Sleep Disorders

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Information about Sleep Disorders

Published on July 17, 2007

Author: michael_krauss

Source: slideshare.net

Description

One student's PPT from the Thinking Critically class at AES, summer 2007

Sleep Disorders Chi-Eun Kim

Parasomnias Sleep Disorders VS Dyssomnias Lack of Sleep Disturbed sleep Excessive Sleep

Lack of Sleep Sleep Deprivation Insomnia

Insomnia Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep. It is common problem that most people experience at least occasionally .

Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep.

It is common problem that most people

experience at least occasionally .

Why? Consequently, insomnia often disr u pts daily life. It can result from - Diet (intake of caffeine or alcohol) - Stress - Emotional Difficulties - Underlying Disease

Consequently, insomnia often disr u pts daily life. It can result from

Result When it occurs, people feel tired much of the time and ofte n worry a lot about not getting enough sleep.

When it occurs, people feel tired much

of the time and ofte n worry a lot about

not getting enough sleep.

Sleep Deprivation Actually sleep deprivation is not a Disorder. It just indicates that a person has not been getting enough sleep.

Actually sleep deprivation is not a

Disorder. It just indicates that a

person has not been getting enough

sleep.

Result It’ll affect person’s judgment, reaction-time, hand-eye coordination, memory, general well-being and immune system.

It’ll affect person’s judgment,

reaction-time, hand-eye coordination,

memory, general well-being and immune

system.

How can I know that I am a Sleep Deprived patient? Feeling drowsy during the day? Falling asleep for very short period of time(5 min or so) ? Regularly falling asleep immediately after lying down?

Feeling drowsy during the day?

Falling asleep for very short period of time(5 min or so) ?

Regularly falling asleep immediately after lying down?

It means you need more SLEEP!!! Go to bed NOW !!!

It means you need more SLEEP!!!

Go to bed NOW !!!

Disturbed Sleep Sleep Apnea Restless Leg Syndrome(RLS) and Periodic limb movement Disorder REM sleep behavior Disorder

Sleep Apnea Sleep Apnea is interrupted breathing during sleep. It usually occurs because of a mechanical problem in the windpipe. But it also indicates a neurological disorder involving nerve cells (neurons).

Sleep Apnea is interrupted breathing

during sleep.

It usually occurs because of a

mechanical problem in the windpipe.

But it also indicates a neurological

disorder involving nerve cells (neurons).

Process As people age, muscle tone relaxes, which may cause the windpipe to collapse. This condition is called Obstructive Sleep Apnea. It results in loud snoring and blocked air flow through the windpipe.

As people age, muscle tone relaxes, which may cause the windpipe to collapse.

This condition is called Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

It results in loud snoring and blocked air flow through the windpipe.

It lasts from 10 to 60 seconds. People may be gasping or snorting. And then the brain quickly reacts to the sudden lack of oxygen, the muscles tighten. Windpipe opens.

It lasts from 10 to 60 seconds.

People may be gasping or snorting.

And then the brain quickly reacts to the sudden lack of oxygen, the muscles tighten.

Windpipe opens.

Why? Narrow nasal passages, enlarged tonsils, and obesity are factors that may contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. It also may be re la ted to alcohol, tobacco, or sedatives.

Narrow nasal passages, enlarged

tonsils, and obesity are factors that

may contribute to obstructive sleep

apnea. It also may be re la ted to alcohol,

tobacco, or sedatives.

Result T he sleep cycle can be interrupted as many as 100 times a night. E very time the windpipe closes, the brain is deprived of oxygen.

T he sleep cycle can be interrupted as many as 100 times a night.

E very time the windpipe closes, the brain is deprived of oxygen.

This lack of oxygen eventually can cause problems morning headaches and decreased mental function. High risk for heart disease and stroke

This lack of oxygen eventually can cause problems morning headaches and decreased mental function.

High risk for heart disease and stroke

REM Sleep behavior disorder It causes disruptions in the brain during REM sleep.

It causes disruptions

in the brain

during REM sleep.

