Sofskill bahasa inggris "

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Published on July 21, 2014

Author: rosikhohn


Siti Rosikho 18213584 1EA22 Historic house where " confinement " Soekarno- Hatta by youths in Rengasdengklok Japan declared unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 14, 1945 . News of the defeat of Japan is still kept secret by the Japanese . However pergeraakan leaders and youth in Indonesia through overseas broadcasts have known at the date of August 15, 1945 . To the young men soon met Bung Karno and Bung Hatta in Jakarta 56 East Pegangsaan and request that would proclaimed Indonesian independence free from the influence of Japan . Bung Karno and Bung Hatta do not agree with the reason that the proclamation should be discussed in the meeting PPKI ( Committee for Indonesian Independence ) . So that on the night of August 15, 1945 held a meeting in a room at the Microbiology Laboratory East Pegangsaan attended by Soekarni , Joseph Kunto , Syodanco Singgih , and Chaerul Saleh as its leader . The result of the meeting was delivered by Dervish and Wikana are urged Soekarno- Hatta decide ties with Japan . Appearing tense atmosphere because Soekarno - Hatta did not approve . But the young group still urged that the date August 16, 1945 declaration of independence . The principle is still the need to emphasize the old group held a meeting PPKI . Later in the morning on August 16, 1945 , a young group held a meeting in Dormitory Baperpi , Jalan Cikini 71 Jakarta with the decision to bring the Bung Karno and Bung Hatta out of town to avoid being hit Japanese influence . In the early hours of 16 August 1945 , Soekarno - Hatta were kidnapped by Soekarni , Joseph Kunto , and Syodanco Singgih to Rangasdengklok . In the afternoon , Ahmad Soebarjo guarantee that tomorrow lambantnya later dated August 17, 1945 will Soekarno-Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence , then Cudanco Subeno ( MAP army company commander in Rengasdengklok ) allows the Soekarno -Hatta returned to Jakarta . Formulation Proclamation Text

For the services of Ahmad Soebarjo meeting was held at the home of Rear Admiral Maeda at Jalan Imam Bonjol No.1 Jakarta to discuss the implementation of the proclamation . Towards the morning of August 17, 1945 proclamation formulated by Ir . Sukarno , Drs . Moh . Hatta , dam Ahmad Soebarjo witnessed by Sayuti Melik , Sukarni , BM Diah , and Sudiro . Tanggan written copy of the proclamation by Sukarno read before the meeting participants . After this approval and who signed the text typed by Sayuti Melik later with some changes that were signed by the Soekarno - Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation . Also agreed that the proclamation was held at the home of Sukarno in Jakarta Pegangsaan Road 56 East . Proclamation of handwritten text Ir. Sukarno Text Proklamasiketikan Sayuti Melik Reading of the text of the Proclamation On Friday August 17, 1945 at 10:00 am in the right Pegangsaan No. East . 56 Jakarta Indonesia Independence Proclamation was read text by Ir . Sukarno , accompanied by Drs .

Moh . Hatta and continued with the red and white flag by S. Latif Suhud and Cudanco Hendradiningrat and accompanied by the singing of national anthem Indonesia Raya and forwarded by Mayor Suwiryo and Dr welcome . Mawardi . After the ceremony each leave . The proclamation takes place in a simple , but solemn and was attended by about 1,000 people, consisting of the nation's leaders , youth group fighters and people who know the event . Proclamation statement has particular significance for Indonesia . Proclamation is the culmination of the struggle for independence movement , free from the shackles of foreign rule and other Unitary Republic of Indonesia . With the proclamation , the Indonesian people can determine their own lives in accordance with the dignity , as well as the joints of Indonesian life . Thus proclamation brought great changes in the life of the Indonesian nation . Reaction Top Rakyat Indonesia Indonesian Independence 1 . At the Central Level After successfully formulate proclamation Sukarno advised the leaders who work in the press and news agencies , especially BM Diah to reproduce the text of the proclamation and broadcast it to the world . All existing communication tools used to disseminate news of the proclamation of independence . News proclamation that has spread throughout the city , immediately disseminated throughout the world . On August 17, 1945 proclamation has reached the hands of the Head of the Office of Radio Waidan . For that F. Wuz ( a wireless operator ) to broadcast news of the proclamation in a row every half hour until 16.00 during the broadcast stopped although forbidden by the Japanese . While the helm of the Japanese army in Java proclamation ordered to rectify the news and expressed as a mistake . On August 20, 1945 , sealed by a Japanese radio transmitter and employees are prohibited from entering . But youth is not lost my mind by creating a new transmitter with the help of a few people who were taken from a radio technician News Domei . Menteng 31, the youth managed to assemble a new transmitter by dialing code DJK I. This is where the news of the Declaration of Independence continues to broadcast . In addition, through the press and pamphlets . Almost all of the daily publication date in Java in August 20, 1945 and carries news of the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia Constitution . So welcome the efforts

