Published on March 15, 2014
Reality of solid waste management in Jordan Progress - challenges - Issues Reality of solid waste management in Jordan Progress - challenges - Issues Presented & Prepared By : Ahmed Marei Submitted to: Dr. Nedal Oran Al-Balqa Applied University Faculty of Agriculture Technology Water Resources and Environmental Management Department Integrated Solid Waste Management Presentation Title:
Contents • Environmental and Socio-Economic • SWM Background information, waste composition and MSW performance • Legal Framework • Institutional Framework • Institutional organization of SWM in GAM • MSW Planning and Investments in GAM • Technical assistance Partners and Donor • SWM Finance and Cost Recovery
• Jordan has an area of 88,778 km2 . The climate of Jordan is predominately of the Mediterranean type; it is characterized by a hot dry summer and rather cool wet winter. • Jordan has a population of about 6.3 million people (2011). • 78% of the population are classified as urban and 22% as rural. • Jordan is classified by the World Bank as a lower middle income country In the year 2009, the per capita share from gross domestic product (GDP) was JOD 3,337 • Jordan ranks third in the MENA region in terms of the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI). Environmental and Socio-economic overviewEnvironmental and Socio-economic overview
Waste CompositionWaste Composition
MSW Technical PerformanceMSW Technical Performance MSW Collection Coverage In rural area 70 % In urban area 90% Composition of MSW by Generator (%) Domestic and commercial 80% Industrial 20% Management of Waste (%) MSW Final destination Composted 0% Recycled 10% Disposed in engineered landfills 50% Disposed in controlled dumps 35% Disposed in open dumps 5% The daily estimated solid waste generated in 2011 was about 5,846 tons
No Specific Legal Framework for solid waste management ( SWM) is in Jordan . SWM is in general governed by the following regulations : - Environmental Protection Law No. 52 of 2006: providing legal tools for the management of environmental issues but not explicitly for SWM issues . Solid Waste Management Regulation No. 27 of 2005: generic and not sufficient as regulatory tool . Regulation of waste prevention and collection fees (1/1978) and its amendments (30/1983): identifying the solid waste services fees according to municipality category . Regulation of Community Services Council No. 14: charging the services council with the responsibility for operating and managing the landfills . Other Legislations implemented through different governmental agencies with a very weak level of coordination ( Municipalities Law No. 14 for 2007. Public Health Law No. 54 for 2002 and Environmental Protection Law 52 for 2006) Legal FrameworkLegal Framework
Cont. Legal Framework A draft Waste Law prepared by the Ministry of Environmental and covering both municipal and hazardous waste will be subjected to a national review and discussion. A draft policy for electronic waste management has been developed by the ministry of environment (MoE) in 2009. The policy is currently under review.
Institutional FrameworkInstitutional Framework • Ministry of Environment: responsible of developing environmental policies and programs, issuing permits to construct various industrial and development projects, approval for developing natural reserves, monitoring and measuring environmental pollutants, etc. • Municipalities: responsible of day to day SWM within municipal boundaries. • Common Services Councils: owning and operating waste disposal sites. • Ministry of Municipal Affairs: responsible of providing municipalities and Common Services Councils with finance to offer municipal services including SWM. • Ministry of Health: responsible of following up and monitoring the medical waste generated from health care institutions
Institutional organization of SWM in GAMInstitutional organization of SWM in GAM Other departments are also directly involved in MSWM: • The Transportation and Supply Department, • The Workshop Department, • The Heavy Vehicles Department, • The Services and Building Maintenance Department.
• In collaboration with a private sector firm, GAM developed a three pilot solid waste segregation sites, covering the areas of Marka, Al-Hussein Neighborhood and Um Uthaina. • In an effort to enhance the solid waste collection efficiency, GAM provided collection vehicles with a GPS tracking system. GAM developed GIS maps for various solid waste management (SWM) sectors with detailed database for each service sector. • Construction of two new transfer stations in the north-west and southwest areas of Amman. The project was part of the project funded by the World Bank. However, due to the public opposition, GAM decided to cancel the project. • In 2005, GAM signed an agreement with Tadweer, a local private company, for MSW sorting as an investment project for a period of 15 years. Unfortunately, the project has been stopped before commissioning due to some disputes between GAM and the investor. MSW Planning and Investments in GAMMSW Planning and Investments in GAM
• In collection and transfer : 1. One private company in 2008(Clean City Company) in Aqaba city is contracted for solid waste collection, hauling to the disposal site and street sweeping. 2. Two other experiences of contracting with private operators by GAM and Zarqa municipality failed due to the of organization and monitoring procedures. • In waste treatment : A consortium of local and international companies won the contract for the construction and operation of a medical and industrial waste treatment facility. • In resource recovery : The scavengers (informal sector) collect recyclable waste to pass it to factories. • Type of contracts : Management for municipal solid waste and BOOT (Build-Own-Operate-Transfer) for medical and industrial wastes Private Sector Involvement & NGO’sPrivate Sector Involvement & NGO’s
1. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 2. Medcities 3. United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility (UNDP-GEF) 4. European development Bank 5. Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Programme (METAP) 6. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 7. GTZ (German Technical Cooperation (now GIZ)) 8. Arab Fund 9. World Bank 10. European Union (EU) 11. Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Technical assistance Partners and Donor Technical assistance Partners and Donor
• Financing of waste management infrastructure and systems in Jordan is provided by municipalities. The Ministry of Municipalities offers low interest loans for municipal activities (except for GAM which finance SWM from its own resources). • Many Municipalities are lacking sufficient revenues. • The SW fees are differ between municipalities based on their category and size (20 JD/year in first category municipalities, 4 JD/year in second category municipalities, and 12 JD/year in third and fourth categories. The fees are collected as monthly supplement to the electricity bill. SWM Finance and Cost RecoverySWM Finance and Cost Recovery
Cont. cost recovery in GAM • In the year 2007, the cost of MSWM in GAM was found to be 22.55 Million JOD ,, • Collection : 25.4 JOD/ton Transfer : 3.5 JOD/ton Disposal : 2.9 JOD/ton Therefore, the total MSWM unit cost is 31.8 JOD/ton. • The revenues from MSWM services in 2007 was 14.19 million JOD, representing 63% cost recovery. • The low cost recovery level may be attributed to the following reasons: 1. The relatively low level of the fee against the service. 2. The Electricity Company deducts 10% of the collected fees as administrative charges. 3. In certain neighborhoods more than one household are connected to the electricity meter.
Municipal waste in Jordan has steadily increased from 1.5 million tons in 2000 to about 2 million tons in 2012 which is posing a serious challenge to
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