Social Influence Summary

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Information about Social Influence Summary

Published on June 1, 2008

Author: GerryC

Source: slideshare.net

SOCIAL INFLUENCE Chapter 3

Social Influence Humans are social beings and spend the majority of time in the company of others. In everyday activities we interact with and influence others in a variety of ways. Each individual is a product of the relationships, groups, cultures and societies to which we belong.

Humans are social beings and spend the majority of time in the company of others.

In everyday activities we interact with and influence others in a variety of ways.

Each individual is a product of the relationships, groups, cultures and societies to which we belong.

Social Influence Refers to the effects of the presence or actions of others either real or perceived/imagined. The impact of social influence may be constructive or destructive or neutral. Whether social influence is real or perceived it can be resisted.

Refers to the effects of the presence or actions of others either real or perceived/imagined.

The impact of social influence may be constructive or destructive or neutral.

Whether social influence is real or perceived it can be resisted.

 

Social Facilitation The influence of the presence of others on how well we perform task is known as social facilitation. It is the tendency for the presence of others to enhance performance but impair performance on difficult tasks. This is also known as Social Inhibition

The influence of the presence of others on how well we perform task is known as social facilitation.

It is the tendency for the presence of others to enhance performance but impair performance on difficult tasks.

This is also known as Social Inhibition

 

Social Facilitation Research 1 st Research documented in (1898) conducted by Norman Triplett observed cyclists performed better against other cyclists rather than just a clock. Important to note that more recent studies have shown conflicting results.

1 st Research documented in (1898) conducted by Norman Triplett observed cyclists performed better against other cyclists rather than just a clock.

Important to note that more recent studies have shown conflicting results.

Social Facilitation Research The overall research suggests that in the presence of others we tend to do better at simple, motor, or well learned tasks. It also indicated that we tend to perform worse on a complex or unfamiliar task in the presence of others. This occurs from a raise in physiological arousal associated with stress, anxiety resulting in changes in bodily responses.

The overall research suggests that in the presence of others we tend to do better at simple, motor, or well learned tasks.

It also indicated that we tend to perform worse on a complex or unfamiliar task in the presence of others.

This occurs from a raise in physiological arousal associated with stress, anxiety resulting in changes in bodily responses.

Zanjonc’s (1965) Findings According to Zajonic when our body is in a heightened arousal we are likely to perform our dominant response. Where as complex tasks involve selecting a response from a number of possible responses. Many Psychologists agree with Zajonc that the presence of others can increase our level of arousal and therefore influence our performance.

According to Zajonic when our body is in a heightened arousal we are likely to perform our dominant response.

Where as complex tasks involve selecting a response from a number of possible responses.

Many Psychologists agree with Zajonc that the presence of others can increase our level of arousal and therefore influence our performance.

 

Cottrell (1968) Findings Cottrell suggests that the presence of others will enhance or impair performance only if we think the people observing us are making an evaluation or judging our performance. This is known as ‘evaluation apprehension’.

Cottrell suggests that the presence of others will enhance or impair performance only if we think the people observing us are making an evaluation or judging our performance.

This is known as ‘evaluation apprehension’.

 

 

Baron (1987) Findings Argues that when others are present they distract us, resulting in a conflict between paying attention to the task at hand and paying attention to others. This is known as ‘distraction conflict’.

Argues that when others are present they distract us, resulting in a conflict between paying attention to the task at hand and paying attention to others.

This is known as ‘distraction conflict’.

Social Loafing Refers to the tendency of an individual to make less effort when involved in a group activity rather than working alone. There are two effects of social loafing they being the ‘sucker effect’ and the ‘free rider effect’.

Refers to the tendency of an individual to make less effort when involved in a group activity rather than working alone.

There are two effects of social loafing they being the ‘sucker effect’ and the ‘free rider effect’.

Effects of Social Loafing Sucker Effect- individuals reduce their effort because they perceive their co-workers are not giving their best effort. Free- rider Effect- people reduce their effort when they realise that the performance of the group will not suffer because of their lack of effort.

Sucker Effect- individuals reduce their effort because they perceive their co-workers are not giving their best effort.

Free- rider Effect- people reduce their effort when they realise that the performance of the group will not suffer because of their lack of effort.

Social Loafing Not all group work leads to social loafing. People will tend to ‘loaf’ less when the task is challenging or meaningful.

Not all group work leads to social loafing.

People will tend to ‘loaf’ less when the task is challenging or meaningful.

Factors that reduce social loafing the group is valued by its members- working with friends the task is important, challenging, rewarding or important to those performing the group is very small task is personally meaningful members of the group believe their performance is being judged in some way those working on the task are women rather than men specific individuals believe their effort is needed for the group to succeed. success is well rewarded.

the group is valued by its members- working with friends

the task is important, challenging, rewarding or important to those performing

the group is very small

task is personally meaningful

members of the group believe their performance is being judged in some way

those working on the task are women rather than men

specific individuals believe their effort is needed for the group to succeed.

success is well rewarded.

Group Polarisation What is Group Polarisation?

What is Group Polarisation?

Group Polarisation Interaction within a group not only influences our behaviour in different ways, it also influences our attitudes, beliefs, opinions etc… We have the tendency to be attracted to groups whose members have similar thoughts on all matters. Occurs typically when our opinion is supported by other views.

Interaction within a group not only influences our behaviour in different ways, it also influences our attitudes, beliefs, opinions etc…

We have the tendency to be attracted to groups whose members have similar thoughts on all matters.

Occurs typically when our opinion is supported by other views.

Group Polarisation Research Results of empirical research studies have found that following group discussion, members shift their initial views to a more extreme position. There have been a number of reasons proposed for the explanations of Group Polarisation.

Results of empirical research studies have found that following group discussion, members shift their initial views to a more extreme position.

There have been a number of reasons proposed for the explanations of Group Polarisation.

Effects of Group Polarisation What are some of the factors associated with Group Polarisation? New Arguments People stating our beliefs

What are some of the factors associated with Group Polarisation?

New Arguments

People stating our beliefs

Groupthink and Decision Making What is Groupthink? Is a way of thinking by individual members of a group where there is an excessive tendency to seek consensus, resulting in failure to consider possible alternative courses of action.

What is Groupthink?

Is a way of thinking by individual members of a group where there is an excessive tendency to seek consensus, resulting in failure to consider possible alternative courses of action.

Groupthink What are some of the behavioural characteristics of groupthink? Closed-mindedness Overestimation of the group’s ability to make a decision Individuals withholding their personal concerns Pressure to conform

What are some of the behavioural characteristics of groupthink?

Closed-mindedness

Overestimation of the group’s ability to make a decision

Individuals withholding their personal concerns

Pressure to conform

Preventing Groupthink Make group members aware of groupthink Consider all information carefully Appoint a leader who will be impartial Use subgroups that meet separately Invite outside experts to participate in the group’s meetings

Make group members aware of groupthink

Consider all information carefully

Appoint a leader who will be impartial

Use subgroups that meet separately

Invite outside experts to participate in the group’s meetings

 

 

 

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