of the public and young people in the center of the proclamation spread the word to all corners of the country . 2 . At Local Level People welcomed news of the proclamation with a high fighting spirit , evidenced by the Japanese army disarmament , taking power , burning passion to continue to fight for and defend freedom. In addition to the radio broadcasts , pamphlets, news proclamation officially also brought by the messenger who happens to attend the trial and witnessed events PPKI proclamation of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945 in Jakarta , namely : Teuku Muhammad Hassan ( appointed Governor of Sumatra ) Sam Ratulangi ( appointed Governor of Sulawesi ) Ketut Pujo ( appointed Governor of Nusa Tenggara ) P. Mohammad Noor ( appointed Governor of Borneo ) The arrival of the delegates in each area were greeted with joy and festive ceremonies followed . 3 . Contributions Areas In Indonesia Maintain Independence On August 24, 1945 , between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement . Under the agreement stated that the commander of the British occupation forces in Indonesia will hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government . In carrying out matters pertaining to civil government , its implementation organized by NICA is under the command of English . Power later in life will be returned to the Netherlands . Allied forces ( British troops ) landed in Jakarta on September 15 , 1945. Joint British soldiers were also Dutch soldiers and civil servants Netherlands ( NICA ) , led by Van der Pals . The task is to disarm the allied forces and the Japanese army kemabali repatriate the prisoners to their country . To carry out these tasks , the Allies formed a special command called Aliied Forses Netherland EastIndies ( AFNEI ) . Since September 29 , 1945, a large group AFNEI started coming to Indonesia . Netherlands and the allies who landed in Surabaya hotel wants Yamato used as the headquarters of the Dutch Navy . Flag at the Hotel Yamato derived by the Dutch and replaced with the flag of the Netherlands . Red - White - Blue . This of course raises ire rakayat Surabaya . They trooped stormed the hotel to drop Dutch flag . The Dutch flag after bawagh till , torn blue warana then flown back as the Red

and White Flag . The incident is known as the flag incident that occurred on September 19 , 1945. To commemorate the event , now in front of the monument built Yamato struggles . Ally after seeing various perlawananan in Indonesia was not mamapu perform tasks without the help of the Indonesian government . Therefore , on October 1, 1945 , General Christison recognized de facto Indonesian republic state and willing to negotiate . With the advent of foreign powers simultaneously trying to maintain the independence of Indonesia . The role of each region in maintaining the independence of Indonesia looks like the following : Fighting in London ( March 23, 1946 ) Allied forces permission of the government of Indonesia on October 12, 1945 entered London by train. GOI allow Allied forces entered London aims to take care of the prisoners of war II ( Japan ) . On 23 November 1945 the Allied leaders in North Bandung Bandung mengultimatum order soon discharged from the armed youth . However , the youth refused to hand over the weapon so fierce fighting in the city . The first battle took place on December 1, 1945 . Therefore the government of Indonesia Jakarta, Bandung youths asked to stop the fighting and had to vacate the city of Bandung . With a heavy heart , the young man left the city of Bandung . In order for a building - bangunann peting in the city can not be used Allied retreat while they burn . This incident occurred on March 23, 1946 . Entire city was engulfed by flames Bandung . This event is famous Bandung Ocean of Fire event . The figures were involved in the battle of London , among others, Muhammad Toha from South London ( Autumn ) , Kol . A.H Nasution , and Colonel Hidayat . As the driving force morale , it gives birth to the song '' '' Halo - halo Bandung creation Ismail Marzuki . This song depicts the struggle of the people who do not resolve outages possible to reclaim the city of Bandung . Fighting in Sumatra ( Medan Area , December 10, 1945 ) Dated August 27, 1945 people heard the news of the proclamation of the new field brought by Mr . Teuku Mohammad Hassan as Governor of Sumatra . Mengggapi news of the proclamation of the youth under the leadership of Ahmad born form the Indonesia Youth ranks . Allied landing in Medan occurred on October 9, 1945 under the leadership of TED Kelly . The landing of the allied forces ( Britain ) is followed by troops and NICA yangdipersiapkan to take over the government . The arrival of allied forces and Nica turns memacing various iniden . On October 13, 1945 and TKR youth fighting against the Allies and NICA in an effort to seize and take over government buildings of the hands of the Japanese . Britain issued an ultimatum to the Indonesian people to hand weapons to the Allies . This ultimatum is never ignored . At the date . On December 15, 194 % of Allied put up signs that tertulis.kan " Fixed Field Area Boundaries " ( the legal limit field region ) in various suburban terrain . Allied action was a challenge for the youth . On 10 December 1945, the Allies and NICA launch a massive attack against the city of Medan . This attack raises many koraban on both sides . In April 1946, the Allies succeeded in occupying the city of Medan . Central struggle of the people of Medan and then transferred to Pemantangsiantar . To continue the struggle in the field in August 1946 formed the People 's Army Commando Regiment Field Area . Commander initerus conduct attacks against Allied field region .

