Published on February 28, 2014
Smart Grid Management in a Global Context Dr Bob Currie Smart Grid in Ontario and Beyond, February 2014 © 2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved. ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Outline Smarter Grid Solutions Active Network Management (ANM) New developments in grid management: UK Orkney, Shetland, London, Cambridgeshire and North Wales Belgium Transmission constraints due to distribution connected wind USA Microgrids, DERMS Parallels with Canada Conclusions ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Smarter Grid Solutions UK’s leading dedicated smart grid technology company Power engineering, future networks, technological, academic and commercial expertise (over 50 years of research and consultancy in future networks) Established in 2008 to commercialise intellectual property from research developed with Scottish and Southern Energy Power Distribution at the University of Strathclyde Investors include Scottish Equity Partners, Scottish Investment Bank and the University of Strathclyde 45+ employees in Glasgow, London and New York City 30+ live projects, including high-profile low carbon projects Working with five of the UK’s six network distribution companies Expanding customer list in North America ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Smarter Grid Solutions Deployed the UK’s first smart grid in Orkney (November 2009) o £30m avoided capital upgrades for grid operator o >25 MW of additional renewable generators to “full” 33 kV system Technology operating 24x7x365 to solve rural and urban grid constraints Trusted expert advisor & delivery partner for major UK smart grid projects Opened North American office in New York City, October 2013 Working with Con Edison on Microgrids and DER integration Awards and accolades: o ‘Best New Business’ and ‘Best Renewable Innovation’ awards at the Scottish Green Energy Awards, 2009 o ‘New Energy Pioneer’ in Bloomberg New Finance Awards 2012 o Top 10 Fastest Growing Cleantech Company, Cleantech Connect 2011 &2012 o University Spin-out of the Year, New Energy & Cleantech Awards 2013 ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Some of our customers ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Some of our project partners ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Active Network Management ANM involves the integration and autonomous management of a range of Distributed Energy Resources Emerged mainly in the UK as a means of increasing the hosting capacity of the grid to connect low carbon technologies while avoiding grid upgrades and investment ANM requires participating customers/devices to be managed when network constraints are breached For example, for generator output to be managed to meet prevailing network constraints in real-time Early deployments are focussed on generators and generator curtailment – requiring new commercial arrangements to answer the question of who should be curtailed when and in what order… ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Active Network Management Grid management has been traditionally dominated by the ‘hub and spoke’ model of SCADA/EMS/DMS vendors There is an increasing need to integrate multiple technologies, providing a means of gradually and regularly expanding the scope and nature of grid management systems Autonomous ‘mission critical’ control systems require specialised software technologies, prevalent in a number of industries Smart grid decision making is reaching a scale and magnitude that means we need autonomous, secure and reliable decision making to achieve high reliability, security and performance objectives We need to be thinking in terms of Systems of Systems Requiring Interoperability, Scalability, Flexibility and a System Architect What about user defined functionality? ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Active Network Management (ANM) ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Our solutions ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Hosting Capacity Uplift ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Orkney Smart Grid Challenge SSE seeking cost-effective alternative to grid upgrades to provide connections for new renewable generators: network already at ‘full capacity’ Approach Non-firm actively managed grid connections for distributed generation Real time ratings Energy Storage System Delivered Benefits 18 Generators and 6 constraint locations deployed to date – more to follow: o Demand 6-31 MW o Additional 26 MW of generation contracted to connect (20 MW connected already) Connected >25 MW new renewable generation capacity to 33 kV grid previously considered to be full Estimated savings of £30million for SSE (around $45million) www.ssepd.co.uk/orkneysmartgrid ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Orkney Isles • Orkney is an archipelago of islands, interconnected at 33 kV • Orkney has a ‘mainland’ • Why might you know Orkney? – – – – – – Skara Brae Maeshowe Churchill’s Barriers Italian Chapel The Old Man of Hoy Highland Park Whisky • European Marine Energy Test Centre – Wave and Tidal berths http://www.visitscotland.com/destinations-maps/orkney/ ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Orkney Smart Grid ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Orkney Smart Grid NNFG 4 Power Output MP 3 Current MP 3 Trim Threshold MP 3 Reset Threshold 1.2 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 1 0.8 0.9 0.75 0.7 0.8 MP Current (pu) NNFG Power Output (pu) 1.1 0.65 0.6 0.7 0.55 0.6 14:06 0.5 14:07 14:08 14:09 14:10 Time 14:11 14:12 14:13 Real application of wind farm constraints Online calculations