Soils, seeds

67 %
33 %
Information about Soils, seeds

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: MichaelKilpatrick1



Talk for MOA on Soil, seeds, rotation, covercrops

Growing Soil

Seeds • (GMO Seeds) These are seeds that have had their genetic make-up altered by replacing certain genes with genes from a totally different species, with the hope that the resulting plants will now have certain ‘desirable’ characteristics. • Hybrid- Hybrid seeds are developed by pollinating one type of plant with the pollen of another variety. The offspring seeds can have traits from either parent. The purpose of hybridization is to develop a new variety that has the best or most desirable traits of the two parent plants. Copyright ©2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate

! Seeds • open- pollinated These seeds are produced by crossing two parents from the same variety, so the offspring plants will be just like the parents. These can be from H1 hybrids or heirloom seeds. Depending of many factors, it is possible to have non-conforming plants in an open-pollinated variety. • Heirloom These are seeds from non-hybrid plants that have been grown for generations. Because they have specific traits that are desirable, they have survived. The seeds will be true to the parent plant. Many of these heirloom plants are being brought into favor today by gardeners who value keeping a wide genetic base available. Copyright ©2013 Through Nana's Garden Gate

Seeds • Pelleted seeds- coated with an layer of clay to make bigger, more uniform and easier to sow. Best for when seeding with a mechanical seeder • Treated Seeds- these are seeds that have been coated with a chemical application of some sort to protect against disease or insects- there are some new organic

How to choose varieties • What are other growers using • trial several varieties • Where is the seed company located? • what does your market want • regionally adapted seeds?

Regionally adapted varieties • usually open-pollinated or heirloom varieties • over the years have adapted to the climate • Can be more resistant to cold, wet, or disease of area • more prevalent in squashes, tomatoes, and grain crops

Seed Purity and size • There are multiple grades and purity • Go for the lowest seed count per lb • Keep seeds cool and dry (use the 100 rule, temp and humidity should equal less than 100)

Seed companies we trust • Johnnys • High Mowing • Osborne • Jordan’s

Hot- Water treating seeds • Why? Can destroy pathogens. Seed born Alternaria, Septoria, Black rot, Bacterial Spot • What crops? Crucifers, Tomato, Pepper, Spinach • Use specifically designed vats at specific temperatures. • NewsArticles/ HotWaterSeedTreatment.html

Richard de Wilde Harmony Valley Farm

We always double our last few plantings

Looking at frost dates • how early can you reasonably plant sensitive crops without heat? • use a construction heater for those few days that it gets cold • have rowcovers at the ready...

Frost-sensitive crops • • • • Tomatoes including cherries peppers eggplant cucumbers • • • • • squash okra beans potatoes basil

Hardy Crops • • • • • Arugula Mesclun Lettuce Mix Spinach Asian greens • • • • • Carrots Beets Scallions Leeks Brassicas

Pick an date... And then just keep on planting..... Get rid of the pre-conceived notions of when crops can be produced

Soil • The best soil for growing is the soil that you currently have...... But...

Purchasing/Renting land

Soil type/quality Lighter soils Stone content Soil history, conventionally farmed? Tract size

Soils • Sandy loam to Sandy is ideal • Too sandy can be hard to irrigate early and late • Too wet can be fine but needs to be bedded up well.... good for spinach and long season crops as holds nutrients well

Micro Climates • Occur on the top of a slope, by large bodies of water, in areas shielded by large natural barriers • Can be 3-5 degrees warmer than surrounding areas • Our granville field is consistantly 3-4 degrees colder than the home farm

5-8˚ 8-15˚

Water Availability Water flow Water consistency Water Quality Water head? talk to the old-timers

Proximity to currently farmed property 2.5 miles

Vetting landowners Know your community Separate entrance ideal make sure they know you are farming get a written agreement

Land security Spray buffers access for recreational vehicles and snowmobiles roads/ease of access for ruffians ease of fencing for deer/other pests

Lease/rent Land is expensive we prefer 5 year rolling leases pay between $0-150 an acre tax write-off for landowner Spell out everything in lease- no surprises.

Manchester Property

Manchester Property 14 acres of prime class 1 soil As much water as we want adjacent to other property 5 year rolling lease rent is produce for the manufacturing employees good buffer zones

Web Soil Survey

Harrison Property Excellent, clean water class 2 soils certifiable immediately South slope long term plans good security

Matching crops to soils • different crops have different soil requirements • sweet potatoes loves very sandy soil • carrots need deep friable soils • spinach is fine with clay as long as it is bedded up • Melons love dry fertile soil

Land and Soil profile Soil type Crops Acres stays dry, early and late greens, melons, tomatoes, stony 4 Hamlin Silt loam root crops, great for radishes, beets, carrots- no stones 8 Hartland sandy loam class 1,general purpose, no stones 4 Vergennes Silty Clay somewhat heavy, winter squash, brassicas, spinach, beans 5 Hoosick Gravelly sandy Loam Sweet potato heaven... 1 Bernardston-shaly silt loams

Weed Management • Stale-bedding • Flaming • blind cultivation • Between row vs in Row

bare fallow • Period that nothing is grown on soil and it is kept tilled to destroy the weed seed bank • bad for soil health • usually for 4-6 weeks during peak summer • useful to get rid of perenial weeds like quack-grass, nutsedge and johnson grass as well as annuals.

