Skeletal System Lecture

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Information about Skeletal System Lecture

Published on February 8, 2008

Author: levouge777

Source: slideshare.net

PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 8 Joints of the Skeletal System Articulations Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction

Articulations

Functional junctions between bones

Bind parts of skeletal system together

Make bone growth possible

Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth

Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction

Classification of Joints Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones Synovial Joints most complex allow free movement synarthrotic immovable amphiarthrotic slightly movable diarthrotic freely movable

Fibrous Joints

dense connective tissues connect bones

between bones in close contact

Cartilaginous Joints

hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones

Synovial Joints

most complex

allow free movement

synarthrotic

immovable

amphiarthrotic

slightly movable

diarthrotic

freely movable

Fibrous Joints 3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones amphiarthrotic lies between tibia and fibula

3 Types

Syndesmosis

Suture

Gomphosis

Syndesmosis

a sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones

amphiarthrotic

lies between tibia and fibula

Fibrous Joints Suture between flat bones synarthrotic thin layer of connective tissue connects bones Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic

Suture

between flat bones

synarthrotic

thin layer of connective tissue connects bones

Gomphosis

cone-shaped bony process in a socket

tooth in jawbone

synarthrotic

Cartilaginous Joints 2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic

2 Types

Synchondrosis

Symphysis

Synchondrosis

bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones

epiphyseal plate (temporary)

between manubrium and first rib

synarthrotic

Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones pubis symphysis joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae amphiarthrotic

Symphysis

pad of fibrocartilage between bones

pubis symphysis

joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae

amphiarthrotic

Synovial Joints diarthrotic joint cavity synovial fluid joint capsule synovial membrane bursae

diarthrotic

joint cavity

synovial fluid

joint capsule

synovial membrane

bursae

Types of Synovial Joints Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges

Ball-and-Socket Joint

hip

shoulder

Condyloid Joint

between metacarpals and phalanges

Types of Synovial Joints Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges

Gliding Joint

between carpals

between tarsals

Hinge Joint

elbow

between phalanges

Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

Pivot Joint

between proximal ends of radius and ulna

Saddle Joint

between carpal and metacarpal of thumb

Types of Joint Movements abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension

abduction/adduction

dorsiflexion/plantarflexion

flexion/extension/hyperextension

Types of Joint Movements rotation/circumduction supination/pronation

rotation/circumduction

supination/pronation

Types of Joint Movements eversion/inversion protraction/retraction elevation/depression

eversion/inversion

protraction/retraction

elevation/depression

Shoulder Joint ball-and-socket head of humerus glenoid cavity of scapula loose joint capsule bursae ligaments prevent displacement very wide range of movement

ball-and-socket

head of humerus

glenoid cavity of scapula

loose joint capsule

bursae

ligaments prevent displacement

very wide range of movement

Shoulder Joint

Elbow Joint hinge joint trochlea of humerus trochlear notch of ulna gliding joint capitulum of humerus head of radius flexion and extension many reinforcing ligaments stable joint

hinge joint

trochlea of humerus

trochlear notch of ulna

gliding joint

capitulum of humerus

head of radius

flexion and extension

many reinforcing ligaments

stable joint

Elbow Joint

Hip Joint ball-and-socket joint head of femur acetabulum of coxa heavy joint capsule many reinforcing ligaments less freedom of movement than shoulder joint

ball-and-socket joint

head of femur

acetabulum of coxa

heavy joint capsule

many reinforcing ligaments

less freedom of movement than shoulder joint

Hip Joint

Knee Joint largest joint most complex medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae

largest joint

most complex

medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur

medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia

femur articulates anteriorly with patella

modified hinge joint

flexion/extension/little rotation

strengthened by many ligaments and tendons

menisci separate femur and tibia

bursae

Knee Joint

Life-Span Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity Disuse hampers the blood supply Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer

Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging

Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime

Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height

Synovial joints lose elasticity

Disuse hampers the blood supply

Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer

Clinical Application Joint Disorders Sprains damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints forceful twisting of joint Bursitis inflammation of a bursa overuse of a joint Arthritis inflamed, swollen, painful joints Rheumatoid Arthritis Osteoarthritis Gout

Sprains

damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints

forceful twisting of joint

Bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

overuse of a joint

Arthritis

inflamed, swollen, painful joints

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Osteoarthritis

Gout

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