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Sjtu221107

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Information about Sjtu221107

Published on November 23, 2007

Author: ullrich

Source: slideshare.net

Description

At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a personal learning environment in 10 seconds, Artificial Intelligence for learning support.
In this version, there are problems with the images. Please use the pdf version for online viewing
http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/sjtu221107-176532
The ppt download is better for the animations, though.
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Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0 Kerstin Borau Carsten Ullrich Photo by Lutz-R. Frank

Kerstin Borau/ Carsten Ullrich Kerstin Borau Master degree in Applied English Linguistic Certified foreign language teacher. English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning Carsten Ullrich PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University 2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence) , one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology-enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0

Kerstin Borau

Master degree in Applied English Linguistic

Certified foreign language teacher.

English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College

Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning

Carsten Ullrich

PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University

2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence) , one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide

Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU

About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education

Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology-enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0

Overview Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Active Learning Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support

Learning Theories

Learning Theories and Language Learning

Tools for Active Learning

Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support

Learning Theories

Timeline of Learning Theories By Serhat Kurt

Behaviorism (1910) How do you react? Stimulus-Response coupling Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter  behavior Skinner (1904-1990) The Technology of Learning (1968)

How do you react?

Stimulus-Response coupling

Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter  behavior

Skinner (1904-1990)

The Technology of Learning (1968)

Behaviorism: Programmed Instruction (1950) Principles: Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur  “Praise is good for learning!” Break down complex skills in small bits Teach each bit separately Knowledge is given and absolute

Principles:

Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur  “Praise is good for learning!”

Break down complex skills in small bits

Teach each bit separately

Knowledge is given and absolute

Programmed Instruction: Example The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we "turn on" a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ . bulb When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot. bulb When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ . light

The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we "turn on" a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ .

bulb

When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot.

bulb

When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ .

light

Test The scientist _______ is one of the fathers of Behaviorism. Skinner The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism. Programmed Instruction It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers. Rewarding, punishing Would you like to learn this way? For what subject matters is this appropriate?

The scientist _______ is one of the fathers of Behaviorism.

Skinner

The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism.

Programmed Instruction

It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers.

Rewarding, punishing

Behaviorism: Summary No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes Learner merely responds to the "demands" of the environment Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute

No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes

Learner merely responds to the "demands" of the environment

Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute

Learning Theory: Cognitivism What happens in your head? Mental processes are primary object of study Goal: discover and model the mental processes Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Teaching should respect the mental processes

What happens in your head?

Mental processes are primary object of study

Goal: discover and model the mental processes

Jean Piaget (1896-1980)

Teaching should respect the mental processes

Learning Theories: Constructivism Behaviorism/Cognitivism get something in the head of the learners Constructivists create opportunities to discover! knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed exploration/discovery/group-learning Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator Learning in context and collaboration Solve realistic and meaningful problems

Behaviorism/Cognitivism

get something in the head of the learners

Constructivists

create opportunities to discover!

knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed

exploration/discovery/group-learning

Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator

Learning in context and collaboration

Solve realistic and meaningful problems

Learning Theories: Summary Behaviorism How do you react? Cognitivism What happens in your head? Constructivism Create opportunities to learn & discover!

Behaviorism

How do you react?

Cognitivism

What happens in your head?

Constructivism

Create opportunities to learn & discover!

Behaviorism and language learning Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method focuses on spoken language for everyday communication content: everyday dialogues level: simple exercises: pattern drill

Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method

focuses on spoken language for everyday communication

content: everyday dialogues

level: simple

exercises: pattern drill

Behaviorism and language learning Sample Dialoges: 谢谢你! 不用谢! Vielen Dank! Keine Ursache!

Sample Dialoges:

谢谢你!

不用谢!

Vielen Dank!

Keine Ursache!

Behaviorism and language learning Advantages: Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar Disadvantages: Pattern drills are boring Restricted language use

Advantages:

Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar

Disadvantages:

Pattern drills are boring

Restricted language use

Constructivism and language learning focus: Everything that interests the learners, e.g., own projects content: Everything that interests the learners level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners

focus: Everything that interests the learners, e.g., own projects

content: Everything that interests the learners

level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners

Constructivism and language learning Advantages: Prepares learners for “real” interaction Disadvantages: None

Advantages: Prepares learners for “real” interaction

Disadvantages: None

Constructivism and language learning How did he learn to play basketball?

How did he learn to play basketball?