Flaming basics • either used for stale seed bedding (before the crop is planted or blind cultivation (before the crop is up) • idea situation: plant, wait till seeds are germinating but not above the soil yet, flame, seeds come up in weed free bed • flame midday when plants and ground are dry • hot as possible

Parsnips just coming up

Blind Cultivation

Between Row cultivation

Fertility management • Vegetable farming is not easy on the soil • we want the best environment we can create to grow great vegetables • Our goal is to create the BEST soil we can

How does one create great soil? • Don’t abuse it • Compost • Soil tests and Proper nutrients • Cover crops • good rotation

Why Compost? • The great Recycler • Builds Soil structure • Aggregate formation (soil fungi) • Drought Protection • Just in time nutrient delivery • Growth stimulator

C/N ratio • you want a “dirty” compost pile (add a starter/activator) • ideal Carbon/ Nitrogen ratio is 25:1 to 30:1 • High N would be grass clippings, poultry manure, blood meal • High C would be straw, sawdust, leaves

Compost ingredients • Manure • Wood chips • spoiled hay • vegetable scraps • Whey • eggshells

What not to put in compost • domestic animal manure • humanure • large amounts of pine needles • sprayed grass clippings (can contain 2,4 d) • anything you can’t handle.....

Using manures • Stabilize it first... Should not reek of ammonia... add carbon • Watch your salt levels (especially in GH) • Needs hot composted to get rid of disease and pathogens • Stay away from pig manure - too many diseases (especially roundworms)

Composting methods • Hot- Material is turned frequently to kill weed seeds, pathogens, is ready in a matter of weeks a month (temps up to 160 F) • Cool- Material is piled and let sit, much less work but can take 6 months to 2 years. this method allows beneficial bacteria to live. • Windrow- Compost is placed in long , semi-circle shaped piles which are mechanically turned • Aerated Static pile- Material piled and air forced through it to help it cook faster

Importing soil fertility • Easy way out • can be more expensive in the long-run • Safe • can store great quantities of NPK • Early season soils are too cold to utilize soil fertility easily

No supplemental nitrogen fertilizer in the greenhouse in the fall

Soil tests • Take them!!! • Best idea of what is going on down below • Same time of year each year • Get micronutrients tested every 2 years or so • take them to a good lab

Nutrient Dense • Dan Kittridge, Real Food Campaign • Jerry Brunetti, Agri- Dynamics • John Kemp, Advancing Eco Agriculture

Measuring Brix • The higher the brix the healthier the plant • Higher brix is a result of better mineralization of the soil • For the best brix, nutrients are foliar applied during the season.

The Big 5 • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Potassium • Sulfur • Calcium

Micro-Nutrients • • • • Magnesium Cobalt Copper Iron • • • Manganese Molybdenum Zinc

Sources for Micronutrients • Lancaster Ag • Nutrient Density Supply Co. • SeaAgri, INC

Soil management • Squeeze test for dryness • Don’t compact by driving on wet • bedding up in fall • Some soils are just later • Providing adequate drainage to heavier soils

Soil health resources • Northeast cover crop handbook • The real dirt • Building soils for better crops • Advanced biological farming

Growing Great Cover Crops

What is a cover crop? Any crop that is covering the soil

Yes, weeds can be a cover crop!

Cover crops vs green manures

Why Cover Crops? • Benefits soil: Stops erosion, sequesters carbon (organic matter), stabilizes soil moisture • Manages Nutrients: adds or scavenges • helps reduce weeds and flummoxes pests

Drawbacks • Management • establishment is when workload can be highest (spring and Fall) • Weeds can establish in cover • Uses soil moisture to grow (not a problem in irrigated vegetable land) • difficulty incorporating at end of year.

Types of Cover Crop • Winter vs. Summer • Legume vs non-legume • Annual, Biennial, Perennial • Intercropped • Cover Crop Mixtures

Non-Legume Cover Crops • Adds Organic matter • Reduces erosion • Suppresses weeds • Large amounts of residue (can be tough to manage for next crop) • Can tie up Nitrogen

Examples of NonLegume Crops • Grasses (rye, oats, sorgum) • Brassicas (tillage radish) • sunflowers • Buckwheat

Legume Cover Crops • Annuals (Soybeans, field peas, cow peas, Sunhemp) • Perrenials (red & white clover, medics, Alfalfa) • Biennnials (sweetclovers, hairy vetch) • Less residue

What are you looking for in a cover crop? • Partial season or full season? • do you need nitrogen or carbon? • are you looking to reduce erosion? • Summer or Winter crop? • Can you manage it with your equipment?

