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Published on October 29, 2007

Author: Arundel0

Source: authorstream.com

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How I think about the teaching episode:  How I think about the teaching episode Knowles -- Andragogy:  Knowles -- Andragogy Self-concept Prior experience Readiness to learn Learning orientation Motivation to learn Principles of Adult Learning:  Principles of Adult Learning Learner - Centered Personalized Context Dependent for appropriate tools Context leads to experiential reflection Experience What’s Important to Adult Learners ?:  What’s Important to Adult Learners ? Involvement Affiliation Teacher Support ( + / - ) Task Orientation ( + / - ) What’s Important to Adult Learners ?:  What’s Important to Adult Learners ? Personal Goal Attainment Organization and Clarity Personal Influence ( Independence ) Experiential Learning Cycle:  Experiential Learning Cycle º º Experiencing Sharing Processing Generalizing Applying Activity - Perceptual Modality - Learning:  Activity - Perceptual Modality - Learning Framing:  Framing Adult problem setting process Situated Cognition* Naming Selection for attention Selection for organization Reflection Perspective transformation *Wilson, Arthur L. “The Promise of Situated Cognition,” New Directions for Adult and Continuing Learning, no 57, Spring, 1993. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Reflective Process:  Reflective Process Donald Schon Artistry of the professional Reflection in action Theories of action Practice theories Refs: Donald Schon The Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, 1983 Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1986 My research:  My research POSITIVE POLE (student-centered orientation) is enthusiastic about subject and teaching should facilitate interactive discussions should facilitate learning consistently observes the learner and reviews their progress believe that for students to learn they must be involved in their instruction should say when uncertain or do not know about the handling or background of a case Gelula, 1996 Gelula continued:  Gelula continued POSITIVE POLE (continued) act as a role model be straightforward and honest with students have good interpersonal skills Gelula continued:  Gelula continued NEGATIVE POLE emphasize as many teaching points as necessary effective teaching requires special educational skills and background theory should be meticulous in their teaching organization should be the expert should be dramatic in their teaching behaviors anyone can be a lecturer What is involved in effective teaching:  What is involved in effective teaching clarity instructional variety ability of the teacher to engage students in the learning process teacher task processes methods by which teachers find ways to effect higher success rates among learners (Borich, 1966) Effective teaching in clinical medical education:  Effective teaching in clinical medical education activities that promote active student participation preceptor attitude toward teaching emphasis on applied problem-solving student centered instructional strategies involving the student in the case communicating instructor expectations to the student stimulation of interest demonstration of skillful interaction with patients humanistic orientation emphasis on references and research Effective teaching behaviors & characteristics common to classroom and clinical education:  Effective teaching behaviors & characteristics common to classroom and clinical education organization and clarity of the teacher group instructional skills enthusiasm and the ability to stimulate the learner ability to display content knowledge Irby, 1978 clinical supervision regularly practiced personal clinical competence ability to model professional characteristics Least effective characteristics in clinical medical education:  Least effective characteristics in clinical medical education failure to provide adequate feedback to students failure to emphasize concerns of patients tendency to dwell on specific content as opposed to a problem-solving approach to patient care Stritter & Hain, 1977 What’s all this about:  ENTHUSIASM What’s all this about Enthusiasm is what the student perceives enthusiasm is engendered by a caring teacher demonstrates interest in students (?caring) manifests careful and caring approach to their discipline and the subject cares about relationship of subject to the student’s world cares about relationship of subject to the real world Teaching to Competence:  Teaching to Competence Observation Practice Performance Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Teaching as discourse:  Teaching as discourse “The learning process must be constituted as