advertisement

Social Construction of Family Violence

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about Social Construction of Family Violence
Health & Medicine

Published on February 21, 2009

Author: Madrisa

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A presentation to a health and social services agency about the social construction of family violence
advertisement

The Social Construction of Family Violence Silvia M. Straka CLSC René-Cassin

Agenda Social construction of social problems theory Practitioners’ roles in the social construction of social problems The example of “wife abuse” The example of child neglect The example of elder abuse Summary

Social construction of social problems theory

Practitioners’ roles in the social construction of social problems

The example of “wife abuse”

The example of child neglect

The example of elder abuse

Summary

What is a Social Problem? Social problems were previously seen as having an objective reality they exist separate from our interpretation of them they reflect a departure from a cultural/social ideal these “objective realities” were the focus of sociological research

Social problems were previously seen as having an objective reality

they exist separate from our interpretation of them

they reflect a departure from a cultural/social ideal

these “objective realities” were the focus of sociological research

Social Constructionist View Social problems are social constructions they are products of claims-making (Kitsuse & Spector) different claimsmakers have different agendas there are debates about how to define the problem and its solutions social constructionism is a different view there is an objective reality to most social problems, but the focus of study is on the claims-making process, rather than the problem itself

Social problems are social constructions

they are products of claims-making (Kitsuse & Spector)

different claimsmakers have different agendas

there are debates about how to define the problem and its solutions

social constructionism is a different view

there is an objective reality to most social problems, but the focus of study is on the claims-making process, rather than the problem itself

How are Social Problems Constructed? social problems are constructed at many levels culture: cultural images, categories and stereotypes mass media: primary and secondary claims-making public life human services and social control organizations (Miller & Holstein, 1997)

social problems are constructed at many levels

culture: cultural images, categories and stereotypes

mass media: primary and secondary claims-making

public life

human services and social control organizations

(Miller & Holstein, 1997)

Practitioners’ Roles in the Social Construction of Social Problems this level of social problems work is very concrete workers and organizations define who is a client, therefore, who has the problem example of practice decisions: victim of abuse; perpetrator child abuse: “normal” spanking or physical abuse wife abuse: marital conflict, “mutual abuse,” or wife abuse? elder abuse: mental health, caregiving, elder abuse

this level of social problems work is very concrete

workers and organizations define who is a client, therefore, who has the problem

example of practice decisions:

victim of abuse; perpetrator

child abuse: “normal” spanking or physical abuse

wife abuse: marital conflict, “mutual abuse,” or wife abuse?

elder abuse: mental health, caregiving, elder abuse

Loseke’s Work on Battered Women three new terms in 1970s: social problem of wife abuse social collectivity of battered women social service of women’s shelters Loseke studied how shelter workers, on a case-by-case basis, transformed elements of individual women’s experiences and stories into those of a “battered woman” or “not battered woman,” and also into an “appropriate client” or “not appropriate client”

three new terms in 1970s:

social problem of wife abuse

social collectivity of battered women

social service of women’s shelters

Loseke studied how shelter workers, on a case-by-case basis, transformed elements of individual women’s experiences and stories into those of a “battered woman” or “not battered woman,” and also into an “appropriate client” or “not appropriate client”

Shelters result of successful claims-making wife abuse is a social problem battered women are a special and deserving client population thus we need a new kind of social service

result of successful claims-making

wife abuse is a social problem

battered women are a special and deserving client population

thus we need a new kind of social service

Wife Abuse originally it was about “wives” one-way violence victims who do not cause their abuse husbands repeatedly and intentionally use extreme forms of violence causing injuries to the victim set apart from “normal” violence note: currently referred to more commonly as conjugal violence, domestic violence, spousal abuse (result of counter claims-making)

originally it was about “wives”

one-way violence

victims who do not cause their abuse

husbands repeatedly and intentionally use extreme forms of violence causing injuries to the victim

set apart from “normal” violence

note: currently referred to more commonly as conjugal violence, domestic violence, spousal abuse (result of counter claims-making)

Battered Women Question of why do wives stay? Answer: they are not only abused, but trapped for numerous reasons financial social conditioning about marriage, femininity, etc. fear psychological immobility from prolonged abuse abuse causes low self-esteem, etc. creation of collectivity of “battered women” creation of shelters to serve this collectivity

Question of why do wives stay?

