Soda Pop Preference

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Information about Soda Pop Preference
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Published on April 26, 2014

Author: jadesugba

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R.A.A.D.: R.A.A.D . PowerPoint Presentation: Soda beverages have been around for many years. It is of high popularity in different parts of the world, including diet soda. Approximately 86% of Americans consume a variation of … Method Discussion SODA POP PREFERENCE Nancy R odriguez Vanessa A llen Juliana A desugba Mariela D uran AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY Chart #1 Chart #2 References Literature Review Results In our group study we desired to find the soda preference when given the choice of diet soda versus regular soda. Our group hypothesized that most of our…. Responses of graduate student’s friends and family from the online questionnaire on surveymonkey.com were analyzed by the website… Our research hypothesis was: When given a choice, adults who drink soda prefer diet soda over regular soda…. Binkley, J. & Golub , A. (2007). Comparison of Grocery Purchase… Literature Review: Literature Review Soda beverages have been around for many years. It is of high popularity in different parts of the world, including diet soda. Approximately 86% of Americans consume a variation of diet/sugar free beverages (Yantis & Hunter 2010). Americans were introduced to diet soda in the 1950’s and is still highly consumed. Research states the sales in soda were at five to six million dollars a year when diet soda was first introduced ( Siegal , 2006). Even though soda consumption is of high popularity, recent studies have found that sales are decreasing. This current finding informs us that people are drinking less soda than before. Sifferlin stated the numbers in the decrease of soda sales. It found that diet soda sales decreased by seven percent as opposed to regular soda which was at a two percent decrease. ( Sifferlin , 2013). LITERATURE REVIEW: LITERATURE REVIEW The consumption of diet and regular soda users are people of all ages, races, and genders. In relation to gender, in a study reported by the Journal of Pediatrics based on soda consumption, found that adolescent subjects drank high levels of sugar sweetened beverages. Boys in the study showed a sixty percentage of soda consumption and flavored sports beverages. The boys averaged sixty one percent, one soda a day, as opposed to girls, who reported a percentage of fifty ( Ranjit , Evans, Byrd-Williams, Evans, & Hoelscher , 2010). In relation to variations of age of soda drinkers, studies performed a research on adolescents, reported by the Health Education Research found a high consumption of soda drinkers with adolescents. The adolescents in this study were of age thirteen through eighteen based in the North Los Angeles County area. The study helped support our hypothesis in which North Los Angeles adolescents drink a high consumption of soda in the current past year ( Kassem , Lee, Modeste , & Johnston 2003). LITERATURE REVIEW: LITERATURE REVIEW There is a variation of different soda brands and types, like diet versus regular soda. There is no significant reason as to why people choose diet or regular soda. There are many significant factors to explain why some people choose diet soda, regular, or no soda at all. These factors may include things like, taste, price, brand, health, and or just whatever a person’s mood desires. The desire of taste buds has a linkage to brain activity. In a study done researching the activation of the brain, it found that diet soda drinkers demonstrated higher activation to sweet taste in the midbrain (Green & Murphy, 2012). To relay soda consumption to household drinkers, a study performed on children found that younger children are drinking less soda than adolescent children. This has a relation to the parents making healthier choices for younger children as opposed to adolescents making their own decisions on what to eat and drink. As we can see here, adults are making different choices for their young children, which are to provide less sugary drinks ( Sifferlin , 2013 ). LITERATURE REVIEW: LITERATURE REVIEW There is a variation of different soda brands and types, like diet versus regular soda. Author Boukley gave examples of different types of soda. This included the soda NEXT made by Pepsi which is also a low calorie soda that cuts sugar in great percentage ( Boukley , 2013).When making a selection of the certain soda a person drinks, it relates to the attitude of a specific selection. In a study performed with adolescent attitudes toward soda, the authors tell that the finding in the study found adolescent participants showed a small percentage of three percent that stated they would prefer diet soda. Thirty percent had no preference between diet and a sugar sweet soda (Frank-White & Frank 2010). LITERATURE REVIEW: LITERATURE REVIEW When soda consumption relates to price, a study found that consumers of diet soda make better nutritional choices, buying healthier food, regardless of price. The participants who bought diet soda also bought lower calorie foods like milk and salad dressing. The diet soda consumers spent more money on food, including diet soda. There was a $200 difference of grocery spending between diet soda drinkers versus regular soda drinkers in this study. Informing us that these participants spent more money purchasing diet supplements, including diet soda not really caring what price they pay (Binkley & Galub , 2007). LITERATURE REVIEW: LITERATURE REVIEW Further studying the factors on price, the article, Sugar Crush, informed us about the current sales of diet soda. Apparently recent sales of diet soda have dropped. The author explains that diet soda sales dropped by a higher percentage than regular soda. The article informed one of the reasons for this drop is based on the high rate of different low calorie drinks, like vitamin water. The variation in different low calorie drinks gives consumers many options to choose from (Gray, 2013). In researching the reason of the decrease in soda, the article on the risk of soda drinking found that possible health factors may be the one of the many factors for the decrease in soda consumption. The study found that drinking at least one soda a day was associated with a greater risk for type 2 diabetes (Nettleton, Lutsey , Wang, Lima, Michos , & Jacobs 2009). Regardless of the factors mentioned, Americans of different race, ages and genders are keeping the soda beverage world in high popularity. The articles researched helped further our knowledge for our hypothesis. METHOD: METHOD In our group study we desired to find the soda preference when given the choice of diet soda versus regular soda. Our group hypothesized that most of our participants would prefer diet soda. We also wanted to learn if our participants were influenced by media or other sources when making this decision in their daily lives. METHOD: METHOD Participants: We decided to expand our participants to a broader range of population in an effort to gain a greater number of responses to try and generalize the study as much as possible. Each of the four group members contacted 5 people they knew in an effort to take the survey. Nearing the close of our study, our group realized that we still had not met the required amount of 18 participants, thus contacting more family and friends in an effort to complete the required amount. The participants in our study were male and female family members, Azusa Pacific University students, and friends. Our group consists of four females and most of the participants contacted may have been female, therefore, our study may consist of more female participants than males. Race, ethnicity, age, student status, or relationships were not recorded in any way throughout the study. There were a total of 20, out of the 22 participants asked, that completed the survey. METHOD: METHOD Instruments: From beginning to end, our group communicated through an online forum chat room space dedicated to our group by our professor through Azusa Pacific University’s Sakai Course Web Page. Through this space, we exchanged email addresses and cell phone numbers. It was through these three means where our group communicated to one another in an effort to complete assignments, answer questions, get feedback from the professor, and help one another. Survey Monkey was utilized as a means of creating and distributing the survey created, while allowing potential participants to remain anonymous. Survey Monkey helps by analyzing data received from the results of participant information. METHOD: METHOD Procedure: Our group researchers communicated via the Sakai website and gave ideas for prospective research items. From the items given, we narrowed down our list and decided on diet soda versus regular soda. After a topic was chosen, our group gathered 12 research articles that were related to our topic. Each researcher identified 3 articles and gave a brief summary of each. It was decided that each researcher would contribute with two to three potential survey questions. The professor was utilized in helping create satisfactory questions via email and Sakai. Upon completion of the 10 survey questions (two qualitative and eight quantitative), an email proposal was sent to Reyna Guzman, Reyna Guzman, M.A., survey coordinator and OIRA representative at Azusa Pacific University. METHOD: METHOD Procedure (continued) Ms. Guzman asked to adjust one question and gave our group approval to continue with the research survey. Ms. Guzman created an official heading with authorization code for our group to distribute with the survey to each potential participant. The heading was copied and pasted on Sakai