Almost in all regions of Sumatra occurred rakayat resistance against the Japanese , the Allies , and the Netherlands . The battle took place , between lian in Perspective , a high hill and Aceh . Battle of Surabaya On November 10, 1945 a battle between the people of Surabaya and the Allies . The incident diawalai incident Mallabay killing Brigadier General ( Commander of the British Army ) on October 30, 1945 . Due tersenut incident on 31Oktober 1945 British issued an ultimatum ordering the fighters to surrender . If the ultimatum is not heeded the UK will exert all his strength by land , sea or air . On 9 November 1945 General Mansergh issued an ultimatum to return to Surabaya youth to surrender all weapons . The youths did not reach the ultimatum . Surabaya people under the leadership of Bung Tomo , Sungkono and Governor Suryo reject the ultimatum and began bmenghadapi allied onslaught . As a result , on November 10, 1945 , the British attacked Surabaya massively . The youths greeted by force of arms . Allied weapon equipment experience a very superior people do not tighten . Bung tomo appointed as leader of Surabaya youth chanted cries of " Allah Akbar " diradio government to evoke the spirit of the struggle . As a result of the allied attack ( English ) blind for fifteen days , Surabaya be destroyed . The youths Surabaya eventually retreated to some areas , such as the Mojokerto , Gresik , and Pasuruhan . Battle of Surabaya led to thousands of people died . To remember and commemorate the spirit of Surabaya people kepahlawananan , set November 10 as the hero . battle Ambarawa In November 1945 the allied forces and NICA move from Semarang into Ambarawa to form a defense . Fighting erupted mindless Allies unilaterally freed the Dutch internment in Magelang and Ambarawa . In this battle Colonel Isdiman fall . Furthermore , pimpinann war held by Colonel Sudirman , the Commander Banyiumas division . On December 15, 1945 , the Allies and NICA pushed and forced to retreat to Semarang . The event is famous mnama Ambarawa Theater . To commemorate the event , the date of December 15 set as the infantry and established monuments Ambarawa Ambarawa Theater . Battle of Red and White in Manado News also broke the proclamation of Indonesian Independence till to Manado . Rakayat Manado especially the youth greeted him warmly . On the other hand , NICA troops to secure the immediate arming kepentiangan former KNIL troops into tawananan Japan . They were welcomed as the White Army barracks . In December 1945, Allied forces handed over power to the NICA Manado city . Account after it got the mandate , troops NICA immediate arrests of a number of figures RI RI to secure his position . The former KNIL troops supporting RI known as the Black Army barracks . The fighters formed the Indonesian Youth Force ( PPI ) . PPI frequent secret meetings to coordinate activities against NICA . However , these activities are known NICA . As a result , some of the leaders were arrested PPI . Weapons loyalties KNIL troops disarmed . However , these measures do not menyrutkan NICA determination Indonesian fighters . On 14 February 1946, the PPI NICA dimarkas stormed

barracks in Teling White . With a makeshift weapon , the PPI is able to release the prisoners and against the commanders and troops NICA . Spontaneously fighters tore riru color on the Dutch flag at the base and white flag waving . The fighters also seized the headquarters of NICA in Tomohon and Tondano . The supporters formed a civilian government immediately RI . B.W Lapian selected as residennya . News enforcement Indonesian sovereignty in Manado immediately sent to Yogyakarta . Red and White event in Biak News proclamation of Indonesian independence till too late, although in Papua . Papuans there in different cities , such as Jayapura , Sorong , Biak Serui and provide a warm welcome and support the Indonesian Independence Proclamation . The youth in various cities holding rallies mendunkung independence . Allied with NICA trying to ban political kegaiatn and the raising of the flag , but not menhiraukan Papuan youth . In an effort to maintain the independence of Indonesia , on March 14, 1948 Red and White event took place in Biak . This event begins with the attack on the Dutch military barracks Sorowako and Biak . Furthermore , the youth Biak led by Joseph tried red and white flag around Biak . This effort got perlawanandari Netherlands so have failed . Some perlawanann leaders were arrested and sentenced to death . Indonesian conflict Netherlands Struggle through diplomacy or negotiations between Indonesia and the Netherlands with British intermediaries , among others : a. negotiations Linggarjati AFNEI entry of the ride with NICA to Indonesia because of Japan set the status quo in Indonesia caused the conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands , for example, events such as the 10 November, in addition to the British government be responsible to resolve the political and military conflict in Asia , therefore , Sir Archibald Clark Kerr , British diplomats , invited Indonesia and the Netherlands to negotiate in Hooge Veluwe , but the talks failed because requested the Dutch recognized Indonesian sovereignty over Java , Sumatra and Madura , but the Dutch just want to acknowledge Indonesia on Java and Madura only

In late August 1946 , the British government sends Lord Killearn to Indonesia to complete the negotiations between Indonesia and the Netherlands . On October 7, 1946 held at the British Consulate General in Jakarta, Indonesia - opened negotiations with the Dutch led by Lord Killearn . These negotiations resulted in a ceasefire agreement ( October 14 ) and pave the way towards negotiations on Linggarjati which began on 11 November 1946 . Linggarjati is a small town that is arriving around 21 miles west of Cirebon . Linggarjati negotiations held on 10-15 November 1946 . Linggarjati negotiating delegation led by Prime Minister of Indonesia Sutan Syahrir , while the Dutch delegation was represented by prof . And Dr. S. Schemerhorn . H , J. Van . Mook . Mediator and leader of the British negotiations , namely Lord Killeam . The results of the negotiations were announced on 15 November 1946 and approval has been arranged as a script consisting of 17 chapters , among others, contains the following : The Netherlands recognizes the de facto jurisdiction of the Republic of Indonesia with covering Sumatra , Java and Madura . Netherlands should leave the territory de facto no later than January 1, 1949 . Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands will cooperate in forming a United States of Indonesia , under the name of United States of Indonesia , which is one part of the Republic of Indonesia United States of Indonesia and the Netherlands will form the Indonesian Union - Netherlands with Dutch Queen as its chairman . The results of the negotiations Linggarjati cause varying opinions on the pros and cons kalngan political party in Indonesia . Negotiations Linggarjati harm Reopublik Indonesia krena increasingly narrow region , which only covers Java , Madura and Sumatra . This menyebababkan Novmber upheaval in Bali in 1946 under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Gusti Ngurah Rai , by war bellows / all-out war ( bellows Margarana ) and Manado battle led by Lieutenant Colonel Taulu assisted by Resident Lapian against KNIL ( Dutch ) . b. Dutch Military Aggression I