Answer: they are not only abused, but trapped for numerous reasons

financial

social conditioning about marriage, femininity, etc.

fear

psychological immobility from prolonged abuse

abuse causes low self-esteem, etc.

creation of collectivity of “battered women”

creation of shelters to serve this collectivity

Definition of Shelter Clients Formal definition of clients: battered women, low on financial or human resources (in need) battered women women-in-transition (without safe housing for any reason): contested by workers Workers definitions of appropriate clients: need the shelter can be helped by the shelter likely to be acceptable members of shelter commune

Formal definition of clients:

battered women, low on financial or human resources (in need)

battered women

women-in-transition (without safe housing for any reason): contested by workers

Workers definitions of appropriate clients:

need the shelter

can be helped by the shelter

likely to be acceptable members of shelter commune

Practicalities of Client Selection initially little or no client screening done, but too many women with too many kinds of problems were accepted needed to screen to maintain acceptable numbers of clients and appropriate clients difficult to decide on acceptable number unpredictability current mix of women and children special needs urgent cases

initially little or no client screening done, but too many women with too many kinds of problems were accepted

needed to screen to maintain acceptable numbers of clients and appropriate clients

difficult to decide on acceptable number

unpredictability

current mix of women and children

special needs

urgent cases

Client selection (2) difficult to determine appropriateness in practice heterogeneity of women and situations problems might be judged as “too severe” to be helped here are women’s stories truthful? woman has resources to go elsewhere but might “need” the supportive shelter environment workers judgments of appropriateness often conflicting Loseke shows how workers construct a woman as an appropriate client or not, and how complex, subjective and inconsistent this can be

difficult to determine appropriateness in practice

heterogeneity of women and situations

problems might be judged as “too severe” to be helped here

are women’s stories truthful?

woman has resources to go elsewhere but might “need” the supportive shelter environment

workers judgments of appropriateness often conflicting

Loseke shows how workers construct a woman as an appropriate client or not, and how complex, subjective and inconsistent this can be

Access to Services shelters: depends on being labelled “battered woman” accessing youth protection services in Montreal: which situations are easiest to get services for and which are most difficult?

shelters: depends on being labelled “battered woman”

accessing youth protection services in Montreal: which situations are easiest to get services for and which are most difficult?

Example of Child Neglect focus is on child abuse (physical and sexual) rather than neglect, even though half or more child protection cases are neglect media stories research theories child abuse is constructed as a problem of individual/family pathology and/or stress yet neglect is clearly associated with structural factors interventions are aimed at the individual/family level for both abuse and neglect

focus is on child abuse (physical and sexual) rather than neglect, even though half or more child protection cases are neglect

media stories

research

theories

child abuse is constructed as a problem of individual/family pathology and/or stress

yet neglect is clearly associated with structural factors

interventions are aimed at the individual/family level for both abuse and neglect

Child Neglect (2) there are virtually no interventions specific to neglect neglect continues to be responded to with a family preservation approach numerous short-term placements into foster homes, alternated with returns to the family interventions aimed at the mother empirical evidence shows these interventions are very ineffective for child neglect

there are virtually no interventions specific to neglect

neglect continues to be responded to with a family preservation approach

numerous short-term placements into foster homes, alternated with returns to the family

interventions aimed at the mother

empirical evidence shows these interventions are very ineffective for child neglect

Questions for Reflection Why have there been no alternative constructions of the problem with no alternative solutions? Who can advocate and become claimsmakers for such alternatives? What are the forces preventing this?

Why have there been no alternative constructions of the problem with no alternative solutions?

Who can advocate and become claimsmakers for such alternatives?

What are the forces preventing this?

