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Sleep and Dreams

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Information about Sleep and Dreams
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Published on October 19, 2008

Author: aSGuest1339

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide 1: SLEEP AND DREAMS… Chapter 5 Huffman/Ch 6 Nairne States of Consciousness Slide 2: Consciousness: an organism’s subjective awareness of internal and external events in its environment Attention: internal processes that set priorities for mental functioning Slide 3: Levels of awareness: HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment Slide 4: Levels of awareness: HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) Automaticity – fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention Slide 5: Levels of awareness: HIGH: Controlled processes that require attention (and interfere with other functions) MIDDLE: Automatic processes requiring minimal attention (such as riding your bike) LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment Sleep : Sleep Sleep is a behavior AND an altered state of consciousness We spend about a third of our lives in sleep. EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Summated brain wave activity (EEG) Wakefulness: beta activity (13-30 Hz) Eyes closed: alpha activity (8-12 Hz) EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Stage 1: Light Sleep – Alpha Waves Stage 2: Eye movements & brain waves slow; sleep spindles EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep Stage 3: very slow waves - delta waves appear Stage 4: almost all delta waves Very hard to wake during this stage EEG Changes During Sleep : EEG Changes During Sleep REM stage: rapid, irregular and shallow breathing, eyes jerk rapidly, both wake and sleep waves (sawtooth pattern) Theories of Sleep : Theories of Sleep Repair/Restoration Sleep allows for recuperation from physical, emotional, and intellectual fatigue Survival Value Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from predators Slide 12: “Sometimes,a cigar is just a cigar.” - Freud, on the meaning of dreams A.K.A. Psychoanalytic theory: Dreams represent disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties Manifest Content: symbols used to disguise true meaning of dream Latent Content: true unconscious meaning of a dream Wish Fulfillment – Freud’s DreamTheory… WHY DO WE DREAM!? : WHY DO WE DREAM!? Activation-synthesis hypothesis: Dreams represent random activation of brain cells during REM sleep Problem Solving Dreams focus on the problems we have in an attempt to find a solution Threat simulation Dreams evolved to help us practice skills we need to avoid threats. Dyssomnias : Dyssomnias Insomnia - difficulty in getting to sleep or remaining asleep Situational: related to anxiety or excitement Drug-induced: sleeping pills (tolerance) Dyssomnias : Dyssomnias Sleep apnea: person stops breathing and is awakened when blood levels of carbon dioxide stimulate breathing Narcolepsy: Sleep appears at odd times Sleep attack: urge to sleep during the day Cataplexy: REM paralysis occurs, person is still conscious Myths of Sleep : Myths of Sleep Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain good health Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be done during sleep Some people never dream Dreams last only a few seconds Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content It is unrelated to sexual content May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes of impotence in males Slide 17: Drugs that Influence Consciousness NEXT...TIME...

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