Linggarjati negotiations for the Netherlands only used as a tool to bring more troops from his country . To obtain the argument of the Republic of Indonesia in order to attack their press charges as follows : So that while the federal government dibetuk will prevail all over the formation of the Republic of Indonesia Indonesian samapai States. This means the Republic of Indonesia eliminated . Gendermeri formation ( troops Keamanann ) together that will go to the region of the Republic of Indonesia . Republic of Indonesia rejected the proposal because the means to destroy himself . Rejection was causing Dutch military aggression against the territory of the Republic of Indonesia . Dutch attack began on July 21, 1947 with the target major cities in Java and Sumatra . Facing the heavily armed Dutch military and causing modern Indonesian army units pushed out of the city . Furthermore , the military and the people lascar counterattacked and tactics of guerrilla warfare . Existence of the Dutch military aggression I arouse sympathy and strong reaction from the international community . Shape of the international world sympathy addressed by the following actions : Red Cross Malaya ( Malaysia ) and India sends relief drugs that are transported by plane from Singapore Dakota . However , when the plane will land in Yogyakarta was shot down by the Dutch army . Australia and India reacted strongly to urge the UN Security Council to immediately discuss the problem of Indonesia . On August 4, 1947 republic of Indonesia and the Dutch government announced a cease-fire began berlakuknya . Since the announcement of the cease- sebnjata tersebutlah , an official end to the Dutch military aggression would I. However , in reality the Dutch still continue to expand its territory till the line formed demakrasi that far ahead ( Van Mook line ) . Indonesia refused , thus cease senata called by the United Nations has not berlakuk effectively . Thanks to the diplomatic struggle at the UN , many countries are supporting the struggle of the Indonesian people and helping to find a peaceful solution path . In efforts to resolve the dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands in a peaceful and supervise the truce agreed upon with the UN Security Council established the Commission on the Three Kingdoms ( KTN ) . State sitting in KTN is the result show of the Republic of Indonesia , the Netherlands , and a neutral state again tersebuat state are : Australia ( Indonesian show ) , represented by Richard Kirby . Belgium ( Dutch show ) , represented by Paul Van Zeeland United States ( show Australia and Belgium ) , represented by Dr. . Frank Graham

c . Renville Agreement Useful KTN on December 8, 1947 conducted negotiations between Indonesia and Belanada Renville aboard anchored in Jakarta . Indonesian delegation consisting of the prime minister Syarifudin Amir Ali Sastroamijoyo , Dr . Tjoa Sik Len , Moh . Roem , Haji Agus Salim , Narsun and Ir . Juanda . The Dutch delegation consists of Abdulkadir Widjojoatmojo , Jhr . Van Vredeburgh , Dr . Soumukil , Pangran Kartanagara and Zulkarnain . It turns out that the representatives of the Netherlands almost all of the Indonesian nation itself berasala pro- Dutch . Thus the Dutch keep doing that Indonesian politics pitting easily mastered . After completion of debate on December 8, 1947 to January 17, 1948 with the obtained results of the peace agreement called the Renville Agreement . Principal - poko contents Renville agreement , are as follows : Netherlands remains sovereign over the entire territory of Indonesia Indonesian sovereignty till handed over to the United States of Indonesia immediately formed . United States of Indonesia has a position that is parallel to the Dutch state in the union between Indonesia and the Netherlands . Republic of Indonesia will be the state of the RIS Before RIS is formed , the Dutch can submit sebagain temporary power to the federal government . Indonesian republic troops arriving at derah haruns bag is pulled to the Republic of Indonesia . The enclave is an area that is behind the Van Mook Line , the line connecting the two leading derah occupied Netherlands . Renville Agreement signed by both parties on January 17, 1948 . While the losses suffered by Indonesia with the signing of the Renville agreement are as follows : Indonesia was forced to agree to the establishment of United States of Indonesia melalaui transitional period . Indonesian territory lost in part because grais Van Mook had to be recognized as the Dutch territories . Indonesian republican party should withdraw all His people arriving at derah Dutch power and pockets of guerrilla entrance to the Indonesian republic .