Plant Health= Disease Resistance

Fighting disease... • good soil health • variety selection • adding mycorrhizae • not working the soil too early or too latethe clump test • good air circulation- giving plants nessesary space, and uncovering so they can dry out • clean seed, propagation trays, equipment

Sprays a last resort • Regalia, rootshield, actinovate • Oxidate • Double nickel, greencure, milstop, copper

Natural predators • Leaving buffer strips • Not spraying when predators are active • Some organic sprays do harm bees and predators spray in early morning or late evening

Beneficial insects sources • Greenspot • Gardens alive • Hydro– Gardens • General Web search turns up dozens of people

Aphids • thrive in cool, wet environments with lush greens • Love to be under rowcover • Also can transmit many diseases


Crop Rotation

Why Rotate • • Slow pests Soil Health • • Weed Pressure Decrease Disease

How to plan a rotation • Look at field history • what do you want to accomplish? • weed suppression • soil health • full season vs partial season crops

Write it down • Keep good records, as simple as a journel but so much easier in the age of google docs • we use an online spreadsheet program • Helpful to know back at least 4 years

Vegetable Families • NIGHTSHADES Solanaceous Tomatoes, Tomatillos, Eggplants, Peppers, Okra, Potatoes • MORNING GLORY Sweet potato • MELONS & SQUASH Cucurbits Cucumbers, Zucchini & Summer Squash, Watermelon, Musk Melon, Pumpkin, Gourd • GOOSEFOOT Beet, Spinach,Chard,Quinoa,Orach • SUNFLOWER Sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke, Lettuce, Endive, Artichoke

Vegetable Families • COLE Brassicas, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Kale, Collards, Radishes, Kohlrabi, Rutabaga, Turnip, Mustard! • ONIONS allium Onion, Leeks, Chives, Garlic • PEAS Legumes, Peas, Runner beans, Bush beans, Fava beans , Garbanzo beans, Peanuts • GRASSES, Corn, Millet, Rice, Barley, Wheat, Rye • PARSLEY Parsley, Carrots, Parsnips, Celery, Fennel, Cilantro/Coriander

Crops for weed suppression Good • greens • corn • potatoes • Squash • beans Bad • carrots • onions • peas • leeks • asparagus

Rotation in the field • Four years minimum for most crops • Tough with the amount of brassicas we grow • We treat all greens direct seeded as one type has grown together (lettuce radishes spinach) • Onions, carrots, long-season brassicas always in 4 year rotation.

Crop needs • Check each individual crop needs (and what they take out) • beets need high amounts of K (Potassium) • Celeriac and Celery like lots of Boron • Corn and greens like lot of nitrogen

Rotation in the greenhouse • Very, very tough • Never repeat the same crop • Greens, tomatoes, greens • Try to move beds around • Would be great to uncover and freeze houses during winter time

Connect with us! @kilpatrickfarm Michael Kilpatrick

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Seed-and-Soil-Theorie – Wikipedia

Die Seed-and-Soil-Theorie (von engl. seed = ‚Saat‘ und soil = ‚Ackerboden‘) ist eine Theorie aus dem Gebiet der Onkologie. Die Seed-and-Soil ...
Read more

Soil and Seed - Facebook

Soil and Seed. 78 likes. After a 12wk trial, our organic produce box scheme is pausing for IT development, with a view to...
Read more

Soil And Seed - Microsoft Store

Soil And Seed Jericho Jones. 2004 • 10 Musiktitel • Pop • Pop International • Simplesouls Limited. Album kaufen 7,99 € Kostenlos erhältlich ...
Read more

Of Seeds and Soils - James E. Faust

Of Seeds and Soils - James E. Faust. The menus have changed. Learn more. close. Skip main navigation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day ...
Read more

Soil seed bank - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The soil seed bank is the natural storage of seeds, often dormant, within the soil of most ecosystems. The study of soil seed banks started in 1859 when ...
Read more

Milestone 1 : Nature Milestones in Cancer

Milestone 1 (1889) Seed and soil hypothesis Observations from a ploughman. Helen Dell, Locum Associate News and Views Editor, Nature. 1 April 2006 | doi:10 ...
Read more

Seeds & Soils | Our Daily Bread

Seeds & Soils. October 14, 2013. Read: Matthew 13:1-9 | Bible in a Year: Isaiah 43-44; 1 Thessalonians 2. Download MP3. Subscribe to iTunes ...
Read more

seed2soil - Hude Bremen Oldenburg Entwicklung ...

Warum SEED 2 SOIL? Die landwirtschaftliche Produktion ist in vielen Teilen der Welt von einem Rückgang der menschlichen Arbeitskraft und einer Zunahme
Read more

Home | Soils Solutions

Soils Solutions specializes in soil reclamation, erosion protection and retention using Native grasses, Agrostis Pallens, Fescues, Needlegrass and Turf ...
Read more