Social Interaction and Social Media

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Information about Social Interaction and Social Media

Published on April 25, 2019

Author: mmartin09


Social media and social interactions: Social media and social interactions Melisenda Martin Annie Rodas Elena Becerra Our Hypothesis: Our Hypothesis A person’s social interaction (e.g. attending social gatherings) increases when the hours spent on social media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, YouTube, online gaming) decreases.   Literature Review: Literature Review The Journal of Experimental Psychology published an article called Social Media and Depression Symptoms where they discuss a study where 125 students reported that passive social media use, such as scrolling through social media news feeds, is associated with depression symptoms.   In the journal The Impact of Social Media on Personal and Professional Lives: An Adlerian Perspective, it is stated that despite the many positive application and influences social media may have, we would be remiss if we do not consider the risks and potential negative impacts on the lives of clinicians, clients, and communities. The Oxford Handbooks Online published a journal called Through the Internet Looking Glass: Expressing and Validating the True Self where it was discussed that on the Internet, people have the opportunity to interact with relative anonymity and in the absence of the physical presence of the other person. Literature Review: Literature Review The Scientific American had an article called Generation Z: Online and at Risk? where it discussed that the rise of social media and technology has coincided with an apparent decline in mental health.  Researchers found a link to the psychological phenomenon known as a social comparison were comparing our lives to others can seem particularly harsh online, where people tend to post only the highlights. Digital Media Use and Social Engagement: How Social Media and Smartphone Use Influence Social Activities of College Students is an article where the author discusses a study that examined how college students' psychological need to belong is associated with their use of social media and smartphones. In addition, it further investigated the effects of college students' digital media use on their social engagement. Things Online Social Networking Can Take Away: Reminders of Social Networking Sites Undermine the Desirability of Offline Socializing and Pleasures is an article where researchers contend that if people perceive SNSs as sources of social connection, the idea of SNSs may reduce the desire to pursue offline social activities and offline pleasures.   Literature Review: Literature Review The American Academy of Pediatrics published a journal called Clinical Report—The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families where the author discussed social media use by tweens and teens.  The article argues that because of children and adolescents have a limited capacity for self-regulation and susceptibility to peer pressure, they are at some risk as they navigate and experiment with social media. An article published by Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking argues that the use of social network sites and instant messaging does not lead to increased offline social network size, or to emotionally closer relationships with offline network members. An article called Social Impact in Social Media: A New Method to Evaluate the Social Impact of Research writes that social media users are showed to be intermediaries making visible and assessing evidence of social impact.  Literature Review: Literature Review The J ournal of Relationships Research published an article called How Social Are Social Media? A Review of Online Social Behavior and Connectedness where researchers found that some social media site users may experience weakening friendships, online ostracism, and heightened loneliness. Therefore, the article argues that the use of social media has contradictory effects on social connectedness. An article called Physical Co-Presence Intensity: Measuring Dynamic Face-To-Face Interaction Potential in Public Space Using Social Media Check-In found that the occurrence probability of face-to-face encounters is more geometrically scaled than predicted based on the co-location probability of two people using metric distance alone. The article Decreases In Psychological Well-Being Among American Adolescents After 2012 and Links to Screen Time During the Rise of Smartphone Technology found that adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on non-screen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being. Adolescents spending a small amount of time on electronic communication were the happiest. Method: Method Participants The participants that were used for this study included: graduate students in the Marriage and Family therapy program, family members, friends, and colleagues of the authors. In total, 19 participants took and completed the survey. Each participant was individually selected from the domains listed above (i.e. graduate school program, family, friends, practicum sites, and work) by the authors. Each participant was between the ages of 18 to 30 years of age and was male or female. Materials A survey was the method by which the authors conducted research. The survey was created by the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment (OIRA). This also allowed the authors to be given a link to the anonymous survey and a live report for each response. After the data was collected, a Google spreadsheet was used to analyze and compute the data. Method: Method Procedure The second author contacted the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment as instructed. The coordinator, Ritchie Fuentes, revised the survey and provided the authors a link to the anonymous survey, and an up-to-date report of each response. The participants of this study were contacted individually by the three authors. Each participant received two emails in total. The first email consisted of a brief introduction to the course, authors, how many questions were on the survey, and an approximation of how long the survey would take. After an author received permission to send the survey, the participant was sent the second email that provided them with a brief overview of what the survey was about, the link to take the anonymous survey (link that OIRA provided the second author), and the option to opt out of the survey without any penalty if they so choose. Method: Method Procedure Continued: Participants were asked to provide feedback by choosing one of the following options on a 5-point Likert scale: strongly disagree, disagree, neither disagree or agree, agree, or strongly agree. There were eight quantitative statements regarding their social media and social interactions. For the remaining two qualitative questions, participants were asked an open-ended question and they were to provide a written answer. Participants completed the survey via personal computer or cell phone. Authors were able to view the up-to-date data report as each participant completed the survey. Results: Results A total of 19 participants completed an online anonymous survey through APU Research. The research hypothesis stated: “ A person’s social interaction (e.g. attending social gatherings) increases when the hours spent on social media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, YouTube, online gaming) decreases.”  