The signing of the Renville agreement pemerinthan bad consequences for the republic of Indonesia , as well as between the other as follows : Territory of the Republic of Indonesia became more narrow and dikururung by the regions of the Netherlands . Violent reactions among the leaders of the Indonesian republic which caused Amir Syarifuddin cabinet because it is sold to the Dutch state . The Indonesian economy is grammatical blockaded by the Dutch Indonesia was forced to withdraw its military units from guerrilla areas and then move to the adjacent territory of the Republic of Indonesia . In an effort to divide the State unitary republic of Indonesia, Netherlands establish puppet states , such as ; country western Borneo , Madura Country , State of East Sumatra , and Java Timut State . The members of the puppet state of the BFO ( Federal Bijeenkomstvoor overslag ) . d . Dutch Military Aggression II Seeing the chaotic situation of the Republic of Indonesia as a result of the PKI rebellion in Madiun then on December 18, 1948 , the Netherlands unilaterally cancel the ceasefire agreement the next day ( December 19, 1948 early morning ) Dutch army Airfield direct stormed Maguwo , Yogyakarta . Dutch attack suddenly succeeded brilliantly so that at 16:00 pm the entire Yogyajarta already fallen in the hands of the Dutch . President and Vice President decided to remain in the capital , although they will be captured by the enemy . The reason , they are easily found by supatya KTN of viable diplomacy Dutch troops managed to enter the palace keprisidenanan and high state officials arrested, all of them there are 150 people . The next morning the date of December 22, 1948 , President Sukarno , Haji Agus Salim and Sutan Syahrir exiled to Berastagi , then moved to the lakeside Prapat Toba , North Sumatra . Moh.hatta , Mohammad Roem , Mr . AG Pringgodigdo , Mr.Assaat and Komandor S. Plump suyadayrman exiled to Bangka Island . In late January , President Sukarno and Ahji Agus Salim moved to Muntok so gathered with Moh . Hatta et al . To avoid attacks the Netherlands and to always stay together with the TNI Commander General Sudirman led the guerrilla war with the place moving . General military offensive

against the city of Yogyakarta on March 1, 1949 , led by Lieutenant Colonel Suharto , 10 Regional Brigade Komado Wehrkereise III which oversees the area of Yogyakarta . General attack on March 1, conducted simultaneously from various city departments so that the Dutch army was shocked and unable to master the situation . Starting at 6:00 pm until 12:00 pm , the military seized Yogyakarta . TNI although only six hours of occupying the city of Yogyakarta , any attacks has a very important meaning , namely : Improve morale and military people who are struggling Break the morale of the troops Netherlands Demonstrate to the world that the military has the power to attack and show that there is still a top Indonesian exist . World condemns Dutch aggression and support the struggle of the Indonesian nation . State of East Indonesia and the Lakes Country Pasundan as Dutch dolls also criticized the ongoing formation of the Dutch Military Angresi II . On the initiative of Burma ( Myanmar ) and India then terselenggaralah Asian Conference in New Delhi , India on 20-23 January 1949 . Conference attended by several countries in Asia , Africa and Ausralia produce resulusi the Indonesian problem that was presented to the UN Security Council . Dutch Military Aggression II also invited the United Nations as a reaction of the Netherlands openly violate the Renville Agreement in front of the Three Kingdoms ditugaskkan Commission by the United Nations . On January 4, 1949 , the UN Security Council issued resulusi Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands in order to stop the hostilities . Failure Netherlands in various battles and pressure from the international community , especially the United States forced the Netherlands back to the negotiating table . e . Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia ( Emergency Government ) Historic house in Bukittinggi as both the State Palace during the Emergency Government As a result of the second Dutch military aggression , the President and the Vice President and several high-ranking officials can be captured by the Dutch . However , when it was still in

progress Dutch Military Aggression II, the leaders of the republic had time to sit and produce three important decisions are as follows : Granting full power to Syarifudin Prawiranegara to form the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia ( Emergency Government ) To Marimis , L.N Palar , and Dr. . Sudarsono was arriving in India to establish the Indonesian government in exile . President and Vice President memutuskkan not evacuate , stay in town with kemungkinann captive and close to KTN . The result of the meeting of the leaders of RI was immediately sent to Syarifuddin Prawiranegara in Bukittinggi , West Sumatra, which was signed by President Soekarno and Vice President Mohammad Hatta . If the task fails so that the Indonesian government immediately formed in exile by leaders of Indonesia in India , namely Marimis , LN Palar , and Dr. . Sudarsono . The news turned out to have never till to Bukittingi because all calls made out of Yogyakarta has been decided by the Dutch . Establishment of Emergency Government itself on December 19, 1948 at 18.00 pm at the initiative of Mr . Syarifudin and some government leaders in Sumatra . The reason , they come meras responsible for the survival of the republic of Indonesia and for the safety of the struggle . With the formation of the Emergency Government , the struggle is still implemented and coordinated melalaui peamncar conducted by the Indonesian Air Force . f . Roem - Royen negotiations Dutch constantly under pressure from the international community , especially the United States that are willing to negotiate with Indonesia . Negotiations as between Indonesia and the Netherlands supervised by the United Nations Commission for Indonesia or the United Nations Commission fotr Indonesia ( UNCI ) . The talks will be held in The Hague , Netherlands called Round Table Conference ( RTC ) Prior to that , held preliminary talks held in Jakarta on 17 April till the May 7, 1948 . Talks led by Cochran Marle UNCI representative in the United States . Indonesian delegation headed by Moh . Roem with members Ali Sastro Amijoyo , Dr . Leimena , Ir . Juanda , Prof. . Supomo , and Latuharhary . Acting as adviser was Sutan Syahrir , Ir.Laok , and Moh Natsir .