Process Pons Signal Signal Cerebral Cortex Muscles Thinking & Organizing Information REM SLEEP

Result It caus es a type of temporary paralysis. In a person with REM sleep behavior disorder, these signals translate into images that make up dreams.

It caus es a type of temporary paralysis.

In a person with REM sleep behavior disorder, these signals translate into images that make up dreams.

If the signals are interfered with, the person may physically act out dreams during sleep. For example, if a patient with REM sleep behavior disorder dreams about running, he or she might actually get up and run. As a result of this condition, patients may injure themselves or others. BUT !!! REM sleep behavior disorder is rare.

If the signals are interfered with, the person may physically act out dreams during sleep. For example, if a patient with REM sleep behavior disorder dreams about running, he or she might actually get up and run.

As a result of this condition, patients may injure themselves or others.

BUT !!! REM sleep behavior disorder is rare.

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) It is a common sleep disorder, especially in the elderly. Also RLS is a genetic disorder

It is a common sleep disorder,

especially in the elderly.

Also RLS is a genetic disorder

Result It cause s patients to want to move their legs. It often results in insomnia.

It cause s patients to want to move their legs.

It often results in insomnia.

PLMD causes jerking in the legs or arms that occurs frequently during resting or sleeping. Jerking may occur as many as 3 times in a minute and each jerk can wake the patient.

PLMD causes jerking in the legs or arms that occurs frequently during resting or sleeping. Jerking may occur as many as 3 times in a minute and each jerk can wake the patient.

Excessive Sleep Disorder Narcolepsy Cataplexy Sleep paralysis Hypnagogic hallucinations

Narcolepsy It is a condition that causes patients to fall asleep uncontrollably throughout the day for periods lasting less than a minute to more than half an hour.

It is a condition that causes patients

to fall asleep uncontrollably throughout

the day for periods lasting less than a

minute to more than half an hour.

These sleep attacks can occur at anytime, even while the person is engaged in an activity !!!

These sleep attacks can occur

at anytime,

even while the person is

engaged in an activity !!!

Process During sleep, narcoleptics have an abnormal sleep pattern: They enter REM sleep prematurely without going through the normal sequence of sleep stages.

During sleep, narcoleptics have an abnormal sleep pattern:

They enter REM sleep prematurely without going through the normal sequence of sleep stages.

Narcolepsy usually is a genetic (inherited) disorder, although it may be associated with brain damage or neurological disease.

Narcolepsy usually is a genetic (inherited) disorder, although it may be associated with brain damage or neurological disease.

When? age : 15 - 30 When people get pregnant, ill, a fever, or stress.

age : 15 - 30

When people get pregnant, ill, a fever, or stress.

Result often feel tired most of the time. cataplexy, and sleep paralysis.

often feel tired most of the time.

cataplexy,

and sleep paralysis.

Cataplexy Cataplexy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles. When cataplexy occurs, persons who are standing may fall down.

Cataplexy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles.

When cataplexy occurs, persons who are standing may fall down.

In narcoleptic patients, it may be triggered by tiredness and intense emotions and may be accompanied by short, sudden episodes of laughter or anger.

In narcoleptic patients, it may be

triggered by tiredness and intense

emotions and may be accompanied by

short, sudden episodes of laughter or

anger.

Sleep paralysis Sleep paralysis is the inability to move the arms, legs, or entire body that occurs when a person is falling asleep or waking up.

Sleep paralysis is the inability to move the arms, legs, or entire body that occurs when a person is falling asleep or waking up.

Result People who experience sleep paralysis may become very anxious and often regain movement only if they hear a loud noise or another stimulus.

People who experience sleep paralysis

may become very anxious and often

regain movement only if they hear a

loud noise or another stimulus.

Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams, are dream-like hallucinations that occur in the transition between being awake and being asleep.

Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams, are dream-like hallucinations that occur in the transition between being awake and being asleep.

Often, they are very vivid, frightening dreams.

Often, they are very vivid, frightening dreams.

BONUS

Sources: http://www.neurologychannel.com/sleepdisorders/types.shtml http://www.athealth.com/consumer/disorders/Sleep.html

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