbonic acid / Bicarbonate is the major blood buffer Blood pH = 7.4 (7.35 -7.45) : Blood pH = 7.4 (7.35 -7.45) Blood pH regulated by 1. Kidneys 2. Lungs 3. Buffers in blood Kidneys Regulate pH : Kidneys Regulate pH Excreting excess hydrogen ions if pH is too low Retaining hydrogen ions if pH is too high Lungs Regulate pH : Lungs Regulate pH Breath faster to get rid of excess carbon dioxide if pH is too low Carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid in the blood Breath slower to retain carbon dioxide if pH is too high Carbon Dioxide and Acid : Carbon Dioxide and Acid More Carbon Dioxide = More Acid = Lower pH : More Carbon Dioxide = More Acid = Lower pH Breathing slower will retain CO2 , pH will decrease (more acid) Breathing faster will eliminate more CO2 pH will increase (less acid) Blood pH Drops to 7.3 (Acidosis)How does the body compensate? : Blood pH Drops to 7.3 (Acidosis)How does the body compensate? Breath faster to get rid of carbon dioxide eliminates acid Kidneys increase H+ excretion (NaH2PO4) and increase HCO3- Retention (Urine acidification). Blood pH Increases to 7.45 (Alkalosis)How does the body compensate? : Blood pH Increases to 7.45 (Alkalosis)How does the body compensate? Breath slower to retain more carbon dioxide retains more acid Kidneys increase HCO3- excretion and decrease H+ excretion Efficiency of Carbonic acid/ Bicarbonate : Efficiency of Carbonic acid/ Bicarbonate High concentration than other buffers Ratio of 20:1 towards bicarbonate that meet the addition of large amount of acids into blood - CHO  CO2 + Lactic acid - Proteins & NA  Sulfuric, phosphoric, uric acids - Fat  Ketone bodies Slide 27: Henderson Hasselblach Equation

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Projects - Fayoum Drinking Water and Sanitation Project -

Projects Fayoum Drinking Water and Sanitation Project. Posted on 18 November 2013. The overall objective of the project – commissioned by Fayoum Economic ...
Read more

The Fayoum A Practical Guide

21-05-2016 1/4 The Fayoum A Practical Guide ... If you are looking for Material Science And Engineering Eighth Edition Solutions, our library is
Read more

Nice ADS for Digital services and ads solutions

Nice ADS for Digital services and ads solutions. 1,069 likes · 2 talking about this · 83 were here. Digital services and ads solutions :: www.niceADS.org
Read more

Enhancing The Competitiveness Of Ecotourism Destinations ...

Get Instant Access to free Read PDF Enhancing The Competitiveness Of Ecotourism Destinations The Fayoum Region In Egypt at Our Ebooks Unlimited Database
Read more

ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF SOME METALS OF TECHNOLOGICAL ...

ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOR OF SOME METALS OF TECHNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS By Hassnaa Hussein Abd El-Halim Mohamed B.Sc. (Special Chemistry) 2008
Read more

Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Pb in aqueous ...

Journal of Alloys and Compounds 456 (2008) 372–378 Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Pb in aqueous solutions N.H. Helalb, M.M. El-Rabieeb, Gh ...
Read more

Fayoum University | LinkedIn

Learn about working at Fayoum University. Join LinkedIn today for free. See who you know at Fayoum University, leverage your professional network, and get ...
Read more

UNDP Egypt - YouTube

Innovation for development programme in UNDP Egypt provides innovative solutions with the aim of supporting youth and empowering local communities.
Read more

Alaa Ismail | LinkedIn

Alaa Ismail. Technical Team Leader at Adaptive Solutions. Location Egypt Industry Information Technology and Services
Read more