The Dutch delegation headed by Dr . J.H. Van Royen with members of Bloom , Jacob , dr . Dr. Van Vede , Dr. . P.J Koets , Dr. Van Hoogstratendan Gieben . Finally, on May 7, 1949 reached Roem Royen Statement . The statement was read by the chairman of the Indonesian government Indonesian delegation , Mohammad Roem which contains , among others, as follows : The Government of the Republic of Indonesia will issue a cessation order a guerilla war GOI participated in the round table conference with the goal of accelerating the transfer of sovereignty complete and unconditional union to the Republic of Indonesia . The Dutch delegation Then read the statement that was read by Dr. . JH Van Royen which contains , among others, as follows : The Dutch government agreed that the government should be free and freely Ri perform obligations in a region that includes keprisidenanan Yogyakarta The Dutch government is not unconditional freeing the leaders of Indonesia and other Tahananpolitik captive since December 19, 1948 . The Dutch government agreed to the Republic of Indonesia will be part of the United Republic of Indonesia Round table conference to be held in The Hague immediately after the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta returned . With tercapinya agreement in principle Roem - Royen negotiations , the government of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra Emergency lane ordered to take over the reigns IX Yogyakrta of the Netherlands . The TNI is still suspicious of Roem - Royen agreement results , but warned the Great General Sodierman entire unity of command in order not to think about the political issue . On June 22, 1949 , held talks triangle between the Republic of Indonesia , BFO , and the Netherlands . UN-supervised talks led by Chritchley produce three decisions , namely : Returns Government of the Republic of Indonesia to Yogyakrta which was held on June 24, 1949 . Government stop a guerrilla war . KMB will diselenggarakn in The Hague . On July 1, 1949 the Indonesian government officially returned to Yogyakrta followed by the arrival of the leaders of the Republic of Indonesia of guerrilla terrain . Commander General Sudirman arrived back in Yogyakrta dated July 10, 1949 . After the Indonesian government returned to Yogyakrta , on July 13, 1949 hearing held the first cabinet of the Republic of Indonesia . On that occasion Mr . Syafrudin Prawiranegara restore its mandate to the vice president , Moh.Hatta . the cabinet session also decided to lift the lane IX became Minister of

Defense and concurrent Chairman of the Security Coordinator . Follow-up Roem Royen Agreement is : The entire Dutch troops should be immediately sworn in Yogyakarta Having emptied the city of Yogyakarta by the Dutch army , on June 29, 1949 the military began to enter the city . The exit and entry of military Dutch troops supervised by UNCI . Panglima Sudirman Besatr along with the other fighters only arrived in Yogyakarta on July 10, 1949 with a stretcher . After the city of Yogyakarta is fully controlled by the TNI President and Vice President, accompanied by other leaders on July 6, 1949 back to Yogyakarta from Bangka . Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia ( Emergency Government ) in Sumatra led by Syarifuddin Prawiranegara mandate handed back to the central government in Yogyakarta . handover occurred on July 13, 1949 , during a cabinet meeting . g . Conference of Inter - Indonesia To deal with the Round Table Conference ( RTC ) , the Indonesian government needs to keep up the BFO ( Federal Voor Bijenkomst overslag ) Inter Conference took place in Yogyakarta Indonesia on 19-22 July 1949 , led by Vice President Drs . Mohammad Hatta with the decision : Indonesian state -approved union with the name of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS ) are based on those of democracy and federalism . RIS will be led by a president who is assisted by ministers RIS will receive sovereignty , both of the Republic of Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Armed Forces of RIS is the national armed forces , the President is the Supreme Commander RIS RIS War National defense was the government's right solely RIS , bu - negra part will not have its own army . The second session of the Conference of Inter selenggrakan Indonesia in Jakarta on July 30 with a decision : RIS flag is the Red and White National anthem Indonesia Raya RIS official language is Indonesian language support Indonesian vice president selected RIS and BFO . Charging members of the Assembly submitted to the policy states that the number sixteen states . Both sides also agreed to form a

