SKILLED FOR LIFE - I DATI DELL'ITALIA

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Published on March 1, 2014

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The Skills Needed for the 21st Century

Skilled for Life? KEY FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 0

Survey of Adult Skills Participating countries 2013 (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide). 1

Survey of Adult Skills Participating countries 2016 (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide). 2

Survey of Adult Skills in brief 166 thousand adults… Representing 724 million 16-65 yearolds in 24 countries/economies Took an internationally agreed assessment… in literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments. Also surveyed were generic skills such as collaborating with others and organising one’s time, and how adults use their skills (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide). 3

Skills Transform Lives and Drive Economies What people know and what they can do with what they know has a major impact on their life chances SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 4

Likelihood of positive social and economic outcomes among highly literate adults (scoring at Level 4/5 compared with those scoring at Level 1 or below) Average Odds ratio England (UK) 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 Good to excellent health Being Employed High levels of Participation High levels of trust in volunteer political activities efficacy High wages

Inequality in skills relates to how wealth is shared in nations SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 6

Inequality in the distribution of income and literacy skills 0,2 0,22 Average Income inequality (Gini coefficient) High income inequality Low skills inequality Low income inequality Low skills inequality Denmark 0,24 Norway Sweden 0,26 Austria Flanders (Belgium) 0,28 Slovak Republic Czech Republic Finland Ireland Germany 0,3 Netherlands Korea Estonia Average Poland 0,32 Spain Canada Japan Australia Italy 0,34 England/N. Ireland (UK) 0,36 United States 0,38 0,4 Low income inequality High skills inequality High income inequality High skills inequality 1,7 1,65 1,6 1,55 1,5 1,45 1,4 Literacy skills inequality (9th/1st decile) 7

The level and distribution of skills differs markedly across countries Much of the variation in skills proficiency is observed within countries, so most countries have significant shares of struggling adults SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 8

Skills of adults Numeracy 5th 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th Japan Finland Flanders (Belgium) Netherlands Sweden Norway Denmark Slovak Republic Czech Republic Austria Estonia Germany Russian Federation³ Average Australia Canada Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Poland Northern Ireland (UK) Ireland France United States Italy Spain 240 7 points are roughly equal to one year of education 250 260 270 Score 280 290 300

Skills of adults Literacy 5th 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th Japan Finland Netherlands Australia Sweden Norway Estonia Flanders (Belgium) Russian Federation³ Czech Republic Slovak Republic Canada Average England (UK) Korea England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Germany United States Austria Northern Ireland (UK) Poland Ireland France Spain Italy 240 7 points are roughly equal to one year of education 250 260 270 Score 280 290 300

Skills of adults Literacy 5th 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th Japan Finland Netherlands Australia Sweden Norway Estonia Flanders (Belgium) Russian Federation³ Czech Republic Slovak Republic Canada Average England (UK) Korea England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Germany United States Austria Northern Ireland (UK) Poland Ireland France Spain Italy 100 150 200 250 Score 300 350 400

Skills of adults Literacy 5th 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th Japan Finland Netherlands Australia Sweden Norway Estonia Flanders (Belgium) Russian Federation³ Czech Republic Slovak Republic Canada Average England (UK) Korea England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Germany United States Austria Northern Ireland (UK) Poland Ireland France Spain Italy 100 150 200 250 Score 300 350 400

Evolution of employment in occupational groups defined by level of skills proficiency Percent 15 Occupations with scores in or near upper half of Level 3 10 5 0 Occupations with scores in or near lower half of Level 3 Occupations with scores in or near upper half of Level 2 -5 -10 Occupations with scores in or near lower half of Level 2 14

Proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments Adults at Level 3 can Young adults (16-24 year-olds) • Complete tasks involving multiple Sweden applications, a large number of steps, Finland Netherlands and the discovery and use impasses, Adults at Level 2 can Norway of ad hoc commands in a novel complete problems that Denmark have environment. explicit criteria for Australia success, a small number of • Establish a plan to arrive at a Canada Germany solutionapplications,its several and monitor and steps and operators. They England/N. Ireland (UK) implementation as they deal with Japan can monitor progress unexpected outcomes and impasses. Flanders (Belgium) towards a solution and All adults (16-65 year-olds) Average handle unexpected Czech Republic outcomes or impasses. Austria United States Korea Estonia Slovak Republic Ireland Poland % 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 Level 2 Level 3 40 60 80 100 15

New technologies Percentage of workers who reported the introduction of new process or technologies in their current workplace during the previous three years that affected their work Percent 60 Low-skilled clerical High-skilled clerical Low-skilled manual High-skilled manual Total 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 Sweden Finland Denmark Norway United Kingdom Netherlands Malta Korea Estonia Ireland Latvia France Luxembourg Average Croatia Czech Republic Slovak Republic Belgium Germany Austria Portugal Slovenia Greece Italy Lithuania Montenegro Hungary Turkey Spain Bulgaria Macedonia Romania Albania Poland 20 Source: European Working Conditions Survey, 2010. See Tables A1.7a and A1.7b. 16

Successful integration is not simply a matter of time. In some countries, the time elapsed since immigrants arrived appears to make little difference to their proficiency in literacy and numeracy, suggesting either that the incentives to learn the language of the receiving country are not strong or that policies that encourage learning the language of the receiving country are of limited effectiveness Foreign-language immigrants with low levels of education tend to have low skills SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 18

Literacy proficiency by immigration background 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 Native-born

Literacy proficiency by immigration background 320 300 280 260 240 220 172 200 Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years

Literacy proficiency by immigration background 320 300 280 260 240 220 172 200 Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years Foreign-born - 5 years and more

Some countries have made significant progress in improving skills proficiency SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 22

Literacy skills in younger and older generations US Norway Germany Average 16-24 year-olds Average 55-65 year-olds UK France Finland Spain 240 245 250 255 260 KOREA 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300 Score

Adults at Level 4/5 in literacy Those entering the job market Those nearing retirement Denmark, 0.5% Estonia, 0.2% Flanders (Belgium) , 1% million 16-24 yearolds scoring at Level 4/5 7.9 million 55-65 yearolds scoring at Level 4/5 Korea, 1% 12.6 Ireland, 0.2%

Formal education plays a key role in developing foundation skills… SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 25

Problem solving proficiency by educational attainment Tertiary Below upper secondary Netherlands Sweden Norway Czech Republic Finland Flanders (Belgium) Australia Denmark England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Germany Average United States Austria Japan Northern Ireland (UK) Slovak Republic Canada Ireland Korea Poland Estonia 70 Percent 50 30 10 Level 2 10 Level 3 30 50 70 Percent

… but more education does not automatically translate into better skills SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 27

Mean literacy proficiency and distribution of literacy scores, by educational attainment 25th percentile Mean 75th percentile 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 Score Tertiary Upper secondary Qualifications don’t always equal skills Japan Lower than upper secondary Level 1 and below Level 2 Tertiary Upper secondary Italy Lower than upper secondary 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 Score 28

Success is increasingly about building skills beyond formal education SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 29

Literacy skills and age Score 310 Literacy unadjusted 300 Numeracy unadjusted 290 280 270 Literacy adjusted Numeracy adjusted Level 2 260 250 240 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age 30

Likelihood of participating in adult education and training, by level of literacy proficiency Odds Ratio 8 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4/5 7 6 5 Reference group: Below Level 1 4 3 2 1 31

High quality initial education and lifelong learning Lessons from strong performers • Investing in high quality early childhood education and initial schooling, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds • Financial support targeted at disadvantage • Opportunities and incentives to continued development of proficiency, both outside work and at the workplace.

Make learning everybody’s business Lessons from strong performers • Governments, employers, workers and parents need effective and equitable arrangements as to who does and pays for what, when and how • Recognise that individuals with poor skills are unlikely to engage in education on their own and tend to receive less employersponsored training .

