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soln ch13_1

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Published on December 4, 2008

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Solutions : 12/4/2008 Dr. Daniel 1 Solutions With your Chemistry 102 host Dr. Mike Daniel Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions London Forces , Temporary Dipole Weakest Increase with size of molecule Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions London Forces , Temporary Dipole Weakest Increase with size of molecule Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Dipole – Dipole Interactions > Attractions between Molecules with Permanent Dipoles (Polar) d- d+ Acetone CH3COCH3 Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Dipole – Dipole Interactions > London Forces for Similar Size Molecules Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Dipole – Dipole Interactions > London Forces for Similar Size Molecules Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Hydrogen Bonds-Special Dipole-Dipole Attraction H-F, H-O, H-N very polar bonds Very small atoms involved lead to large charge density H covalently bonded to F, O, or N can form a H bond to a F, O or N in another molecule Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Hydrogen Bonds-Typically 5x stronger than other Dipole-Dipole Attractions Bond through Lone Pair(s) Intermolecular Attractions : 12/4/2008 Intermolecular Attractions Enthalpy Change for Solutions : 12/4/2008 Enthalpy Change for Solutions Hsoln A(s) + H2O (L) H1,A H2, H20 Solvation Hydration A (AQ) A(g) + H2O (L) A(g) + H2O (g) Solution Formation : 12/4/2008 Solution Formation H1 + H2 + H3 = Hsoln Exothermic and Small Endothermic Hsoln favorable Solute-Solute and Solvent-Solvent Eatt Similar in size to Solute-Solvent Eatt H1 + H2 ~ | H3| Entropy (S) : 12/4/2008 Entropy (S) Entropy is a measure of disorder or probability Disorganized systems are more likely than organized systems Entropy tends to increase Entropy (S) : 12/4/2008 Entropy (S) Ssolid < Sliquid < < Sgas SA + SB < SAB(Soln.) Dissolved solid in liquid more disorganized (or probable) than undissolved solid Entropy : 12/4/2008 Entropy Entropy always favors Solid Dissolving in a Liquid Solid will dissolve if it doesn’t require to much energy Solution Formation : 12/4/2008 Solution Formation Like Dissolves Like Ionic and Polar Substances tend to dissolve in Polar Substances Non-Polar Substances tend to dissolve in Non-Polar Substances Solute H Bonding to Water helps hydrate solute Solution Formation : 12/4/2008 Solution Formation Solute H Bonding to Water helps hydrate solute Makes Hydration more Exothermic Acetone and H2O Comparison : 12/4/2008 Acetone and H2O Comparison CH3COCH3 Intermolecular Forces Dipole-Dipole London Forces H2O IMF H Bonding Dipole-Dipole London Forces Eatt between Acetone and H2O : 12/4/2008 CH3COCH3….H2O Eatt H bonding Dipole-Dipole London Forces Eatt between Acetone and H2O H Bond Dipole-Dipole Hsoln of Acetone and H2O : 12/4/2008 Hsoln of Acetone and H2O Acetone(L) Acetone (g) Hsoln of Acetone and H2O : 12/4/2008 H2O (L) H2O (g) Hsoln of Acetone and H2O Hsoln of Acetone and H2O : 12/4/2008 H2O (g) + Acetone (g) Hsoln of Acetone and H2O Acetone (aq) Hsoln Hsoln of Acetone and H2O : 12/4/2008 Hsoln of Acetone and H2O Acetone (aq) Hsoln Hsoln < 0 Exothermic Molecules that can H bond to H2O but not to themselves : 12/4/2008 Molecules that can H bond to H2O but not to themselves Formaldehyde Ethyl Acetate Any Molecule with an F, O, N More Solution Terms : 12/4/2008 More Solution Terms Mixtures have variable composition Saturated – Solution that is in equilibrium with undissolved solute. A saturated solution has the maximum amount of solute dissolved More Solution Terms : 12/4/2008 More Solution Terms Unsaturated – A solution that has less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved Superaturated - A solution that has more than the maximum amount of solute dissolved Even More Solution Terms : 12/4/2008 Even More Solution Terms Solubility – A measure of the amount of solute needed to make a saturated solution (depends on temperature). Examples @ 100 C ~ 38 g NaCl / 100 mL H2O .0217 g AgCl / 100 mL Factors Effecting Solubility : 12/4/2008 Factors Effecting Solubility Solvent-Solute Interactions Temperature Pressure (for gas solutes) Factors Effecting Solubility : 12/4/2008 Factors Effecting Solubility Solvent-Solute Interactions Like dissolves like Miscible – Liquids that mix in any proportion Immiscible – Liquids that don’t significantly dissolve in each other Solubilities of Alcohols in Water* : 12/4/2008 Solubilities of Alcohols in Water* Factors Effecting Solubility : 12/4/2008 Factors Effecting Solubility Temperature Most Solids are More Soluble at Higher T Entropy increases with T Most Gases are Less Soluble at Higher T Factors Effecting Solubility : 12/4/2008 Factors Effecting Solubility Pressure Little effect on Solid/Liquid Solubility Gases More Soluble at higher P

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