a dialogue between teacher and student, operating at the level of descriptions of actions in the world, recognizing the second-order character of academic knowledge . . .” (Diana Laurillard, 1993) Discursive characteristics of teaching:  Discursive characteristics of teaching Teacher’s and student’s conceptions should each be accessible to the other teacher and students must agree on learning goals for the topic and task teacher must provide an environment within which students can act on, generate and receive feedback on descriptions appropriate to the topic goal (Laurillard, 1993) Adaptive characteristics of teaching:  Adaptive characteristics of teaching The teacher has the responsibility to use the relationship between their own and the student’s conception to determine the focus of the continuing dialogue (Laurillard, 1993) Interactive characteristics of teaching:  Interactive characteristics of teaching The student must act to achieve the task goal the teacher must provide meaningful intrinsic feedback on the actions that relate to the nature of the task goal (Laurillard, 1993) Reflective characteristics of teaching:  Reflective characteristics of teaching The teacher must support the process in which students link the feedback on their actions to the topic goal for every level of description within the topic structure (Laurillard, 1993) Bigg’s SOLO Taxonomy:  Structure of Observed Learning Outcome Bigg’s SOLO Taxonomy 1 Prestructural irrelevant information, or no meaningful response 2 Unistructural answer focuses on one relevant aspect only 3 Multistructural answer focuses on several relevant features, but they are not coordinated together (in Ramsden, 1992) Bigg’s SOLO Taxonomy:  Bigg’s SOLO Taxonomy 4 Relational the several parts are integrated into a coherent whole: details are linked to conclusions; meaning is understood answer generalizes the structure beyond the information given: higher order principles are used to bring in a new and broader set of issues 5 Extended abstract Student and teacher roles in the learning process:  Student and teacher roles in the learning process Apprehending structure Integrating parts Acting on descriptions Using feedback Reflecting on goal-action-feedback Look for structure Translate & interpret Relate goal to discourse Derive implications, solve problems, test Ho’s to produce descriptions Link T’s redescription to relations between action & goal to produce new description Engage with goal; relate to actions & feedback Aspects of Learning Process Student’s Role (Laurillard, 1993) Student and teacher roles in the learning process:  Student and teacher roles in the learning process Apprehending structure Integrating parts Acting on descriptions Using feedback Reflecting on goal-action-feedback Explain, clarify structure, negotiate topic goal Offer mappings, ask about internal relations Elicit descriptions, compare, highlight inconsistencies provide redescriptions, elicit new descriptions, support linking process Prompt reflection; support reflection on goal-action-feedback Aspects of Learning Process Teacher’s Role (Laurillard, 1993) Learning: deep and surface approaches:  Learning: deep and surface approaches Emphasis on recall application of trivial procedural knowledge excessive material poor or absent feedback lack of independence in studying cynical messages about rewards Teaching and assessment foster active and long-term engagement with learning tasks clearly stated academic expectations stimulating teaching which demonstrates teachers personal commitment to subject Surface Deep (Ramsden, 1992) References:  References Borich, Gary (1996). Effective Teaching Methods (3rd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill. Gelula, Mark (1996). What Do Faculty Believe: Using Q-Method to Inform Faculty Development of Medical Faculty. Paper presented to the 12rth International Conference on Subjectivity, October 3-5, 1996. Harrsch, M. 1998. Quoted in William R. Klemm (1999). “Will Distance Education Really Revolutionize Higher Education?.” The Technology Source (January). http://horizon.unc.edu/TS/vision/ References (continued):  References (continued) Irby, David (1978) “Clinical Teacher Effectiveness in Medicine,” J Med Ed., 53:808-815. Irby, David (1991) “Characteristics of Effective Clinical Teachers of Ambulatory Care Medicine,” Academic Med., 66:54-55. Laurillard, Diana (1993). Rethinking University Teaching. London: Routledge. Ramsden, Paul (1992). Learning to Teach in Higher Education. London: Routledge. Stritter, F. and J. Hain (1977). “A Workshop in Clinical Teaching,” J. Med. Ed. 52:155-157. Stritter, F. and J. Hain and Grimes (1975). “Clinical Teaching Reexamined.” J. Med. Ed. 50:877-882.

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