smt exam3

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Published on January 25, 2008

Author: Riccard


7.- The long chain:  7.- The long chain From Ships to plastics The jet is one of the most efficient innovations to the forms of transportation since the 17th century. The need for transporting cargo (and even for battle) resulted in the creation of efficient ships. The Galleon (Spanish): triangular and square sails went back and forth through the Atlantic. The Fluyt: long, flat-bottom, large cargo space, very stable in rough weather. The power went from Amsterdam to England around 1650, profitable colonies turned England in a nation of sailors initially for tobacco and sugar. Gas Illumination:  Gas Illumination A mollusc called teredo navalis became a problem for the wooden ships. The protection: thick layer of a mixture of tar and pitch. 1776 American colonies revolted. Supply of pitch and tar stopped. Search for alternatives led to a tarry liquid produced during the burning of coal in furnaces. Investigations on this tar led to the discovery of a gas from coal that would ignite by Murdok (1799). By 1805 fifty lamps had been made. They replaced candles and whale-oil lamps (unsafe and inefficient). Costs of illumination went down by a factor of four. By 1850 there were 2000 miles of piping carrying the gas. Social effects: streets safer; longer factory hours; evening classes. London clubs grew. Rubber industry and coloring:  Rubber industry and coloring Naphtha, which had been identified in coal tar waste, was used by Macintosh (1823) to dissolve rubber and make a rubberized (waterproof) cloth. Rubber started to be used for everything. On the other hand, quinine was being used for Malaria (from cinchona tree). Perkin (1856) trying to get quinine from the tar disregarded after taking the naphtha out, discovered aniline. This was the beginning of the dye industry. Britain let its industrial power slip. Bankers were hesitant to risk money in new ventures like dyes. They had other sound industries. Germany then took the lead. From fertilizers to acetylene:  From fertilizers to acetylene Germans believed the work of higher education was to train minds in research. Alliances between industry and universities benefited the dye industry (BASF, Hoechst, Bayer, and Agfa). Led to discovery of aspiring and a drug for syphilis (Salvarsan). Fertilizer industry. Harber and Bosch created a process (1909) to produce ammonia and then mix it with air (to produce nitric oxide) then add water (produce nitric acid) then add soda to produce sodium nitrate -> fertilizer. Moissan while trying to make diamonds accidentaly made calcium carbide which combined with water produces acetylene. In 1899 there were a quarter of a million gas jets in Germany. From acetylene to plastic:  From acetylene to plastic After Welbash (1900) increased the luminosity of coal gas, acetylene industry went down. However, at BASF while experimenting with calcium carbide at 1000 oC and in the presence of nitrogen produced calcium cyanamide: a fertilizer. In 1912, Klatte (a German chemist) mixed acetylene with hydrogen Chloride and mercury. When the mixture was exposed to light -> milky sludge turning solid. This result was later used to produce PVC (polyvinyl chloride) the predecessor of plastics. 8.- Eat, Drink, and Be Merry:  8.- Eat, Drink, and Be Merry Banking: Leonardo Fibonacchi brought the Arabic numerical system back from North Africa and the double-entry book keeping appeared (accounting). By 1470, 32 separate banks in Florence alone. War: In 1476, Charles duke of Burgundy knights lost to the Swiss’ mass infantry who used the pike phalanx formation (a giant porcupine). First time that happened. The new Swiss method was cheap. War became cheap. Armies grew and for the next 200 years the pikeman were present in the battlefields. The pikemen were invincible until the firearm was invented. First: rudimentary, heavy, and dangerous to use (pg 224). In 1521 when Spain introduced the musket: smaller, easy to handle. In 1690 the bayonet appeared. Napoleon’s campaigns and French industry.:  Napoleon’s campaigns and French industry. Napoleon was the master of strategy. He split his army in columns for easier and faster deployment. French troops could not buy supplies from local population who wouldn’t take the paper currency of the revolutionary government. French industry was being ruined by war. Napoleon set up the “Society for Encouragement of Industry” to grant money for new ideas. Result: Appert’s idea to preserve food (1794) in bottles. In 1809 he published his ideas in “The Art of preserving Animal and Vegetable Substances”. Canned Food:  Canned Food Beginning of 19th century, Peter Durand had the English version of Appert’s patent but the containers to be used also included glass, pottery, tin, and other metals. In 1813, the Royal family highly approved canned food. Canned food was first used by the Royal Navy and in 1830 it reached the shops. Cans were to be open with hammer and chisel! In 1841, use of chlorine salts raised the temperature enough for sterilization in a shorter period of time (colligative properties). Production increased. 10 years later, Louis Pasteur improved the sterilization process by increasing heating of cans. Air conditioning:  Air conditioning Gorrie in 1838 noticed that malaria seemed to be connected with hot, humid weather. Goal: lower the temperature of his patients in the Summer. Gorrie invented air-conditioning in 1850. He used a steam engine to drive a piston to compress and uncompress a gas (pg 240). A year later he invented the first ice-making machine. Von Linde invented the domestic refrigerator in 1879. 2 years later he had sold 12,000 units. It was based on NH3 used as the coolant (liquid->gas). Basic system still used today. Thermos and to the moon.:  Thermos and to the moon. Violle (1882), Dewar (1890), and Burger (1902) each contributed something to the invention called thermos. Thermos: double-walled silvered glass with a vacuum in the space between the walls. Contributions: Violle ->vacuum; Dewar->silvering; Burger->marketing. Social consequences of thermos: picnics became fashionable, changed the workingman’s lunch break, saved lives by keeping insulin and other drugs from going bad. Liquid gases could be stored in the Dewar flask (thermos) indefinitely, occupying less space than in the gas form (liquid hydrogen occupies 790 times less space than hydrogen gas). Combination of hydrogen and oxygen to power space ships. 9.- Lighting the way:  9.- Lighting the way Maps: several techniques and devices were designed in order to survey the land to make maps. Elaborated measuring instruments (see video) started to develop in order to make cannons more precise (16th century). In 1579 (43 years after Henry VIII’s dissolved the monasteries) Christopher Saxton was the first to publish accurate maps of England (all this resulting from the need to sell the monasteries). John Norden put the roads on the maps in 1592. Variations of the Triangulation method were used to make measurements. A better source of light was needed. Limelight was invented: a flame (alcohol ignited in a jet of oxygen) heats up a small ball of lime (CaO) and the light is reflected off a parabolic mirror. Brighter than the lamps at the time by a factor of 83. Theater -> phonograph:  Theater -> phonograph Limelight started to be used in theaters in 1851. It was safer and more efficient. Improvements were made In 1857 the arc light was introduced. Current sent along rods of carbon with their tips almost touching. A spark was produced at the tips causing the carbon to become incandescent. Current was needed and so the Dynamo was invented (Soren Hjorth, commercialized by Zenobie Gramme). An electromagnet generating electricity. Meanwhile,the Hyatt brothers trying to find a substitute for Ivory to make billiard balls discovered celluloid (1888). Edison invented the phonograph in 1877. From movies to TV to overpaid actors.:  From movies to TV to overpaid actors. It was almost inevitable that Edison put together the light, the film, and the concept of moving pictures. He did so in 1893 in his kinetoscope, with special film produced for him by Eastman. In 1923 a system was developed in Denmark which made possible the recording of sound directly on to the film. Later (1930-1940) using the cathode ray tube as a television screen, TV was developed.

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