national preparatory committee tasked to prepare everything related to the implementation of the Round Table Conference . h . Round Table Conference ( RTC ) After Indonesia managed to solve their own problems in the Conference of Inter - Indonesian , Indonesian nation as a whole has now been prepared for the Round Table Conference ( RTC ) . Meanwhile, in August 1949 , President Sukarno as the Supreme Commander on the one hand and the High Representative of the Netherlands Crown on the other hand , announced the dismissal of a shootout . The order was effective from August 11, 1949 for Java and August 15, 1949 for the area Sumatera.pada dated August 4, 1949 the Indonesian government delegation to attend the RTC construct consisting of Drs Moh.Hatta ( Chairman ) , Mr . Moh.Roem , Prof. . Dr. . Supomo , dr.J.Leimena , Mr . Ali Sastroamidjoyo , Mr . Suyono Hadinoto , Dr . Sumitro Djojohadikusomo , Mr . Abdul Karim Pringgodigdo . Diselenggrakan Round Table Conference in The Hague , the Netherlands on August 23 to November 2 , 1949. Indonesian delegation led by Drs . Moh Hatta , BFO led by Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak RTC and a delegation from the Netherlands led by Mr . Van Marseveen . Of the United Nations led by Crittchlay . On 2 November 1949 the negotiations ended with the decision as follows : The Netherlands recognizes the Republic of Indonesia (RIS ) as an independent and sovereign state Completion of Irian question Bart suspended till next year RIS as erdaulat country full cooperation with the Netherlands in a trust which is headed by the Queen of the Netherlands on a voluntary basis with the same status and rights . RIS Netherlands restore property rights , granting concessions , and new licenses for companies . All of the former Dutch East Indies debt must be paid by the RIS . i . Formation of Republic of Indonesia On October 29, 1949 can be signed Charter Agreement RIS Constitution . Charter RIS conference agreement between the Republic of Indonesia with BFO . The results of the RTC decision is submitted to the Central Indonesian National Committee ( KNIP ) . Furthermore KNIP convene from 6-14 December 1949 date to discuss these results . Discussion of the results of the RTC by the KNIP done by voting to accept the results of the RTC KNIP .

One of the RTC decision in The Hague Netherlands is Indonesia become a union state with the name Republic of Indonesia union . To become the RIS , KNIP and the House held a hearing in Jakarta . The trial failed to agree on a constitution for RIS manuscript known as the Constitution of RIS . On December 16, 1949 Presidential election held hearings in the House Kepatihan RIS , Yogyakarta by representatives of sixteen states . The trial was led by Muh . Roem and children Agung Gede Agung . on the date of December 14, 1949 the representatives of the governments that are part of the RIS . On December 14, 1949 Presidential election held RIS with a single candidate Ir . Sukarno . Finally , Ir . Sukarno is elected president , then inaugurated and sworn in on December 17, 1949 . Date December 17, 1949 presidential inauguration ceremony held in Ward RIS Sitinggil , Sultan Palace . Drs Moh . Hatta became prime minister who would lead the cabinet RIS . Under the Constitution RIS RIS Parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the State Legislature called the Senate . Governmental power is held by the prime minister . The President only has to certify the results of the decision wewengang cabinet led by the prime minister . recognition Kedulatan On December 23, 1949 RIS delegation chaired by Drs . Moh Hatta with members of Sultan Hamid Algadrie , Suyono Hadinoto , Dr . Suparmo , Dr . Kusumaatmaja and Prof Dr . Supomo go to the Netherlands . On December 27th 1949 the Dutch government transferred sovereignty over Indonesia to the United States of Indonesia . In two places : Netherlands Queen Juliana , Prime Minister Willem Dress , and the Overseas Minister , AMJM Sassen hands the sovereignty of the Indonesian delegation leader ( RIS ) , Drs . Moh . Hatta . Jakarta High Representative of the Crown AHJ Lovink cede sovereignty to a representative government RIS . , Lane IX . Along with that , in Yogyakrta President Sukarno accepts the transfer of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia to the Acting President Assaat RIS . And dated December 28, 1949 the seat of government was moved again to Jakarta RIS . A month later, on January 29, 1950 , General Sudirman died at the age of 32 years . Sudirman is a great hero for the TNI and the Indonesian people . The role of the UN ( United Nations ) The UN helped weaponry and attempt to resolve the dispute between Indonesia and the Netherlands during the physical revolution ( 1945-1950 ) . On January 24, 1949 the UN Security Council convened . In the trial, the United States passed a resolution approved by all member states , namely :

Freeing the president and vice president as well as the leaders of the Republic of Indonesia which was captured on December 19, 1948 . KTN ordered to give a full report on the situation in Indonesia since December 19, 1948 . Another decision results achieved by the United Nations are: Charter recognition of Sovereignty ( December 27, 1949 ) formation of RIS Formation of Indonesian - Dutch Union The KNIL formation and KL are integrated into APRIS . Charter on citizenship Approval of financial economics West Irian issues will be discussed a year later With the recognition of the sovereignty of the date of December 27, 1949 , it ended the armed revolution in Indonesia and the de jure the Dutch recognized Indonesian independence in the form of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS ) . But over the deal to the people of Indonesia on August 17, 1950 , RIS was dissolved with the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia ( Republic of Indonesia ) . Furthermore, on 28 September 1950 , Indonesia received a member of the United Nations 60th . This means that Indonesia's independence was officially recognized by the international community . Return to the Homeland ( State unitary Republic of Indonesia ) Hasi approval of the RTC ended on 2 November 1949 was the formation of the federal state of Indonesia, the Republic of Indonesia (RIS ) . RIS is composed of states including the Republic of Indonesia , State of East Sumatra , South Sumatra Country , State Pasundan , State of East Java , Madura Country , Country Indonesia East and 9 unit is a stand-alone statehood West Kalimantan , East Kalimantan , Bangka , Belitung , Riau , Central Java . However , in the Cabinet RIS only two people who support a federal system in Indonesia ( ie Sultan Hamid II and Anak Agung Gede Agung ) , the rest ( such as Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX , Arnold Manuhutu , etc. ) further supports the Homeland system . By Demian , hence the desire to disperse and establish the Homeland RIS stronger Basic formation of the federal state in Indonesia is very weak and not supported by a strong ideological ties , with the goal of a state that is not clear and without the support of many people . Very existence depends on the strength of the Dutch military consists of the Royal Leger ( KL ) or the Royal Netherlands Army and the Royal Netherlands Indische Leger ( KNIL ) , or Royal Netherlands Indies Army .

