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Published on December 28, 2007

Author: Yuan


Growth of the Glorious Internet: Technology, Economics & Society :  Growth of the Glorious Internet: Technology, Economics & Society Ivan P Kaminow University of California, Berkeley January 28, 2005 Technology does not develop in a vacuum Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements I am grateful to all who have made their slides available: V. Cerf, MCI M. Zirngibl, Lucent J. Walrand & P. Varaiya, High-Perormance Communication Networks Xiaoxue Zhao, UCB Telecommunications Systems:  Long Distance Network Central Office Telecommunications Systems Central Office Central Office Central Office Central Office Central Office Major City - Regional Center Major City - Regional Center San Francisco New York Metro Network Slide4:  Public Switched Telephone Network Centralized switch synchronization Propagation delay - 5ms/1000km Billing PSTN-public switched telephone network:  PSTN-public switched telephone network Slide6:  STANDARD BIT-RATES: 155 Mb/s = 2000 telephone calls 620 Mb/s = 8000 telephone calls 2.5 Gb/s = 30,000 telephone calls 10 Gb/s = 120,000 telephone calls 40 Gb/s = 480,000 telephone calls OUTAGE PROBABLILTY GOAL 3 sec/year = 10-7 Slide7:  Transmitting Data Signals Over Long Distances Repeater Hut Microwaves Microwave Relay Towers & Dish Antennas Slide8:  Transmitting Data Signals Over Long Distances Repeater Hut Microwaves Repeater Hut Buried Coaxial Cable Microwave Relay Towers & Dish Antennas Slide9:  Fiber Optical Fiber: 650 M km installed Government Anti-trust v AT&T:  Government Anti-trust v AT&T MCI = Microwave Communications, Inc Carterphone - answering machine 1984 - separation of local and long distance, 7 RBOCs and AT&T Slide11:  BELLHEADS SURRENDER TO NETHEADS Packet Switched Network:  Packet Switched Network Distributed control, self-healing Designed for bursty data Intelligence at edge Can interconnect any type network and any application using simple TCP/IP protocol Innovators don’t need permission: Google, VoIP Best effort service, lost packets Latency = processing + propagation delay Historical Perspective: unrest: 1950s~1970s:  Historical Perspective: unrest: 1950s~1970s McCarthyism - communist witch hunt (1954) Cuban missile crisis (1962) Vietnam War (1963 - 1975) Berkeley student protests Height of the cold war Fear of nuclear attack Technical Perspective: ~1970s:  Technical Perspective: ~1970s AT&T hardening switches Survivable ARPAnet (1969 UCLA)=> Internet (1974, TCP/IP), US Department of Defense ***** Invention of double heterostructure semiconductor laser, Bell Labs Invention of low attenuation optical fiber, Corning Slide15:  May 1974: “A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication,” Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, IEEE Transactions on Communications Technical Perspective: ~1980s:  Technical Perspective: ~1980s 1981 - Personal Computer, IBM/Intel/Microsoft 1983 - Commercial fiber network, Boston - NY -Washington, Northeast Corridor, AT&T Technical Perspective: ~1995:  Technical Perspective: ~1995 Commercial Internet, US Department of Commerce Commercial Web browser, Netscape Burst of traffic growth … no reliable data Slide18:  GLOBAL TELECOMS TRAFFIC TERABYTES, ‘000 Voice traffic Source: Analysys, The Economist 5/99 1998 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Data traffic Year  H. Kogelnik, ECOC 2004 U.S. INTERNET TRAFFIC:  U.S. INTERNET TRAFFIC From A. M. Odlyzko, “Internet Traffic Growth,” 2003, <> Slide20:  NASDAQ STOCK MARKET BUBBLE 1998-2003 Peak: March 2000 2046, 1/26/2005 BUBBLE = PERFECT STORM:  BUBBLE = PERFECT STORM optical fiber technology - backbone computer technology - PC commercial Internet - connectivity Web browser - killer application government deregulation - competition venture capital, marketing hype - spark Internet - Global Statistics:  Internet - Global Statistics 22.5 Million Hosts (Bellcore June 1997) 50 Million Users (NUA Jul 1997) 250 Million Hosts (ISC Apr 2004) 797.9 Million Users ( August 2004) [Other estimates range from 850M-950M] (approx. 