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Social constructivism

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Information about Social constructivism
Education

Published on February 23, 2014

Author: RiniortMirue

Source: slideshare.net

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The summary of Social Constructivism from book name 'the Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches'.
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Education Material Only Social Constructivism Nattawut Thammanukornsri ทฤษฎีสรางความรูนิยมเชิงสังคม

Book Info Name : Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches Author : Robert Jackson Georg Sørensen Chapter 8 : ISBN-10: 0199694745 | ISBN-13: 978-0199694747 | Edition: 4

Introduction: it’s idea not material Focus: is on human awareness or consciousness and its place in world affairs Reject material claim: The international system is constituted by ideas, not by material forces. Thus, IR is about social reality and human consciousness. Idea and belief matter: The study focuses on the idea and beliefs that inform the actors on the international scene as well as the shared understanding between them. International system as invention: Idea change, system change: The international system is a set of idea, a set of norms, which has been arranged by certain people at the particular time and place. It’s human invention. When the idea in the international relations change, the system would also change, because the system consist of thought and idea.

Back to origin Sociologist & Structuration: Anthony Giddens Constructivists were inspired by philosophy and sociology. In sociology, Anthony Giddens proposed the concept of structuration as a way of analyzing the relationship between structure and actors. The structure (rules and conditions that guide social action) do not determine what actors do in any mechanical way. Structures do constrain actors, but actors can also transform structure by thinking about them and acting on them in new way. We make the history: Giambattista Vico Giambattista Vico suggested that men and women make their own history. They also make states that are historical construct. If they want to change, they can change it and development into new ways.

Back to origin (2) Knowledge is subjective: Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant argued that when we obtain knowledge, we always be subject as it filtered through human consciousness. Understanding & Meaning: Max Weber Max Weber suggested that human being rely on ‘understanding’ of each other’s actions and assigning ‘meaning’ to them. In order to understand it, we can’t describe it as physical phenomenon. The subjective understanding is the specific characteristic of sociological knowledge.

The Social theory: Social World Structure and Actors Social theory is the more general theory about theory the social world, about the social action and about relation between structure and actors. World of idea In social world is not a given. The social world is a world of human consciousness: of thoughts and beliefs, of ideas and concepts, of language and discourses. Neither rule nor objective science There are no natural laws of society or economics or politics. That mean those things can’t be objective ‘science’ as the view of positivist. The social world is in part constructed of physical entities. In that sense materialism is a part of constructivism.

Materialistic view VS. Ideational view Materialistic view According to the materialist view, power and national interest are the driving forces in international politics. Power and interest are seen as ‘material’ factor; they are objective identities. Ideational view In the ideational view held by social constructivists ideas always matter. Idea thus define the meaning of material power. The study focuses on intersubjective belief (as idea / conception / assumption) which widely shared among people.

Four types of ideas Ideology Ideologies or shared idea are a systematic set of doctrine or belief that reflect and aspiration of a group, class, culture, state. Normative beliefs Normative beliefs are beliefs about right and wrong. Causal beliefs Causal beliefs are beliefs about cause effect, or means-end relationships. Policy prescriptions Policy prescriptions are the specific programmatic ideas that facilitate policymaking by specifying how to solve particular policy problem.

Constructivist into IR Culture of anarchy is created Both constructivist and neorealist agree that state want to be survive and secure. Constructivist Alexander Wendt rejects the neorealist position of anarchy necessarily leading to self-help. That can’ t be decided a priori; it depends on the interaction between states. In the process of interaction the identities and interest of state are created. Thus, there’s ‘the culture of anarchy’ which can be change in each period of time. European Case Wendt brings the case study of West Europe states that form their new ‘European identity’ and it ends the need for balancing power against each other.

Constructivist to IR (2) Norm of international society: Martha Finnemore Martha Finnemore suggests that the norm of international society affect state identities and interests. State behavior is defined by identity and interest. The norms of international society are transmitted into state through international organizations. And then they shape national policy by teaching state what their interests should be. Behavior of state & socialization: Alistair Johnston Alistair Johnston also suggests that international system change the behavior of state as processes of social learning take place in the interaction of policymakers from different states.

Constructivist to IR (3) Power of International Organization: Barnett & Finnemore Barnett and Finnemore’s analysis makes the argument that IOs are autonomous actors who might exercise power in their own right; on the other hand, they ‘construct the social world in which cooperation and choice takes place. They help define the interests that states and other actors come to hold’. The institutional power of IOs base on their ability to guide behavior in more indirect ways. IOs also contribute to solving problem by offering solutions and convincing others to accept them. Domestic Formation of identity & norm: Peter Katzenstein argues that the internal marke-up of states affects their international behavior. The approach is employed to explain the shift in Japanese foreign policy from militaristic to pacifists.

Education Material Only Social Constructivism Nattawut Thammanukornsri ทฤษฎีสรางความรูนิยมเชิงสังคม

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