不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之,知之不若行之。 荀子 "Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“ Xun Zi

不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之,知之不若行之。

荀子

"Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“

Xun Zi

Communicative competence Linguistic aspects • Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling) • Grammar (syntax) • Vocabulary (words) • Discourse (comprehending texts)

Linguistic aspects

• Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling)

• Grammar (syntax)

• Vocabulary (words)

• Discourse (comprehending texts)

Communicative competence Pragmatic aspects • Functions ( communication purposes ) • Variations (different styles/ appropriate social meaning ) • Interactional skills ( knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations ) • Cultural framework ( to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture)

Pragmatic aspects

• Functions ( communication purposes )

• Variations (different styles/ appropriate social meaning )

• Interactional skills ( knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations )

• Cultural framework ( to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture)

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Lots of exposure to language you can understand o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe

How to acquire communicative competence?

o Lots of exposure to language you can understand

o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language

o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations

o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Base structured work on events you participate in such as a shared meal, or working with somebody in the field. o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games.

How to acquire communicative competence?

o Base structured work on events you participate in such as

a shared meal, or

working with somebody in the field.

o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games.

Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Use your social skills to make relationships. o Spend lots of time doing things with people. o Find creative ways to practice using the language. o Use a lot of communicative activities.

How to acquire communicative competence?

o Use your social skills to make relationships.

o Spend lots of time doing things with people.

o Find creative ways to practice using the language.

o Use a lot of communicative activities.

Tools for Learning: Twitter Twitter: a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence

Twitter:

a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence

 

Web 2.0 Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application Web 2.0 applications take full advantage of the network nature of the Web encourage participation inherently social and open Example: Amazon

Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application

Web 2.0 applications

take full advantage of the network nature of the Web

encourage participation

inherently social and open

Example: Amazon

Web 1.0 / Web 2.0

Web 2.0: Some Examples

Photo by vincos

Web 2.0 & Learning Web 1.0 Learning: Learning Management Systems Administered learning Teacher/Institution centered Web 2.0 Learning: Student centered Student contribute/communicate Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities

Web 1.0 Learning:

Learning Management Systems

Administered learning

Teacher/Institution centered

Web 2.0 Learning:

Student centered

Student contribute/communicate

Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities

Personal Learning Environment Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning In 10 minutes! Done

Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning

In 10 minutes!

Done

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLE: Too Much Work? 10 minutes ok But let’s do it in 10 seconds Done

10 minutes ok

But let’s do it in 10 seconds

Done

 

 

 

PLE: Additional Support PLE may be confusing for new learners how to master the tools when to use which tool what tools are available That is where the teacher comes in has knowledge of tools and how to use them Artificial Intelligence implement this knowledge in the computer

PLE may be confusing for new learners

how to master the tools

when to use which tool

what tools are available

That is where the teacher comes in

has knowledge of tools and how to use them

Artificial Intelligence

implement this knowledge in the computer

Learning Supported by Artificial Intelligence

Traditional books/courses: one size fits all non-adaptive ignores your knowledge & goals Adapt learning materials (course) with respect to individual variables (learning goals, knowledge, emotions, …) context (location, device, …)

Traditional books/courses:

one size fits all

non-adaptive

ignores your knowledge & goals

Adapt learning materials (course) with respect to

individual variables (learning goals, knowledge, emotions, …)

context (location, device, …)

Artificial Intelligence Extract human expert knowledge Formalize it Apply it

Extract human expert knowledge

Formalize it

Apply it

AI Supported Learning What does the computer need to know? Domain/Content Model User Model Teaching/Pedagogical Model

What does the computer need to know?

Course Generation: Motivation Eva wants to learn about calculus: “ derivative ” Web-search: Google

Eva wants to learn about calculus: “ derivative ”

Web-search: Google

Motivation: Results of Web-Search too many results all kinds of resources not adapted to individual capabilities and goals

too many results

all kinds of resources

not adapted to individual capabilities and goals

Motivation: Course Generation (CG) Repository “ derivation”

Motivation: Course Generation Repository “ derivation” Course Generator

Resources from Several Repositories Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator

Integration of Learning-Supporting Tools Course Generator Repositories “ derivation” Tool Tool Tools

CG as a Service Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator Tool Tool Tools

Modeling of Pedagogical Knowledge / Adaptivity Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator Discover “derivation” Train Competencies “derivation” Exam Simulation “derivation” Illustrate “derivation” Motivate “derivation” Tool Tool Tools

Discover “derivation”

Train Competencies “derivation”

Exam Simulation “derivation”

