Published on March 7, 2014
Seeds • (GMO Seeds) These are seeds that have had their genetic make-up altered by replacing certain genes with genes from a totally different species, with the hope that the resulting plants will now have certain ‘desirable’ characteristics. • Hybrid- Hybrid seeds are developed by pollinating one type of plant with the pollen of another variety. The oﬀspring seeds can have traits from either parent. The purpose of hybridization is to develop a new variety that has the best or most desirable traits of the two parent plants. Copyright ©2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate
! Seeds • open- pollinated These seeds are produced by crossing two parents from the same variety, so the oﬀspring plants will be just like the parents. These can be from H1 hybrids or heirloom seeds. Depending of many factors, it is possible to have non-conforming plants in an open-pollinated variety. • Heirloom These are seeds from non-hybrid plants that have been grown for generations. Because they have speciﬁc traits that are desirable, they have survived. The seeds will be true to the parent plant. Many of these heirloom plants are being brought into favor today by gardeners who value keeping a wide genetic base available. Copyright ©2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate
Seeds • Pelleted seeds- coated with an layer of clay to make bigger, more uniform and easier to sow. Best for when seeding with a mechanical seeder • Treated Seeds- these are seeds that have been coated with a chemical application of some sort to protect against disease or insects- there are some new organic
How to choose varieties • What are other growers using • trial several varieties • Where is the seed company located? • what does your market want • regionally adapted seeds?
Regionally adapted varieties • usually open-pollinated or heirloom varieties • over the years have adapted to the climate • Can be more resistant to cold, wet, or disease of area • more prevalent in squashes, tomatoes, and grain crops
Seed Purity and size • There are multiple grades and purity • Go for the lowest seed count per lb • Keep seeds cool and dry (use the 100 rule, temp and humidity should equal less than 100)
Seed companies we trust • Johnnys • High Mowing • Osborne • Jordan’s
Hot- Water treating seeds • Why? Can destroy pathogens. Seed born Alternaria, Septoria, Black rot, Bacterial Spot • What crops? Crucifers, Tomato, Pepper, Spinach • Use speciﬁcally designed vats at speciﬁc temperatures. • http://vegetablemdonline.ppath.cornell.edu/ NewsArticles/ HotWaterSeedTreatment.html
Richard de Wilde Harmony Valley Farm
We always double our last few plantings
Looking at frost dates • how early can you reasonably plant sensitive crops without heat? • use a construction heater for those few days that it gets cold • have rowcovers at the ready...
Frost-sensitive crops • • • • Tomatoes including cherries peppers eggplant cucumbers • • • • • squash okra beans potatoes basil
Hardy Crops • • • • • Arugula Mesclun Lettuce Mix Spinach Asian greens • • • • • Carrots Beets Scallions Leeks Brassicas
Pick an date... And then just keep on planting..... Get rid of the pre-conceived notions of when crops can be produced
Soil • The best soil for growing is the soil that you currently have...... But...
Soil type/quality Lighter soils Stone content Soil history, conventionally farmed? Tract size
Soils • Sandy loam to Sandy is ideal • Too sandy can be hard to irrigate early and late • Too wet can be ﬁne but needs to be bedded up well.... good for spinach and long season crops as holds nutrients well
Micro Climates • Occur on the top of a slope, by large bodies of water, in areas shielded by large natural barriers • Can be 3-5 degrees warmer than surrounding areas • Our granville ﬁeld is consistantly 3-4 degrees colder than the home farm
Water Availability Water ﬂow Water consistency Water Quality Water head? talk to the old-timers
Proximity to currently farmed property 2.5 miles
Vetting landowners Know your community Separate entrance ideal make sure they know you are farming get a written agreement
Land security Spray buffers access for recreational vehicles and snowmobiles roads/ease of access for rufﬁans ease of fencing for deer/other pests
Lease/rent Land is expensive we prefer 5 year rolling leases pay between $0-150 an acre tax write-off for landowner Spell out everything in lease- no surprises.
Manchester Property 14 acres of prime class 1 soil As much water as we want adjacent to other property 5 year rolling lease rent is produce for the manufacturing employees good buffer zones
Web Soil Survey
Harrison Property Excellent, clean water class 2 soils certiﬁable immediately South slope long term plans good security
Matching crops to soils • different crops have different soil requirements • sweet potatoes loves very sandy soil • carrots need deep friable soils • spinach is ﬁne with clay as long as it is bedded up • Melons love dry fertile soil
Land and Soil proﬁle Soil type Crops Acres stays dry, early and late greens, melons, tomatoes, stony 4 Hamlin Silt loam root crops, great for radishes, beets, carrots- no stones 8 Hartland sandy loam class 1,general purpose, no stones 4 Vergennes Silty Clay somewhat heavy, winter squash, brassicas, spinach, beans 5 Hoosick Gravelly sandy Loam Sweet potato heaven... 1 Bernardston-shaly silt loams
Weed Management • Stale-bedding • Flaming • blind cultivation • Between row vs in Row
bare fallow • Period that nothing is grown on soil and it is kept tilled to destroy the weed seed bank • bad for soil health • usually for 4-6 weeks during peak summer • useful to get rid of perenial weeds like quack-grass, nutsedge and johnson grass as well as annuals.