Effective links between learning and work Lessons from strong performers • Emphasis on workbased learning allows people to develop hard skills on modern equipment and soft skills through realworld experience • Employer engagement in education and training with assistance to SMEs • Strengthen relevance of learning, both for workplace and workers broader employability .

Allow workers to adapt learning to their lives Lessons from strong performers • Flexibility in content and delivery (parttime, flexible hours, convenient location) • Distance learning and open education resources .

Identify those who can benefit from learning most Lessons from strong performers • Disadvantaged adults need to be offered and encouraged to improve their learning • Foreign-language migrants • Older adults • Show how adults can benefit from improved skills, both economically and socially .

Improve transparency Lessons from strong performers • Easy-to-find information about adult education activities • Combination of easily searchable, up-to-date online information and personal guidance and counselling services • Less educated workers tend to be less aware of the opportunities • Recognise and certify skills proficiency .

Putting skills to effective use Skills will only translate into better economic and social outcomes if they are used effectively SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 38

Use of skills at work Most frequent use = 4 2,4 Index of use 2,2 Average 2 United States Italy 1,8 Japan United Kingdom 1,6 1,4 Reading at work Least frequent use = 0 Writing at Numeracy at ICT at work work work Problem solving at work

The use of information-processing skills at work, by establishment size Most frequent use = 4 2,4 2,2 Index of use 1-10 employees 2,0 11-50 employees 51-250 employees 1,8 251-1000 employees 1000+ employees 1,6 1,4 Reading at work Least frequent use = 0 Writing at work Numeracy at ICT at work work Problem solving

Percentage of workers who are over/under qualified over/under-skilled in literacy Sweden Finland Canada Netherlands Northern… England Estonia Poland Denmark Flanders… UK Norway United States Australia Japan Average Korea Italy Slovak… Germany Ireland Czech… Spain Austria Underqualification Overqualification %40 % 30 20 10 0 0 Under-skilled Over-skilled 10 20 30 40 %

Labour productivity and the use of reading skills at work 4,6 (log) Labour productivity 4,4 4,2 Slope = 1.118 (0.407) R2 = 0.296 Norway Ireland Adjusted prediction Slope = 1.643 (0.504) R2 = 0.371 4 Spain Italy Netherlands Denmark Germany United States Austria Sweden Australia 3,8 Finland Japan 3,6 3,4 Slovak Republic 3,2 Poland Korea Czech Republic Canada England/N. Ireland (UK) Estonia 3 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 Use of reading skills at work 42

Equal skills don’t always imply equal opportunities Gender differences in the use of literacy and numeracy skills are partly due to the fact that men appear to be slightly more proficient but also that they are more commonly employed in full-time jobs, where skills are used more intensively. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 43

Gender gap in wages and in the use of problemsolving skills at work Percentage difference between men’s and women’s wages (men minus women) 35 Estonia 30 Japan Slope 0.840 (0.199) R2 = 0.472 25 Korea Czech Republic United States 20 England/N. Ireland (UK) Austria Finland Slovak Republic Canada 15 Norway Australia Denmark 10 Netherlands Sweden Flanders (Belgium) 5 0 -10 Poland -5 0 Spain Adjusted prediction Slope 0.068 (0.123) R2 = 0.015 Germany Italy Ireland 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percentage difference in the use of problem-solving skills at work (men minus women) 44

Guidance Lessons from strong performers • Timely data about demand for and supply of skills • Competent personnel who have the latest labour-market information at their fingertips to steer learners • Qualifications that are coherent and easy to interpret .

Flexible labourmarkets Lessons from strong performers • Labour-market arrangements that facilitate effective skill use and address skill mismatches • Encourage mobility to optimise skill match .

Help employers make better use of workers skills Lessons from strong performers • Flexible work arrangements that accommodate workers with care obligations and disabilities • Encourage older workers to remain in the labour market • Encourage employers to hire those who temporarily withdrew from the labour market .

Help economies move up the value chain Lessons from strong performers • Governments can influence both employer competitiveness strategies and productmarket strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes • Strengthen 21st century skills • Foster entrepreneurship.

Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org …and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion 49

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