Smart Grids: An Introduction

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Information about Smart Grids: An Introduction
Technology

Published on March 4, 2009

Author: harshadd

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The presentation gives an introduction to the concept of smart grids and compares it with the existing power grid. It provides a brief idea about the technologies involved in smart grids.

DESAI HARSHAD SURESH B050254EE, NIT Calicut http://harshadonweb.googlepages.com

EDISON VS. BELL 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

OVERVIEW The existing electric grid and its problems The Smart Grid Technologies involved Advantages Challenges Conclusion 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

The existing electric grid and its problems

The Smart Grid

Technologies involved

Advantages

Challenges

Conclusion

THE EXISTING ELECTRIC GRID Designed by pioneers like Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse in early 20 th century Regarded as ‘the most significant engineering achievement of the 20 th century’ Due to lack of energy storage devices Generate -> Transmit -> Distribute Represents the ultimate in just-in-time manufacturing 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Designed by pioneers like Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse in early 20 th century

Regarded as ‘the most significant engineering achievement of the 20 th century’

Due to lack of energy storage devices

Generate -> Transmit -> Distribute

Represents the ultimate in just-in-time manufacturing

CONTD 23rd February, 2009 The electric grid – generation, transmission and distribution [1] Harshad Desai

PROBLEMS Reliability : Overburdening of the system results in numerous blackouts/brownouts The frequency of such interruptions has also increased Efficiency : Transmission losses = 20% Only 30% of the energy consumed is transmitted to the consumers Affordability : Cost has doubled in real terms 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Reliability :

Overburdening of the system results in numerous blackouts/brownouts

The frequency of such interruptions has also increased

Efficiency :

Transmission losses = 20%

Only 30% of the energy consumed is transmitted to the consumers

Affordability :

Cost has doubled in real terms

CONTD Economy : Electric power being the backbone of the entire world’s economy, any blackouts result in heavy losses Example: 2003 NE US blackout resulted in $6bn loss Environmental Impacts : 60% of world’s electricity generated by burning coal This accounts for around 40% of GHG emissions To reduce the emissions renewable sources of energy need to be used extensively Integrating these into the existing grid is difficult 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Economy :

Electric power being the backbone of the entire world’s economy, any blackouts result in heavy losses

Example: 2003 NE US blackout resulted in $6bn loss

Environmental Impacts :

60% of world’s electricity generated by burning coal

This accounts for around 40% of GHG emissions

To reduce the emissions renewable sources of energy need to be used extensively

Integrating these into the existing grid is difficult

SOLUTION – THE SMART GRID Smart energy is defined as the application of digital information technology to optimize electrical power generation, delivery and end use The smart grid is the product of applying smart energy technology to systematically optimize power delivery and generation It is envisioned as a power system incorporating millions of sensors and connected through advanced communication and data acquisition system 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Smart energy is defined as the application of digital information technology to optimize electrical power generation, delivery and end use

The smart grid is the product of applying smart energy technology to systematically optimize power delivery and generation

It is envisioned as a power system incorporating millions of sensors and connected through advanced communication and data acquisition system

23rd February, 2009 A view of the smart grid [4] Harshad Desai

23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

CONTD The EU has laid down the following vision for smart grids Smart grids are electric grids that are Reliable Flexible Accessible Economic 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

The EU has laid down the following vision for smart grids

Smart grids are electric grids that are

Reliable

Flexible

Accessible

Economic

TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED The smart grid is not a single technology It encompasses different facets of the technological developments that have taken place in the past 4-5 decades It includes telecommunications, smart energy devices, IT, digital control etc. 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

The smart grid is not a single technology

It encompasses different facets of the technological developments that have taken place in the past 4-5 decades

It includes telecommunications, smart energy devices, IT, digital control etc.

23rd February, 2009 SMART GRIDS Harshad Desai

CONTD Energy generation and storage Distributed Generation: Involves use of renewable sources of energy like PV, micro wind turbines, fuel cells etc. Also includes CHP Benefits include improved system reliability, reduced transmission losses, reduce investment costs Energy Storage Integration 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Energy generation and storage

Distributed Generation:

Involves use of renewable sources of energy like PV, micro wind turbines, fuel cells etc. Also includes CHP

Benefits include improved system reliability, reduced transmission losses, reduce investment costs

Energy Storage Integration



CONTD Power grid management Real time monitoring and synchrophasors: Real time information stream enables rapid diagnosis and correction Synchrophasors – Phasor measurements that occur at the same time Also called Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) Samples are taken from widely dispersed locations and synchronized from a common time source of a GPS clock A PMU can record 30 samples/sec offering a dynamic visibility into the system 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Power grid management

Real time monitoring and synchrophasors:

Real time information stream enables rapid diagnosis and correction

Synchrophasors – Phasor measurements that occur at the same time

Also called Phasor Measurement Units (PMU)

Samples are taken from widely dispersed locations and synchronized from a common time source of a GPS clock