On May 19, 1950 , held between RIS agreement with Indonesia to prepare for the establishment of a unitary state procedures . PPerdana RIS parties represented by the Minister Moh . Hatta and the RI was represented by dr . Abdul Halim . According to the agreement , Negar Unitary Republic of Indonesia ( Republic of Indonesia ) will be established by the RIS together with RI in Yogyakrta . Formed a joint committee for the implementation of RIS and RI are in charge of designing the Unitary State of Law , led by prof . Supomo and on July 20, 1950 successfully complete the task . Draft Law on State Unitary councils submitted to the representatives of States for enhanced section . Law of the Republic of Indonesia contains the elements of the 1945 Constitution and the Constitution of the RIS . Finally, on August 14, 1950 , the draft Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Negar well received by the senate and parliament RIS and KNIP . On August 15, 1950 , President Sukarno signed the draft Basic Law as a Law of the Provisional Republic of Indonesia then known as the Provisional Constitution of 1950. Was on August 17, 1950 , the RIS officially disbanded and formed the Republic of Indonesia with the Provisional Constitution 1950 as its constitution . Nevertheless , the majority of Indonesian people believe that the Unitary Republic of Indonesia is a continuation of the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed on August 17, 1945 . Indonesian - Dutch conflict Kedulatan After Confession Although the regions of Indonesia had made negra doll has been the return to the Netherlands formed a unitary state recognition , but the region RI is not fully intact as West Irian is still dominated by the Dutch . Untu , the Indonesian government attempted to reclaim the West Irian . Ways to go through: 1 . Struggle Diplomacy Article 2 paragraph 1 of the Charter on the Sovereignty submission Irian ( Niuew - Guinea ) in the status quo . For a while while running within one year after the date of the transfer of sovereignty to the RIS will be settled by way of negotiation . However , the Dutch began to deny the RTC results in particular problems of West Irian . Indonesian nation with diplomatic and military power to seize territory that is controlled by the Dutch West Irian . Diplomatic efforts to restore Irian into the bosom of the Republic of Indonesia , namely : Bilateral negotiations between Indonesia and the Netherlands , but the venture failed Since 1954, the Indonesian government to raise the question of West Irian to UN General Assembly , Indonesia has repeatedly raise the issue , but never got a positive response .

In 1955 , Indonesia tried to raise the issue in the Asian-African Conference in Bandung , but also ignored the Netherlands 2 . Confrontation Economy In order that the liberation of West Irian in 1957 carried out the following actions in Indonesia : On November 18 , 1957, a rally was held in Jakrta . The rally was followed by a strike by workers who worked on the Dutch -owned company in Indonesia . The strike dimuali held on December 2, 1957 . Aircraft belonging to the Dutch airline ( KLM ) banned landed and flew over the Indonesian region Actions capital takeover of Dutch companies in Indonesia , for example, Bank Transfer Escompto taken by the Government of Indonesia on December 9, 1957 and Netherlandsch Handel Matchappij NV Also taken Rather ( the company changed its name to Bank Dagang Negara ) . Printing De Unie was not immune from takeover efforts of Dutch companies in Indonesia , which datur in Government Regulation No. 23 of 1958 . 3 . Struggle Confrontation Dated December 19, 1961 , President Sukarno issued a Tri- People ( TRIKORA ) which contains the following : Abort the formation of a puppet state of Papua, made in colonial Dutch . Hoist the Red and White in West Irian homeland of Indonesia . Be prepared for a general mobilization maintain the unity of the homeland 's independence from Indonesia . In order liberation of West Irian command of military operations will be established which was named West Irian Liberation Mandala Command on January 2, 1962 . Meyjen Suharto as his command was . Deputy Commander of the I Marine Colonel Subono . , Deputy commander Komado II : Marine Colonel and Chief of Staff Leo Wattimena Joint Colonel Ahmad Tahir . Komado Mandala planned operations liberation of West Irian there are three phases , namely : Phase Infiltration : till the end of 1962 trying to enter the 10 companies around specific goals to create a de facto free area . These units should be able to develop a mastery of the region , bringing with them the people of West Irian in the physical struggle to liberate western Irian .

Exploitation phase : start early 1963. Operation is planned to hold an open attack against a hostile military aircraft , occupying all the important posts pertahanann enemies . Consolidation phase : the beginning of 1964. Absolute RI enforcement plan in West Irian . In the battle in the Arafura Sea , dated January 15, 1962 and Captain Yos Sudarso Komondor Wiranto fall . Before the ship sank RI leopard , melalaui radio , telephone Komondor Yos Sudarso still had mengkomandokan Combat Messege ( waged spirit of Struggle ) 4 . The Act Referensi

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