Published on March 6, 2014
INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (IRDP) • The programme of asset-endowment under IRDP was designed to develop selfemployment ventures in a variety of activities like seri-culture, animal husbandry and land-based activities in the primary sector; weaving handicrafts, etc., in the secondary sector; and service and business activities in the tertiary sector. With a view to diversifying the occupational structure,
TRAINING OF RURAL YOUTH FOR SELF-EMPLOYMENT (TRYSEM) • With the objective of providing technical skills to rural youths to enable them to take up self-employment in the broad fields of agriculture and allied activities, industries, services, and business activities, the scheme of Training of Rural Youth for SelfEmployment was started on 15th August, 1979
• The Sixth Plan aimed to train 2 lakh rural youths every year at the rate of 40 youths per block per annum.
• The target-group comprised rural youths between the ages of 18 and 35 from families living below the poverty line. • It was also indicated that a minimum of 30 per cent of the trained youths should belong to Scheduled Caste SC and Scheduled Tribe ST communities and a minimum of 31-1.3 per cent of the rural youths trained should be women.
DEVELOPMENT OF WOMAN AND CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS (DWCRA) • It was noticed in the first three years of the Plan that the benefits under the IRDP were not flowing to women in adequate measure.
• Therefore, a programme for Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) was introduced in September, 1982 in 50 districts on a pilot basis with a view to increasing their income and also to provide support services needed to enable them to take up income-generating activities.
• For this purpose, assistance could be given either to individual woman or to those organised into homogenous groups to take up economically viable activities on a group basis together with the provision of support services and child-care facilities for the women so organised.
NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME (NREP) • The NREP was launched in October, 1980 and became a regular Plan programme from April, 1981.
• The programme was expected to generate additional gainful employment in the rural areas, to the extent of 300400 million man days per annum, create durable community assets, and improve nutritional status and living standards of the poor.
• An outlay of Rs. 1620 crores was provided under this Programme, out of which the outlay from 1980-81 onwards (Rs. 1280 crores) was to be shared equally between the Centre and the States.
RURAL LANDLESS EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE PROGRAMME (RLEGP) • RLEGP was introduced from 15th August, 1983 with the objective of (a) improving and expanding employment opportunities for the rural landless.
The aim was to providing guarantee of employment to at least one member of every landless household up to 100 days in a year and creating durable assets for strengthening the infrastructure so as to meet the growing requirements of the rural economy.
• An outlay of Rs. 500 crores to be fully financed by the Central Government was provided under this programme in the Sixth Plan. • The implementation of the programme was entrusted to the States/UTs
• This programme is expected to have resulted in the creation of a large number of durable community assets and economic infrastructure in the rural areas.
• However, a tendency to concentrate on assets creation on the basis of departmental plans rather than on the basis of the requirements determined locally and of the need to provide the requisite quantum of employment to the landless labourers was obsevrved.
DROUGHT-PRONE AREA PROGRAMME (DPAP) • A Rural Works Programmes was started in 1970-71 in areas chronically affected by drought .
• The principal objective of organising permanent works to obviate scarcity relief and to generate adequate employment through labour-intensive schemes such as major, medium, and minor irrigation works, soil conservation, afforestation, and village and district roads necessary to open up the area for agricultural production.
SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME • In addition to the Central programmes, some of the State Governments have introduced their own special employment programmes in the rural sector.
• These are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The Seventh Plan outlay for these schemes is Rs. 509.24 crores.
INTEGRATED RURAL ENERGY PLANNING PROGRAMME • In the Sixth Plan had proposed an Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme, on a pilot basis, which would provide a mix of energy options for meeting the diverse energy needs of rural areas on an area wise basis, in most cost-effective manner.
• To implement this recommendation, the Planning Commission set up a Rural Energy Planning Exercise. • Under this exercise Integrated Rural Energy Pilot Programmes were initiated since 1981 in selected States to develop the design and approach of planning and implementing area-based blocklevel integrated rural energy projects.
MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT (MGNREGA) • Is a employment guarantee scheme enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005.
• Most significant fact about it is that it is considered as a right of a rural citizen to work for minimum 100 days in a year if he/she is willing to work and job should be provided to him/her by authorities within a given time-frame(within 15 days) otherwise state government is liable for paying Unemployment allowance. • Wages are also well defined in the scheme.
IMPLEMENTATION • Each state has launched an employment guarantee scheme for its implementation. Basic unit of implementation if block, there is a programme officer on each block. The main implementing agencies are Gram Panchayats and it has accountability towards Gram Sabha.
• Job card are issued by Gram Panchayats and incentives are deposited to the bank accounts of employees. Provision of social audit is also there under the name ‘hamara paisa hamara hisab’.
• Works related to rainwater harvesting and conservation, desilting of canal distributaries, desilting and renovation of old ponds/tanks and digging up of new farm ponds are mainly being carried out under NREGS.
INDIRA AWAS YOJANA • The genesis of the Indira Awas Yojana can be traced to the programmes of rural employment which began in the early 1980s. • Construction of houses was one of the major activities under the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) which began in 1980
OBJECTIVE • The objective of IAY is primarily to provide grant for construction of houses to members of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also to non-SC/ST rural poor below the poverty line. • It is one of the major flagship programs of the Rural Development Ministry to construct houses for BPL population in the villages.
• It is the sole responsibility of the beneficiary to construct the houses and engagement of contractors is strictly prohibited. • Sanitary latrine and smokeless chullah are required to be constructed along with each IAY house for which additional financial assistance is provided from Total Sanitation Campaign and Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana respectively.
TARGET GROUP • The target group for houses under IAY will be people below poverty line living in rural areas belonging to Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST subject to the condition that the benefits to non-SC/ST should not exceed 40% of total IAY allocation during a financial year.
RAJIV GANDHI GRAMEEN VIDYUTIKARAN YOJANA (RGGVY) • Ministry of Power launched Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) in March 2005
OBJECTIVE • electrifying over one lakh unelectrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 2.34 Crore rural BPL households. • This programme has been brought under the ambit of Bharat Nirman.
• Rural Electrification Corporation is the nodal agency for implementation of the scheme. • The services of Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSU) are available to the States for assisting them in the execution of Rural Electrification projects.
ACHIEVEMENTS • Electrification of villages have resulted in socioeconomic improvements and villagers are able to utilize electrical appliances for additional comfort convenience and education of their children.
• It has been reported that some economic activities like agarbatti making, bamboo items etc. have started specially in the States like West Bengal & Tripura, where electric supply is better.
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