Illustrate “derivation”

Motivate “derivation”

Course Generation: Pedagogical Knowledge

Course Generation: Framework AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems (HTN) planning: Goal directed Hierarchical approach easily understandable Efficient

AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems

(HTN) planning:

Goal directed

Hierarchical approach easily understandable

Efficient

Basics of Hierarchical Task Network Planning How it plans: methods decompose tasks down to primitive tasks performed by operators

How it plans:

methods decompose tasks

down to primitive tasks performed by operators

Basic Knowledge Inserting references to educational resources tools Generating structure Accessing information about educational resources the learner About 70 rules

Inserting references to

educational resources

tools

Generating structure

Accessing information about

educational resources

the learner

About 70 rules

Example / Exercise Selection About 60 methods Take into account competency level educational level fields of interest novelty motivation & anxiety

About 60 methods

Take into account

competency level

educational level

fields of interest

novelty

motivation & anxiety

Exercise Selection Selecting an exercise, high motivation (learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl)

Selecting an exercise, high motivation

(learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)

(>= ?m 4)

(learnerProperty hasField ?field)

(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)

(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)

(equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl)

Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level

(learnerProperty hasField ?field)

(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)

(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)

(equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl)

Exercise Selection (:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) (assign ?unsortedExercises (call GetResources ((class Exercise) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl) (property hasField ?field)))) (sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises) (assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises)) ((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c)))

(:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c)

((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)

(>= ?m 4)

(learnerProperty hasField ?field)

(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el)

(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl)

(equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl)

(assign ?unsortedExercises

(call GetResources

((class Exercise)

(relation isFor ?c)

(property hasLearningContext ?el)

(property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl)

(property hasField ?field))))

(sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises)

(assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises))

((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c)))

Formalized CG Knowledge: Scenarios Moderate constructivist scenarios: Discover Rehearse Connect Train Intensively Train Competencies Exam Simulation Based on guidelines of instructional design Guided Tour ≈ 300 methods and operators

Moderate constructivist scenarios:

Discover

Rehearse

Connect

Train Intensively

Train Competencies

Exam Simulation

Based on guidelines of instructional design

Guided Tour

≈ 300 methods and operators

Scenario “Discover” (discover deriv) (:method (discover ?f) () ((!startSection Discover ?f) (descriptionScenarioSection ?f) (learnFundamentalsDiscover ?f) (reflect ?f) (!endSection))) (:method (learnFundamentalDiscover ?c) () ((!startSection Title (?c)) (introduceWithPrereqSection ?c) (developFundamental ?c) (proveSection ?c) (practiceSection ?c) (showConnectionsSection ?c) (!endSection))) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect

Scenario “Discover” (:method (introduceWithSection! ?c) () ((!startSection Introduction (?c)) (text Introduction (?c)) (motivate! ?c) (problem ?c) (insertIntroductionExample ?c) (!endSection))) (:method (introduceWithPrereqSection! ?c) () ((introduceWithSection! ?c) (learnPrerequisitesFundamentalsShort ?c))) (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites

Scenario Discover (:method (motivate! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasAnxiety ?c ?an) (?an <= 2) (GetElement ((class Exercise) (class Introduction) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasDifficulty very_easy)))) ((insertAuxOnceIfReady! ?element))) Introduce Develop Practice Connect Reflect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites

 

 

Course Generation: Results Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion): 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83

Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion):

Course Generation: Results 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83

AI-Supported Learning: Summary Artificial Intelligence to select learning objects to select tools Does not replace teacher but helps him/her Current research question: How to use AI for Web 2.0

Artificial Intelligence

to select learning objects

to select tools

Does not replace teacher but helps him/her

Current research question:

How to use AI for Web 2.0

Summary Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Personalized Learning How AI supports your Learning

Learning Theories

Learning Theories and Language Learning

Tools for Personalized Learning

How AI supports your Learning

How to Continue Contact us for any question: [email_address] [email_address] Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture: http:// www.google.com/ig/sharetab?hl = en&source = stb&stid =112236995533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3 Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment http:// www.google.com/ig?hl =en Read and comment the slides: http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/ Create an account on Twitter http://twitter.com our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich

Contact us for any question:

[email_address]

[email_address]

Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture:

http:// www.google.com/ig/sharetab?hl = en&source = stb&stid =112236995533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3

Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment

http:// www.google.com/ig?hl =en

Read and comment the slides:

http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/

Create an account on Twitter

http://twitter.com

our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich

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