Flaming basics • either used for stale seed bedding (before the crop is planted or blind cultivation (before the crop is up) • idea situation: plant, wait till seeds are germinating but not above the soil yet, ﬂame, seeds come up in weed free bed • ﬂame midday when plants and ground are dry • hot as possible
Parsnips just coming up
Between Row cultivation
Fertility management • Vegetable farming is not easy on the soil • we want the best environment we can create to grow great vegetables • Our goal is to create the BEST soil we can
How does one create great soil? • Don’t abuse it • Compost • Soil tests and Proper nutrients • Cover crops • good rotation
Why Compost? • The great Recycler • Builds Soil structure • Aggregate formation (soil fungi) • Drought Protection • Just in time nutrient delivery • Growth stimulator
C/N ratio • you want a “dirty” compost pile (add a starter/activator) • ideal Carbon/ Nitrogen ratio is 25:1 to 30:1 • High N would be grass clippings, poultry manure, blood meal • High C would be straw, sawdust, leaves
Compost ingredients • Manure • Wood chips • spoiled hay • vegetable scraps • Whey • eggshells
What not to put in compost • domestic animal manure • humanure • large amounts of pine needles • sprayed grass clippings (can contain 2,4 d) • anything you can’t handle.....
Using manures • Stabilize it ﬁrst... Should not reek of ammonia... add carbon • Watch your salt levels (especially in GH) • Needs hot composted to get rid of disease and pathogens • Stay away from pig manure - too many diseases (especially roundworms)
Composting methods • Hot- Material is turned frequently to kill weed seeds, pathogens, is ready in a matter of weeks a month (temps up to 160 F) • Cool- Material is piled and let sit, much less work but can take 6 months to 2 years. this method allows beneﬁcial bacteria to live. • Windrow- Compost is placed in long , semi-circle shaped piles which are mechanically turned • Aerated Static pile- Material piled and air forced through it to help it cook faster
Importing soil fertility • Easy way out • can be more expensive in the long-run • Safe • can store great quantities of NPK • Early season soils are too cold to utilize soil fertility easily
No supplemental nitrogen fertilizer in the greenhouse in the fall
Soil tests • Take them!!! • Best idea of what is going on down below • Same time of year each year • Get micronutrients tested every 2 years or so • take them to a good lab
Nutrient Dense • Dan Kittridge, Real Food Campaign • Jerry Brunetti, Agri- Dynamics • John Kemp, Advancing Eco Agriculture
Measuring Brix • The higher the brix the healthier the plant • Higher brix is a result of better mineralization of the soil • For the best brix, nutrients are foliar applied during the season.
The Big 5 • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Potassium • Sulfur • Calcium
Micro-Nutrients • • • • Magnesium Cobalt Copper Iron • • • Manganese Molybdenum Zinc
Sources for Micronutrients • Lancaster Ag • Nutrient Density Supply Co. • SeaAgri, INC
Soil management • Squeeze test for dryness • Don’t compact by driving on wet • bedding up in fall • Some soils are just later • Providing adequate drainage to heavier soils
Soil health resources • Northeast cover crop handbook • The real dirt • Building soils for better crops • Advanced biological farming
Growing Great Cover Crops
What is a cover crop? Any crop that is covering the soil
Yes, weeds can be a cover crop!
Cover crops vs green manures
Why Cover Crops? • Beneﬁts soil: Stops erosion, sequesters carbon (organic matter), stabilizes soil moisture • Manages Nutrients: adds or scavenges • helps reduce weeds and ﬂummoxes pests
Drawbacks • Management • establishment is when workload can be highest (spring and Fall) • Weeds can establish in cover • Uses soil moisture to grow (not a problem in irrigated vegetable land) • difﬁculty incorporating at end of year.
Types of Cover Crop • Winter vs. Summer • Legume vs non-legume • Annual, Biennial, Perennial • Intercropped • Cover Crop Mixtures
Non-Legume Cover Crops • Adds Organic matter • Reduces erosion • Suppresses weeds • Large amounts of residue (can be tough to manage for next crop) • Can tie up Nitrogen
Examples of NonLegume Crops • Grasses (rye, oats, sorgum) • Brassicas (tillage radish) • sunﬂowers • Buckwheat
Legume Cover Crops • Annuals (Soybeans, ﬁeld peas, cow peas, Sunhemp) • Perrenials (red & white clover, medics, Alfalfa) • Biennnials (sweetclovers, hairy vetch) • Less residue
What are you looking for in a cover crop? • Partial season or full season? • do you need nitrogen or carbon? • are you looking to reduce erosion? • Summer or Winter crop? • Can you manage it with your equipment?