The Case of Elder Abuse child abuse (1960s & 1970s) wife abuse (1970s and 1980s) elder abuse (1980s and 1990s) social construction of older adult as frail, vulnerable, in need of protection old age viewed as a disability: loss and decline model of aging responses inspired more by child abuse discourse rather than wife abuse discourse protective legislation: quickly implemented without empirical evidence

child abuse (1960s & 1970s)

wife abuse (1970s and 1980s)

elder abuse (1980s and 1990s)

social construction of older adult as frail, vulnerable, in need of protection

old age viewed as a disability: loss and decline model of aging

responses inspired more by child abuse discourse rather than wife abuse discourse

protective legislation: quickly implemented without empirical evidence

Claimsmakers in Elder Abuse experts as claimsmakers: professionals in health care settings (geriatric, homecare, hospitals, etc.) whose clientele tend to be more frail researchers “ missing” voices: older adults community organizations thus we have a very specific construction of the problem from a very specific perspective

experts as claimsmakers:

professionals in health care settings (geriatric, homecare, hospitals, etc.) whose clientele tend to be more frail

researchers

“ missing” voices:

older adults

community organizations

thus we have a very specific construction of the problem from a very specific perspective

The Social Construction of Elder Abuse (by Professionals) what is elder abuse? self-neglect is considered elder abuse in the U.S. issue of intent: not needed, e.g. cognitive impairment caregiving paradigm caregiver stress is key theory of causality medical model: focus on risk factors, screening procedures, assessment, and treatment

what is elder abuse?

self-neglect is considered elder abuse in the U.S.

issue of intent: not needed, e.g. cognitive impairment

caregiving paradigm

caregiver stress is key theory of causality

medical model: focus on risk factors, screening procedures, assessment, and treatment

Implications of the Current Construction of Elder Abuse emphasis on physical harm from abuse or neglect despite reports that the greatest experienced harm is emotional and psychological de-emphasis and lack of theories and specific responses to some categories of abuse conjugal violence perpetrates the “ageing enterprise” policy priorities and funding are often directed at health and social services agencies and institutions ex. training of professionals, development of protocols, development of instruments, multidisciplinary teams, etc.

emphasis on physical harm from abuse or neglect

despite reports that the greatest experienced harm is emotional and psychological

de-emphasis and lack of theories and specific responses to some categories of abuse

conjugal violence

perpetrates the “ageing enterprise”

policy priorities and funding are often directed at health and social services agencies and institutions

ex. training of professionals, development of protocols, development of instruments, multidisciplinary teams, etc.

Summary An opportunity to reflect on practice: family violence is a social construction the roles practitioners play in “social problems work” to be more conscious in your practice to sometimes challenge existing constructions to see how a social constructionist perspective can help renew practice

An opportunity to reflect on practice:

family violence is a social construction

the roles practitioners play in “social problems work”

to be more conscious in your practice

to sometimes challenge existing constructions

to see how a social constructionist perspective can help renew practice

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Social Perspectives on Violence - University of Michigan

Social Perspectives on Violence. ... The Social Construction of Violence. ... to a theory of violence between family members. Social Science ...
Read more

"If words could kill: The social construction of domestic ...

To understand how family violence policy ... The social construction of domestic violence. ... The study of domestic violence as a social problem ...
Read more

The Social Construction of Crime - Criminology - Oxford ...

In This Article The Social Construction of Crime. ... Social Construction of Criminal Violence; ... Family Violence
Read more

The Social Construction of Violence among adolescents and ...

The Social Construction of Violence among ... Key words: violence, adolescents and youth, social construction, family, school introduction
Read more

The Social Construction of Violence: The Case of Sexual ...

The Social Construction of Violence: ... What counts as “violence” is socially constructed, has varied over time, and reflects power relationships.
Read more

About Family Violence - Justice

What is family violence? ... More than $890 million in third party costs, including social service operating costs, losses to employers, ...
Read more

Family Violence: A Review of the Dysfunctional Behavior ...

Family violence is one of the main causes of serious health and psychological ... When working with dysfunctional families, the social worker's role is ...
Read more

WHAT IS SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION ? - New York University

WHAT IS SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION? Paul A. Boghossian Social Construction ... (1999), social construction talk is often applied not only to worldly items ...
Read more