and set-point control in seconds Proven and effective ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Orkney Wind Farms NNFG ID Size [MW] Production Factor after Curtailment Annual Carbon emissions reduction [tCO2] 1 0.9 37.06% 1,537 2 2.3 47.70% 5,056 4 4.5 45.35% 9,404 5 0.9 37.22% 1,543 6 0.9 40.08% 1,662 7 0.9 40.77% 1,691 9 0.9 31.76% 1,317 10 0.9 34.03% TOTAL 13.1 36.04% 1,411 23,621 Wind farms are still achieving high capacity factors, delivering benefit in terms of quicker and cheaper connections and a corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Shetland Isles Challenge £34million project to develop and manage an island grid more effectively, increasing role of renewable energy in meeting future energy needs Approach Manage new generator output against dynamic stability constraints and schedule new controllable demand to reduce renewables curtailment and enhance system operation ANM system control of domestic demand (including 2 MW of electrical demand and 16 MWh of energy storage); several MW of new renewable generation; large industrial load and battery energy storage Expected benefits Reduce the size of the replacement power station Reduce the overall cost of meeting electricity needs on Shetland Provide capacity to connect renewable generation Demonstrate potential role for domestic demand side management in system operation and system stability management ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Shetland Isles • Shetland is further North of Orkney and is an electrically islanded system • Shetland is made up of a number of islands • Why might you know Shetland? – – – – – Shetland Ponies Up Helly Aa Norwegian rule and history Community energy schemes PURE project – Hydrogen for transport – Blackwood whisky http://www.visitscotland.com/destinations-maps/shetland/ ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Shetland Isles ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Low Carbon London Challenge To integrate low carbon and renewable energy devices with an urban distribution network through the deployment of new smart grid technologies and operating practices Approach Deploy Smarter Grid Solutions platform and smart applications to: Provide greater visibility of Distributed Generation Actively manage Distributed Generation Apply ANM approach to demand response Distributed Generation direct Via Aggregators Electric Vehicle Charge Posts Expected benefits Lower costing and faster connections for distributed generation Increase the recognised capacity of existing grid infrastructure http://innovation.ukpowernetworks.co.uk/innovation/en/Projects/tier-2-projects/Low-CarbonLondon-(LCL)/ ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Low Carbon London Grid Substation Various Primary Substation UKPN SCADA Primary User Interface EHV Current DNP3/IP M RTU SGcore CommsHUB M M Measurement Points Power LIC ANM Data Historian ANM Scheme Central Controller HV Modbus/IP (VPN) DG Control System TCP/IP Unknown Operational Data Store Demand Response Control Centre (DRCC) Demand Response (DR) Site ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Flexible Plug and Play Project • £10million project in Cambridgeshire, England • Goal is to demonstrate new technical and commercial solutions to connecting increased levels of distributed generation to a constrained distribution grid • This is one of the leading projects in the UK! Please take the time to find out more about it and contact those involved: – http://innovation.ukpowernetworks.co.uk/innovation/en/Projects/tier -2-projects/Flexible-Plug-and-Play-(FPP)/ – You tube video of project director explaining some aspects of the innovative work on commercial arrangements: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXYjiEQy4iU ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Flexible Plug and Play Project Scarce capacity: • Extensive reinforcement • Longer build time • More expensive connection Other project partners include: Eastern Power Networks (October 2013) FPP Trial Area ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Flexible Plug and Play Project Two key elements: • Capex savings Up to 90% • Cost of curtailment 6% has been proved tolerable ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Hydro Voltage Control Challenge To increase the export capacity of a 750kW rated hydro generator, currently limited to 450 kW because of a voltage constraint. Approach Control real power export of Hydro Generator with respect to voltage at point of connection Reduce voltage set-point of On-Load Tap Changer when measured voltage at remote end of adjacent feeder permits, increasing voltage headroom for the Hydro Generator Expected benefits Maximise export capacity of Hydro Generator Demonstrate that on-load tap changer can be used to decrease voltage, creating head room for generation, but still keeping it within statutory limits Show that sufficient capacity can be created to connect additional generation in the area. ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Hydro Voltage Control AVC Primary Substation New Comms Existing Comms V Hydro Generator SCADA (Control Room) V Remote Constraint Location ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Belgium Case Study 62 MVA 70.359 36 MVA 6.4 km 48 Cu Comblain 84 MVA 0.9 km 298 AMS 11 MVA 15.47 Bütgenbach T2 20 MVA 20 MVA 41 MVA T1 9.6 km 93 AMS 15.7 kV 110 MVA T4 300 MVA T3 70.329 Brume 380 kV T1 20 MVA 48 MVA 70.328 (55 MVA) 15.6 kV T1 40 MVA 40 MVA T2 T1 15.8 kV Out of service planned on 2015 15.1 km 148 AMS T11 48 MVA 70.327 (55 MVA) 12 MVA 60 MVA 20 MVA T3 22 MVA Cierreux 510 MVA 0.3 km 2x 298 AMS 15.8 kV T2 18.5 km 148 AMS 97 MVA 220.504 22 km 1000 AluPRC 70.363 27.5 km 2x 298 AMS 220.504 510 MVA T1 14 MVA St Vith Brume 220 kV Villeroux 220 kV 10 MVA 20 MVA T2A Amel Overloaded circuit (N-1) 90 MVA 33 MVA 7.3 km 148 AMS 70.330 41 MVA T2 13 MVA 13 MVA 70.325 160 MVA Switch (disconnector) Circuit breaker 30 MVA T2B 0.8 km 2x 298 AMS Hydroelectric 15.8 kV HY 2.5 MVA 70.332 T1 Legend T3 10 MVA Stephanshof Trois-Ponts East Loop HY 70.331 Coo Rimière T2 6 kV 10.1 km 93 AMS 16.5 km 182 AMS 84 MVA 6.9 km 298 AMS 70.350 Bronrome T1 18 MVA 62 MVA 18 MVA Beverce 70.362 HY Pepinster 3.9 km 93 AMS 70.351 70.360 24.1 km 182 AMS Romsée 220 kV 41 MVA Bomal T8 Soiron 15.6 kV 11.2 km 93 AMS 41 MVA 70.349 HY 5 MVA 62 MVA 70.360 13 MVA 4.5 km 182 AMS 13 MVA 6 kV Romsée 70 kV 127 MVA • 70 kV transmission network owned and operated by ELIA • MV distribution network owned and operated by ORES • ANM deployment required across transmission and distribution • Growth of distribution connected wind generation is causing congestion on the 70 kV East Loop • Network reconfiguration challenges • Different commercial arrangements at transmission and distribution? • Dynamic line ratings installed T1 10.3 km 182 AMS Heid de Goreux 70 kV T2 TurboJet 18 MVA 25 MVA IBV 6 kV Houffalize 70 kV Spanolux 8.4 MVA ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved. 15.7 kV
Integration of Microgrids and DER Challenge Undertake an engineering study to explore the challenges and opportunities in defining and implementing Microgrids and advanced control of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Approach Show how the future grid can interact with customer equipment to create a more dynamic grid system Focus on areas where implementation could realize societal benefits: Review existing technology Deferral of capital investment in new infrastructure Customer savings Increased resiliency Develop sustainable business models Expected benefits Identification of technology solutions and options for integrating increased levels of DER and Microgrids Increase capacity of existing infrastructure to connect greater levels of DER ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
SGS Approach to Microgrids ANM products and applications are suited to managing the interaction between Microgrids and the host utility Provide visibility Manage network constraints By controlling DERs as individual devices or as a collective Microgrid entity, ANM allows utilities to realise maximum value from devices installed by customers as well as minimise the cost of providing connections Curtailment of distributed generation during power overload / high voltages Reactive power control for power factor correction or voltage control Automated demand response based on prevailing network conditions measured in real-time ANM can manage the process of intentional islanding and also mitigate the risks of unintentional islanding and reconnection ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Distributed Energy Resource Management Systems (DERMS) • EPRI report in 2013 identified DERMS as emerging area • Advanced DMS Applications ‘space’ • Often synonymous with Demand Response Management Systems • Cloud-based Vs Host Utility Systems • Open integration is key to evolution of the grid management space – How to do this while maintaining security and addressing cyber security issues? At the device, protocol, networking, application levels? ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Relevance to Canada • Solutions to connect generation (e.g. PV, wind) to constrained networks where the cost and/or delay due to upgrades prevents projects going ahead • Proven congestion (including DLR) and voltage management solutions for all kinds of DER – Demand, generation and storage control – From small batteries and hot water tanks to large batteries and generators and associated grid components • Incrementally adding functionality rather than buying a ‘big’ DMS • Flexible and redundant grid management architectures, integrating to the existing DMS/EMS • Integration and coordination of multiple types of Microgrids • Growth of micro-generation eroding capacity and impacting on network performance • Opportunity to collaborate on solution development ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Parallels with Canada • You know better than me! • Many of the drivers on grid management are similar across developed countries • The commercial context and regulatory environment will dictate the pace of change, which varies by country and province – CAPEX vs OPEX? Utility business models and revenue opportunities due to CAPEX reduction/deferral? Even if it increases OPEX? • These are early days – solutions looking for problems? • User defined algorithms and flexibility, new systems – what does this mean for the skills and demographic in the host utility? ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Conclusions • ANM is an emerging part of the grid management space • The drivers are common across international projects, but the adoption behaviour is driven by local regulatory regimes • Issues associated with renewables integration, EMS/DMS deployment, resilience and increasing data dependency are common to the UK, EU, USA and Canada • Lessons are being learned elsewhere, this learning needs to be visible and accessible • It remains to be seen where this is taking utilities – skills, people, recruitment – this should be an exciting time to join the industry ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
Thank you Dr Bob Currie CTO and Co-Founder firstname.lastname@example.org ©2014: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
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