Plant Health= Disease Resistance
Fighting disease... • good soil health • variety selection • adding mycorrhizae • not working the soil too early or too latethe clump test • good air circulation- giving plants nessesary space, and uncovering so they can dry out • clean seed, propagation trays, equipment
Sprays a last resort • Regalia, rootshield, actinovate • Oxidate • Double nickel, greencure, milstop, copper
Natural predators • Leaving buffer strips • Not spraying when predators are active • Some organic sprays do harm bees and predators spray in early morning or late evening
Beneﬁcial insects sources • Greenspot • Gardens alive • Hydro– Gardens • General Web search turns up dozens of people
Aphids • thrive in cool, wet environments with lush greens • Love to be under rowcover • Also can transmit many diseases
Why Rotate • • Slow pests Soil Health • • Weed Pressure Decrease Disease
How to plan a rotation • Look at ﬁeld history • what do you want to accomplish? • weed suppression • soil health • full season vs partial season crops
Write it down • Keep good records, as simple as a journel but so much easier in the age of google docs • we use an online spreadsheet program • Helpful to know back at least 4 years
Vegetable Families • NIGHTSHADES Solanaceous Tomatoes, Tomatillos, Eggplants, Peppers, Okra, Potatoes • MORNING GLORY Sweet potato • MELONS & SQUASH Cucurbits Cucumbers, Zucchini & Summer Squash, Watermelon, Musk Melon, Pumpkin, Gourd • GOOSEFOOT Beet, Spinach,Chard,Quinoa,Orach • SUNFLOWER Sunﬂower, Jerusalem artichoke, Lettuce, Endive, Artichoke
Vegetable Families • COLE Brassicas, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cauliﬂower, Cabbage, Kale, Collards, Radishes, Kohlrabi, Rutabaga, Turnip, Mustard! • ONIONS allium Onion, Leeks, Chives, Garlic • PEAS Legumes, Peas, Runner beans, Bush beans, Fava beans , Garbanzo beans, Peanuts • GRASSES, Corn, Millet, Rice, Barley, Wheat, Rye • PARSLEY Parsley, Carrots, Parsnips, Celery, Fennel, Cilantro/Coriander
Crops for weed suppression Good • greens • corn • potatoes • Squash • beans Bad • carrots • onions • peas • leeks • asparagus
Rotation in the ﬁeld • Four years minimum for most crops • Tough with the amount of brassicas we grow • We treat all greens direct seeded as one type has grown together (lettuce radishes spinach) • Onions, carrots, long-season brassicas always in 4 year rotation.
Crop needs • Check each individual crop needs (and what they take out) • beets need high amounts of K (Potassium) • Celeriac and Celery like lots of Boron • Corn and greens like lot of nitrogen
Rotation in the greenhouse • Very, very tough • Never repeat the same crop • Greens, tomatoes, greens • Try to move beds around • Would be great to uncover and freeze houses during winter time
Connect with us! @kilpatrickfarm Michael Kilpatrick www.michael-kilpatrick.com www.kilpatrickfamilyfarm.com
Die Seed-and-Soil-Theorie (von engl. seed = ‚Saat‘ und soil = ‚Ackerboden‘) ist eine Theorie aus dem Gebiet der Onkologie. Die Seed-and-Soil ...
Soil and Seed. 78 likes. www.soilandseed.co.uk After a 12wk trial, our organic produce box scheme is pausing for IT development, with a view to...
Soil And Seed Jericho Jones. 2004 • 10 Musiktitel • Pop • Pop International • Simplesouls Limited. Album kaufen 7,99 € Kostenlos erhältlich ...
Of Seeds and Soils - James E. Faust. The LDS.org menus have changed. Learn more. close. Skip main navigation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day ...
The soil seed bank is the natural storage of seeds, often dormant, within the soil of most ecosystems. The study of soil seed banks started in 1859 when ...
Milestone 1 (1889) Seed and soil hypothesis Observations from a ploughman. Helen Dell, Locum Associate News and Views Editor, Nature. 1 April 2006 | doi:10 ...
Seeds & Soils. October 14, 2013. Read: Matthew 13:1-9 | Bible in a Year: Isaiah 43-44; 1 Thessalonians 2. Download MP3. Subscribe to iTunes ...
Warum SEED 2 SOIL? Die landwirtschaftliche Produktion ist in vielen Teilen der Welt von einem Rückgang der menschlichen Arbeitskraft und einer Zunahme
Soils Solutions specializes in soil reclamation, erosion protection and retention using Native grasses, Agrostis Pallens, Fescues, Needlegrass and Turf ...