and each group member created an email with the official heading and sent it out to five potential participants. Each heading included an informed consent, as well as, allowing participants to drop out at any time. After learning our survey had not received the required 18 responses (16 were completed), then researchers sent out additional emails in an effort to complete the requirement. Upon closing of the survey, Survey Monkey generated statistics and analyzed results. RESULTS: RESULTS Responses of graduate student’s friends and family from the online questionnaire on surveymonkey.com were analyzed by the website and by researchers. The researchers’ hypothesis stated that “when given a choice, adults who drink soda prefer diet over regular soda.” However, results showed a (M=2.6 SD= 2.0) with 60% of participants strongly disagreeing and discrediting the researchers’ hypothesis. Survey question 2 “when choosing diet or regular soda, media (e.g. commercials, new studies) influences my decision to purchase one or the other” 57.89% strongly disagree with a (M=1.68 SD=95). Figure 1 displays the results for question 3 “nutritional information (e.g. label warnings) is important to me when choosing the kind of soda I drink” (M= 2.65 SD= 1.18) 40% of participant’s disagree. The data showed that participants are not influenced by nutritional information; they do not choose the kind of soda they drink based on nutritional information. RESULTS: RESULTS When going to the supermarket 55% of participants do not prefer to buy diet soda over regular soda (M=2.65 SD=1.98). In response to question 7 “is diet soda the main source of liquids that you consume.” Data revealed that diet soda was not the main source of liquid (M=1.65 SD=.59). In response ordering diet soda over regular soda when eating out for dinner (M=2.5 SD=1.90) with only 35% preferring diet soda. Figure 2 displays the results for how often participants drink soda. All of the participants acknowledged drinking soda, 50% of the participants drink soda sometimes (M=3.2 SD=.89), 20% rarely, 20% most of the time, and 10% always drink soda. Figure 3 displays the survey outcome for the number of sodas participants consumed on a weekly basis (M=3.2 SD=.89). On average 65% participants consumed 1-3 sodas a week, 15% consumed 7 or more, 10% 4-6, and 10% did not consume any. RESULTS: RESULTS In the qualitative portion of the survey participants addressed reasons for soda preference; “taste alone. I do realize "diet" soda is worse than "regular," but "regular" tastes disgustingly sweet,” “I don't like the way diet soda tastes, which is my main reason why I choose regular soda over diet,” “taste good the gas” and “better flavor than the after flavor of a diet soda.” They also listed their soda preference, “Pepsi or Sprite or I'll settle for Coke if Pepsi isn't available, “ Coca-Cola,” “Pepsi, root beer, sprite, orange soda,” “I prefer Diet Coke over Diet Pepsi for the same reason I prefer "diet" over "regular": taste. Diet Pepsi seems a bit sweeter than Diet Coke. I don't like overly-sweet taste.” Qualitative data revealed that participant’s soda preference rated soda flavor highly in determining the soda they choose. When participants were asked to indicate the reason for soda preference 12 of the respondents mentioned taste. When participants were ask to list the carbonated drinks that they prefer to drink 13 participants listed soda as their preferred drink, of carbonated drinks listed regular Coca-Cola was the preferred choice of soda. CHARTS: CHARTS FIGURE 1 CHARTS: CHARTS FIGURE 2 TABLE: TABLE FIGURE 3 DISCUSSION: DISCUSSION Our research hypothesis was: When given a choice, adults who drink soda prefer diet soda over regular soda . Analyzing the data among our 20 participants, it was established that results were conflicting to our hypothesis, and thus disproved . Comparing our finding to the research data, the results are similar in stating a declining preference of diet soda (Gray, 2013). Potentially, if the research were to be reproduced with a greater number of participants, it may yield different results. One of the factors given for the popular choice among participants was taste. Different ingredients form significantly different flavors, for example, brands Coca Cola and Pepsi. Our research did not have a taste test, relying solely on participant memory and history alone, thus, producing a limitation. DISCUSSION: DISCUSSION Additionally , participants did not feel that media and other sources influenced their everyday soda preference. Media, such as commercials and news broadcast, display an opinion toward or against regular and/or diet soda. Contrary to this finding, feedback from the qualitative section stated, “I do realize diet soda is worse than regular,” indicating some sort of influencing factor. This would be an important area to conduct further research in an effort to understand if