Published on November 5, 2008
b.stev Soil as Habitat for Microbes chemical properties
CHEMICALS in the soil aid their growth MICROBES USE SPECIFIC CHEMICALS many require, carbon, in order to survive others survive utilising certain compounds WHY ARE MICROBES IN SOIL? “ aerobes ” : need O2 “ anaerobes ”: don’t need oxygen
many require, carbon, in order to survive
others survive utilising certain compounds
NUMBERS OF MICROBES IN SOIL a small teaspoon of soil contains approx Algae 1000 - 1 million Fungi 100,000 – 1 million Bacteria 100 million – 1 billion ONLY: through microbial action do organic fertilizers become useful to plants (Texas A and M University, 2008)
A microbial process is ESSENTIAL to how a nutrient cycles through the soil CHEMICAL is absorbed for use a PRODUCT excreted in another form FOR A PLANT: it is whether a chemical is absorbed if a microbe had not processed the chemical, the plant would be deficient of its product ALSO regulates the quantities available to plants
THE same principal applies to these subjects: ANIMALS - what it is that the animal ingests as nutrient DECAYING MATTER - replenishing organic material EXCRETIONS – breakdown animal waste WEATHER FLUCUATIONS - work to maintain equilibrium (Texas A and M University, 2008)
years of RESEARCH has been performed on nutrient cycles & how this occurs the MAIN CYCLES are : nitrogen/ carbon/ sulphur/ water/ phosphorus the next picture : shows the cycle of nitrogen observe what occurs in the soil this is all because of microbial action
the next picture : shows the cycle of nitrogen
observe what occurs in the soil
this is all because of microbial action
there is a COMPLEXITY of chemical reactions occuring this is the habitat that microbes utilise & maintain as part of the “, Nitrogen Cycle,” within soil (Pidwirny. M. Dr, 2008)
EXACTLY what do MICROBES do IN THE SOIL? “ Lets take the - Nitrogen cycle , & look at it closely” NITROGEN is extracted from the air & placed into the soil from microbial action the plants absorb the product it is even given back as nitrogen gas to the air
the plants absorb the product
it is even given back as nitrogen gas to the air
nitrogen gas in the air is altered to ammonia in the soil N 2 + 3H + + 3e - = NH 3 NH 3 + H + = NH 4 + THEN ammonia is altered to ammonium ion 2NH 4 + + 3O 2 = 4H + + 2H 2 O + 2NO 2 - THEN ammonium ion becomes nitrite ion O.K: lets look closely – first,
2NO 3 - + 12H + + 11e - = N 2 + 6H 2 O ALSO: nitrogen gas is made from nitrate & is then emitted into the air 2NO 2 - + O 2 = 2NO 3 - nitrite ion is THEN altered to nitrate each EQUATION is performed by a different microbe PLANTS use the nitrate as a nutrient (Wikipedia, 2008)
These reactions all occur simultaneously The HABITAT has an equilibrium between the different chemicals & it is the microbes that work to maintain this
Bibliography Wikipedia. (2008). Nitrogen cycle- wikipedia,the free encylopedia . Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http//:www.en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Nitrogen _ cycle - 45k - Pidwirny. M. Dr. (2008). 9(s). The nitrogen cycle . Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http//:www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals /9s.html - 15k Trakhtenberg. I. (2001). Activities . Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http//:www. soil .gsfc.nasa.gov/activ_98/microact.htm - 16k - Texas A and M University. (2008). Welcome to soil and crop sciences at Texas A and M University. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from http//: www.organiclifestyles.tamu.edu/ soil / microbe index.html - 32k -
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