A PMU can record 30 samples/sec offering a dynamic visibility into the system

CONTD Transmission and Distribution Automation: Automation allows faster adjustments to conditions, both preventing blackouts and making for faster recovery Communication Networks: Broadband networks carry information among smart devices that allow them to respond to grid conditions, offer services to the grid and make economic transactions 2-way communication. Utilities Consumer 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Transmission and Distribution Automation:

Automation allows faster adjustments to conditions, both preventing blackouts and making for faster recovery

Communication Networks:

Broadband networks carry information among smart devices that allow them to respond to grid conditions, offer services to the grid and make economic transactions

2-way communication. Utilities Consumer

CONTD 23rd February, 2009 Communication between the utility and the consumer [3] Harshad Desai

CONTD Customer Power Management Smart Meters: Record power usage and report it back enabling a variable price structure Also helps in peak power management Smart Appliances: Home appliances provided with on board intelligence Communicate with the utility and can reduce demand when the grid is under stress 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Customer Power Management

Smart Meters:

Record power usage and report it back enabling a variable price structure

Also helps in peak power management

Smart Appliances:

Home appliances provided with on board intelligence

Communicate with the utility and can reduce demand when the grid is under stress

Smart Meter and Smart Appliance 23rd February, 2009 Smart Meter by Itron Home appliances with on board intelligence Harshad Desai

ADVANTAGES Intelligent Capable of sensing system overloads Self-healing Efficient Can meet increased demand without adding infrastructure Quality-focused Power of highest quality can be delivered – free of sags, spikes and disturbances Reliable Reliability is increased Resilient Reinforced with security protocols to restrain attacks 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Intelligent

Capable of sensing system overloads

Self-healing

Efficient

Can meet increased demand without adding infrastructure

Quality-focused

Power of highest quality can be delivered – free of sags, spikes and disturbances

Reliable

Reliability is increased

Resilient

Reinforced with security protocols to restrain attacks

CONTD Accommodating Can easily accommodate any form of generation – wind, solar etc Plug-and-play Motivating Real time communication between consumer and utility enables consumers to tailor their energy demands according to their preferences Green Offers a genuine path towards environment improvement without major changes in our life styles 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Accommodating

Can easily accommodate any form of generation – wind, solar etc

Plug-and-play

Motivating

Real time communication between consumer and utility enables consumers to tailor their energy demands according to their preferences

Green

Offers a genuine path towards environment improvement without major changes in our life styles

MAJOR CHALLENGES New technologies require proof Especially power technologies as these are the backbone of all other industries Changing the ‘business as usual’ attitude Smart grids require a transformation from the existing business models Utility companies are skeptical about this new model fearing a loss of revenue 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

New technologies require proof

Especially power technologies as these are the backbone of all other industries

Changing the ‘business as usual’ attitude

Smart grids require a transformation from the existing business models

Utility companies are skeptical about this new model fearing a loss of revenue

PILOT PROJECTS 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

CONCLUSION Current grid is outdated, inefficient and at the same time is overburdened Smart grid is designed to optimize efficiency and stability The Smart Grid demonstrates the importance of innovation, collaboration and leadership which are particularly needed in the current energy scenario 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Current grid is outdated, inefficient and at the same time is overburdened

Smart grid is designed to optimize efficiency and stability

The Smart Grid demonstrates the importance of innovation, collaboration and leadership which are particularly needed in the current energy scenario

CONTD Smart grid is a journey and not a single destination The question to be asked is can we afford not to have sustainable development? 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

Smart grid is a journey and not a single destination

The question to be asked is can we afford not to have sustainable development?

FUTURE NETWORK VISION 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

REFERENCES [1] Nahigian K., “The Smart Alternative: Securing and Strengthening Our Nation’s Vulnerable Electric Grid” The Reform Institute, June 30, 2008. [2] The US Department of Energy (DOE) “The Smart Grid: An Introduction” [3] Mazza P., “Powering Up the Smart Grid: A Northwest Initiative for Job Creation, Energy Security and Clean, Affordable Electricity” Climate solutions, July 2005. [4] European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, “European SmartGrids Technology Platform” 2006 [5] “Grid 2030 — A National Vision for Electricity’s Second 100 Years”, United States Department of Energy, July 2003. 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

[1] Nahigian K., “The Smart Alternative: Securing and Strengthening Our Nation’s Vulnerable Electric Grid” The Reform Institute, June 30, 2008.

[2] The US Department of Energy (DOE) “The Smart Grid: An Introduction”

[3] Mazza P., “Powering Up the Smart Grid: A Northwest Initiative for Job Creation, Energy Security and Clean, Affordable Electricity” Climate solutions, July 2005.

[4] European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, “European SmartGrids Technology Platform” 2006

[5] “Grid 2030 — A National Vision for Electricity’s Second 100 Years”, United States Department of Energy, July 2003.

THANK YOU 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

THANK YOU

QUESTIONS ? 23rd February, 2009 Harshad Desai

?

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