Results gathered from the survey showed that our hypothesis was correct. Participants social interactions decreased if there was high social media usage. Chart 1 shows that participants strongly agree that face-to-face communication (M=4.74, S=0.56) being more satisfying than social media. Similarly, Chart 2 displays how participants strongly agree that face-to-face communication (M=4.79, S=0.71) is vital for having meaningful conversations. In the last image, Chart 3, most participants strongly disagreed that there is a difference between social interactions and face-to-face interactions (M=1.31, S=0.48). This means most participants do find there to be a difference between social interactions and face-to-face interactions.   Results: Results Chart #1 Chart #2 Chart #3 Results: Results The last part to be discussed is the qualitative portion of the survey. Results, again, confirmed our hypothesis. Figure 1 displays the amount of hours participants spend daily on social media. The majority of participants engage in social media usage four to five hours per week. A significant finding was two participants who spent 14 and 20 hours a week browsing social media. Figure # 2 displays the number of social gatherings the participants attend per week. More than half of the participants, about fifteen participants, only attended one to two social gatherings a week. As stated before, the more social usage a participant engages in, the less social gathering they attend as evidenced in the figures shown. Results: Results Number of participants Hours per week spent on social media Figure #1 Results: Results Figure #2 Number of social gatherings per week Number of participants Discussion: Discussion A research study was conducted to determine the influence of social media on daily social interactions. In the process of gathering information, a sample size of 19 participants was gathered which consisted of Azusa Pacific University graduate students and family members of the researchers. Our research hypothesis was: A person’s social interaction (e.g. attending social gatherings) increases when the hours spent on social media (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, YouTube, online gaming) decreases.” In the process of examining the data collected, results showed a decrease in socialization when there is an increase in social media use.   Recently, Nicolas Kardaras (2016) highlighted the idea that internet usage is impacting face-to-face interactions. Kardas stated “we know that we can get physically and psychologically ill without real human contact.” The reasoning explained was related to humans being “ social creatures who seek purpose and meaning for one’s emotional states through socialization with other humans.” The research findings showed that social media use is “not satisfying the true need for human contact.” Similarly, a few researchers conducted a study where they analyzed social impact on social media which found that participants involved would strive or energize from “likes, or subtweets, etc.” which greatly impacted social interaction skills by decreasing the behaviors (Pulido, C., Redondo- Sama , G., Sordé-Martí , T., & Flecha , R., 2018). As technology or social media usage continues to rise daily, face-to-face interactions should be increased as the social creature humans are. Discussion: Discussion T here were a few limitations to our study. The number of participants were limited, as noted, only 19 participants took the survey. This is a relatively small sample size. Future research would benefit greatly if the sample size was larger. Another limitation would be a lack of variation in gender participants. Considering the majority of participants asked were from the MFT graduate program; where the student ratio of female to male is not parallel and the female population is much higher than males. One last consideration would be the age range studied. Would younger or older generations change the findings from this study? The studied age range is also a limitation.   With our findings, it is important to bring awareness of the effects social media plays on peoples social interactions. Awareness provides people with a choice and this choice could include monitoring ones usage of social media. Perhaps this monitoring can combat the possibility of social media becoming an addiction. Discussion: Discussion There are a few areas that can be studied to further the research of social media and social interactions. As mentioned earlier, research in the future could study if there is a gender difference in social interactions and social media. Most of the participants for this study were female. Another area for further research would be the age group studied. There might be a difference in research result if the older or younger generations would be the focus of the study. Lastly, an interesting further research would be if we specify participants social circle of friends instead of generalizing participant’s whole social life. Exploring gender differences, age range, and social circles would help to further research among relationship between face-to-face contact and social media usage.      References: References Aalbers , G., McNally, R. J., Heeren , A., de Wit, S., & Fried, E. I. (2018). Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General . Fleck, J., & Johnson- Migalski , L. (2015). The Impact of Social Media on Personal and Professional Lives: An Adlerian Perspective. Journal of Individual Psychology , 71 (2), 135–142. Retrieved from http:// / login.aspx?direct = true&db = pbh&AN =103721598&site= ehost -live Joinson , A., McKenna, K., & Postmes , T., Reips , U.D. (2007). Oxford Handbook of InternetPsychology : Oxford University Press, Inc. Kardaras , N. (2016). Generation Z: Online and at Risk? Scientific American Mind , 27 (5), 64–69. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. . Kim, Y., Wang, Y., & Oh, J. (2016). Digital Media Use and Social Engagement: How Social Media and Smartphone Use Influence Social Activities of College Students. CyberPsychology , Behavior & Social Networking , 19 (4), 264–269. Li, S., Chang, Y. Y., & Chiou , W. (2017). Things online social networking can take away: Reminders of social networking sites undermine the desirability of offline socializing and pleasures. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology , 58 (2), 179–184. https:// /10.1111/sjop.12348 References: References O'Keeffe, G.S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011, April). The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Report, 127(4), 1. Pollet , T.V., Roberts, S.G.B., & Dunbar, R.I.M. (2011, April). Use of Social Network Sites and Instant Messaging Does Not Lead to Increased Offline Social Network Size, or to Emotionally Closer Relationships with Offline Network Members. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking , 14 (4). Pulido, C. M., Redondo- Sama , G., Sordé -Martí, T., & Flecha , R. (2018). Social impact in social media: A new method to evaluate the social impact of research. PLoS ONE , 13 (8), 1–20. Ryan, T., Allen, K. A., Gray, D. L., & McInerney , D. M. (2017). How social are social media? A review of online social behaviour and connectedness. Journal of Relationships Research, 8 , 8. doi:http :// /10.1017/jrr.2017.13 Shen, Y., Karimi, K., Law, S., & Zhong, C. (2019). Physical co-presence intensity: Measuring dynamicface -to- faceinteraction potential in public space using social media check-in records. PLoS ONE , 14 (2), 1–30. Twenge, J. M., Martin, G. N., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Decreases in psychological well-being among American adolescents after 2012 and links to screen time during the rise of smartphone technology. Emotion , 18 (6), 765–780.   https:// /10.1037/emo0000403.supp (Supplemental)

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