2.3 Billion Telephone Terminations, 600 Million PCs [ITU] and 1.34B mobile phones; Washington Internet Daily, 10/6/04) % Internet Use (May 2004):  % Internet Use (May 2004) Sweden (76.8%) United States (67.6%) Australia (66.6%) Netherlands (66.0%) Hong Kong (63.0%) Iceland (62.5%) Denmark (62.5%) S. Korea (62.0%) Singapore (60.0%) Switzerland (59.6%) ROW 7.8% (471.1 M) Total 66.7% (274.3 M) Internet Basics - V. Cerf, MCI:  Internet Basics - V. Cerf, MCI The Internet is a network of networks interconnected by means of the Internet Protocol Suite.. Circuit and Packet Switching:  Circuit Switching Packet Switching Circuit and Packet Switching “telephone network” Internet Packet Switching Features:  Host A B Multiplexing data from multiple processes “Store-and-forward” Automatic speed adaptation Adaptive alternate routing Packet Switching Features Internet Packet Formats:  Internet Packet Formats “from” address “to” address CONTENTS An Internet Packet Version number “4” “hello” => Internet Addressing:  Internet Addressing IPv4 - 32 bits (4.3 billion addresses) IPv6 – 128 bits (3x1038 addresses) World population = 6.2 billion Internetworking:  Internetworking H R R H Routers Encapsulation End-to-end packets Internet Protocol- IP “Routers were once called Gateways between nets” Slide31:  IP: The “Thin Waist” of the Internet- Smart apps … dumb pipes Internet: a Network of Connected Sub-Networks Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 Who owns Internet? Grand Collaboration:  Who owns Internet? Grand Collaboration ICANN = Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers - IANA = Internet Assigned Numbers Authority Architecture Board (IAB) Internet Society (ISOC) Internet Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ITU = International Telecommunications Union United Nations Professional Societies IEEE, ACM, IEE, … World Intellectual Property Organization And many more! Broadband Internet Access:  Broadband Internet Access Dial up Cable DSL FTTP => FCC Apps drive traffic growth Videoconferencing online:  Videoconferencing online Video-conferencing is a reality. High speed access is preferable but it can be made to work at dial up speeds (jerkily) Many suppliers Tsinghua webtalk VoIP:  VoIP Cost Reduction (with broadband connection) Advanced Applications Web-enabled call centers Google VoIP Remote telecommuting TV over IP EoIP = everything over IP VoIP Services:  VoIP Services Self-provided Customer Independent of Internet access Provided by broadband access service provider Corporate Internal Use on Business LAN / WAN Carrier Internal Use Self-Provided Customer:  Self-Provided Customer IP connection Voice-enabled device Examples: Skype, MSN Address Info Independent of Internet Access:  Independent of Internet Access Customer in agreement with IP telephony company, independent of ISP Uses gateway to connect to PSTN Calls can be made to either VoIP users or PSTN users IP connection and Voice-enabled device Examples: Vonage, Packet8, Net2Phone IRIS: A Scalable, Optically Load-Balanced Router:  IRIS: A Scalable, Optically Load-Balanced Router Martin Zirngibl Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies *** $12M DARPA Consortium Agility, UCSC, Lehigh, USC, Telcordia Input-Buffered Routers:  Input-Buffered Routers In order to avoid Head-of-Line Blocking operation is based on Virtual Output Queues (at each input one queue for each output) Central scheduling (arbitration) On packet arrival central scheduler is notified about arrival Scheduler matches input and output ports to maximize throughput Requires Complex RAMs Ingress Line Card Ingress Line Card Crossbar Switch Scheduler Egress Line Card Egress Line Card Packet Processing Packet Processing Virtual Output Queues Evolution of packet switches:  Evolution of packet switches Slide42:  Integrated NxN Multiplexer WAVELENGTH ROUTING f1 f2 f3 f4 Input 1 2 3 4 Output 1 2 3 4 Slide43:  T-Tx T-Tx T-Tx T-Tx 40G Rx 40G Rx 40G Rx 40G Rx Clock Buffer Sche- duler From Input Port retiming Output Wavelength switching A Load-Balanced Architecture:  A Load-Balanced Architecture Three stage architecture Space – Memory – Space First stage uses a “static” round-robin to schedule to distribute arriving packets to middle stage memories Packets are stored in the middle stage on Virtual Output Queues Second crossbar delivers packets to final destination based on “static” round-robin schedule Advantages: Does not require a central scheduling and alleviates the scheduling problems Switch Fabrics can be blocking Mid-stage memories Simplified Mini-Tutorial on Load-Balancing:  Mini-Tutorial on Load-Balancing 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Integrated Amplified Delay Lines:  Integrated Amplified Delay Lines Amplified waveguide delay lines 6 cm ~ 0.7 ns 9 cm ~ 1.0 ns 16.5 cm ~ 1.9 ns 20.4 cm ~ 2.4 ns Performance Propagation losses: ~ 0.5dB/cm No evident PDL (straight and curved waveguides) Best loss ever ~ 0.2dB/cm in straight waveguide Slide47:  The end

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