consumers are aware of media that potentially could be influencing their daily soda preference. The researcher’s sample size averaged a small number of soda consumption, potentially creating a limitation. For future research, it would be highly desirable to obtain participants with a greater number of soda consumption in order to maximize the outcome and generalizability for preferences. DISCUSSION: DISCUSSION Research has attempted to discover trends toward regular and diet soda sales (Binkley & Golub , 2007), but contrary to Eliza Gray’s 2013 article, Sugar Crush: Why Diet Sales Have Crashed , our 20 participants did not list other low calorie beverages, such as flavored water. In fact, participants listed additional high calorie beverages. Our participants may have created a limitation for our survey due to their association with the surveyors and/or similar set of beliefs, in turn, creating a sampling bias. This research establishes that consumers are moving toward the consumption of regular, sugar sweetened soda. Further research can discover reasoning behind this phenomenon and potentially guide soda sales into a direction it has never been before. Boukley (2013) stated research points to the direction of natural sweeteners instead of artificial sweeteners, which have been associated to carcinogens, and highlights Stevia , a natural, plant-based sweetener that has been growing in popularity. DISCUSSION: DISCUSSION When asked to provide opinions on this topic, majority of participants indicated a preference toward a particular brand soda they prefer (Coca Cola) while a few others offered contrary ideas, such as beer, energy drinks, ginger ale, and mineral water. Additionally, participants stated the “gas” in the soda helps as a weight loss aid due to contributing to a fuller feeling. In summary, many different opinions form attitudes toward soda preference; therefore additional research is suggested in an effort to generalize these results. REFERENCES: REFERENCES Binkley, J. & Golub , A. (2007). Comparison of Grocery Purchase Patterns of Diet Soda Buyers to those of Regular Soda Buyers . [ PDF document]. Retrieved from http ://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/9963/1/sp07bi02.pdf   Boukley , B. (2013, October 13). Royal Crown Launches World's Best Stevia -Sweetened Cola with 50% Less. Retrieved from http :// www.beveragedaily.com/Markets/Royal-Crown-launches- world-s-best-stevia-sweetened-cola-with-50-less-sugar   Frank-White, N. E. & Frank, E. (2010). Diet vs Sugar Sweetened Soda Preferences and Attitudes in a Sample of Adolescents. The Open Pediatric Medicine Journal , 4, 23-25. Retrieved from http :// www.benthamscience.com/open/topedj/articles/V004/23T OP EDJ.pdf   REFERENCES: REFERENCES Gray, Eliza. (2013). Sugar Crush: Why Diet Sales Have Crashed. Time.Com , 1.   Green, E. & Murphy, C. (2012). Altered Processing of Sweet Taste in the Brain of Diet Soda Drinkers. [Abstract]. Physiology and Behavior , 107(4), 560-567.   Kassem , N., Lee, W.J., Modeste , N.N., Johnston, K.P. (2003). Understanding Soft Drink Consumption Among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Health Education Research. 18(3), 278-291. Retreived from http://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/3/278.long REFERENCES: REFERENCES Nettleton, A.J., Lutsey , L.P., Wang, Y., Lima, A.J., Michos , D.E., Jacobs , Jr. R.D. (2009). Diet Soda Intake and Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. 32(4), 688- 694 . Retrieved from http ://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/32/4/688.full.pdf+html   Ranjit , N., Evans, H. M., Byrd-Williams, C., Evans, E. A., Hoelscher , M . D., (2010,September 27 ). Dietary and Activity Correlates of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Among Adolescents . Pediatrics Official Journal of The American Academy of Pediatrics, 126. Retrieved from http :// pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/126/4/e754.full.pdf + html   REFERENCES: REFERENCES  Siegel, B. (2006). Sweet Nothing: The Triumph of Diet Soda. American Heritage . 57(3). Retrieved from http://www.americanheritage.com/content/sweet- nothing%E2%80%94-triumph-diet-soda-0 Sifferlin , A. (2013). California Kids are drinking Less Soda. Time.Com , 1. http://healthland.time.com/2013/10/18/california-kids-are-drinking- less-soda/   Sifferlin , A. (2013). Diet Soda Doesn't Help You Lose Weight . Time.Com,1. http://encore.apu.edu:50080/ebsco-w-a/ehost/detail?sid=d92e1290- 469d-4379-a569c31408f0ddde%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid= 4207&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= aph&AN =9 3323694   REFERENCES: REFERENCES Yantis, M.A., & Hunter, K. (2010, November). Is Diet Soda A Healthy Choice? Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/nursing/Fulltext/2010/11000/Is_diet_soda_ a_healthy_choice.26.aspx#P18

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