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Information about sjingji3

Published on April 13, 2008

Author: Isab


Slide2:  CHAPTER II Europe exit Slide3:  next exit Section 1 Physical geography summarize of Europe 一、European physical geography environment 二、Basical promble of Territorial man-land relationship Slide4:  next exit 一、European physical geography enviroment (一)Geography location European latitude and longtitude location. For European continent,most area lies between 36°~71°08′N,66°10′E~9°34′W. Most European continent lies the north temperate zone,only a few continent lies the figid zone,the latitude location is the base of European climate characterized temperate. European sea-land location and intercontinental location.European continent lies the west of Eurasian plant,with its three sides surrounded by sea,just like a protruding island of Eurasian plant,so it has made the Atlantic west wind circumfluence has far-reaching effects towards European climate.  Slide5:  next exit (二)Continent outline and topographic feather Horizontal outline fragmentate、east wide and west narrow、lots of Peninsula、island and inland sea、marginal sea,all mentioned above is the main charactic of physical geography. European topographic feather is main plain、typical glacial landform. Slide6:  next exit 欧洲全图 Slide7:  next exit (三)Climate feather Most European countries are temperate climate,marked oceangraphy.Its main characteristic is warm maritime climate and Mediterranean type of climate. Main climate type zone in Europe: (1) Polar firn climate zone (2) Polar long cold climate zone (3) Sub-cold continental climate zone (4) Warm maritime climate zone (5) Warm continental climate zone (6) Subtropical dry climate zone (7) Alp climate zone Slide8:  next exit (四)River and lake 1、River   There are many rivers in Europe、full of water quantity,most of which is international rivers.Europe characterized many rivers、dense river net、full of water quantity、low dividing range、long navigation mileage etc.There are many rivers that with there longth above 1 000km.Among which,the greatest economic significance is Rhein、Donau and Volga River. Slide9:  next exit 2、 Lake   European lakes are widely distributed,But mainly in Nordic and Alps.Because the formation reason of European lakes mainly have close relationship with the forth glacial stage,Lakes are concentrated in the central of forth glacial stage Scandinavia and nearby north European district and central of mountain glacial Alps.    Rhine Slide10:  next exit 二、Basical Territorial man-land relationship   Europe is one of the first in developping and exploiting natural resources,and so become a contemporary modern society,and also the earliest continent that has depletion of resources、environment deterioration,and also the earliest continent that pay attention to conservation of resourances and environment and has accieved better results. (一)Natural resourances evaluation 1、 Land resourances and its utilization  Europe covers an area of 1 016×104km2,accounting for 6.8% of the world’s land area,is the sixth largest continent of the world.It’s a continent of dense population,little average amount of land resources(1.4hm2/people). Slide11:  next exit 2、 Mineral resourances   Europe are abundant in mineral resourances. 3、 Biotic resourances   Botanical resourances are rich and varied in Europe.Its natural vegetation is mainly forests.   Animal species are short in Europe. 4、 Freshwater resourances   Europe is abundant in freshwater resourances.   Europe flows with abundant water resourances.   Slide12:  next exit (二)Resourances environment exploitation and protection in Europe   Generally speaking,natural resourances in Europe is abundant,the superiority of natural environment is good for survival and development of human.   But,after the Industrial Revolution,Europe firstly started to chop down forest、exploitate industry mineral resourances. After the Second World War,As the development of social economic,especially the increase of world population,resourances and environment problem have bacame serious,as a concentrated place of developping countries,Europe firstly realized the serious of the problem. In Europe,it had reduced the expenditure of natural resourances since 1970s,especially the European developping countries attach importance to raise the utilization rate of resourances and its reuse,Hence pushing the sustainable development of social economic.      Slide13:  next exit Section 2 European human geography summarize 一、Population、nationality and culture of Europe 二、Process of political map in Europe 三、The formation and spread of mordern economic in Europe 四、Mordern economic pattern in Europe 五、European economic integration Slide14:  next exit 一、Population、nationality and culture of Europe (一)European population geography feather   The total population of Europe has reached 741 million(2000年),It ranks the third of the world continients which is following these of Asia and Africa. 1、 Population composition is mainly white person,and the growth of population is slow. 2、 High population density,and unevenly distribution 3、 Population problem:population aging,shortage of labour. (二)European nationality and nationality problem 1、 European nationality and its distribution 2、 European nationality problem Slide15:  next exit (三)European cultural geography feather 1、 European languages and its distribution   European languages have different types,mainly belongs to Indo-European family、Uralic family、Altaic family and Semitic family and independence family(see table),Among which the Indo-European family is the largest.    Slide16:  next exit 2、 European technology   Europe is the cradle of mordern science and technology,also the cradle of First and Second Scientific Revolution.Recently,Europe is in the front ranks in scientific throry research and technology invention. Slide17:  next exit 基督教是欧洲的主要宗教。   基督教各派在欧洲分布的主要格局是:天主教徒主要分布在西欧、南欧、中欧;新教徒大多集中在英国、丹麦、挪威、瑞典、芬兰、冰岛;东正教徒主要集中在东南欧;俄罗斯则主要分布俄罗斯东正教会。 4、 欧洲文化对世界的影响 欧洲文化对世界的影响主要表现为: (一)欧洲的一些民族语言成为世界性语言,像英语和西班牙语。 3、 欧洲的宗教及其分布 Slide18:  next exit Christian is the main religion in Europe.   The Christian distribution pattern in Europe is:Catholic is mainly in western Europe、southern Europe、Middle European;Protestant is mainly in England、Denmark、Norway、Swedish、Finland、Iceland;Eastern Orthodoxy is mainly in southeastern Europe;Russian is mainly Eastern Orthodox Church. 4、 The world influence of European culture The world influence of European cultue is: (一)Some European nationality languages havue became international language,just like English and Spanish. 3、 European religion and its distribution Slide19:  (二)European modern natural scientific theory and technology for both production and management have generally spreaded all over the world,to improve the world civilization,and then inter into the modern society. (三)Europe is not only emerges bourgeoisie,but also is the native land of Marxist,and make the market economy of bourgeoisie and planned economy of socialist spread all over the world. (四)The life style、religion、music、art and athletic have spreaded to the world, accepted and adoped. Hence,the spread of European culture ,led to a big leap of world times. The influence of European civilization is still important nowadays. next exit Slide20:  next exit 二、Process of political map in Europe (一) European political map of pre-capitalist period   1、 European political map of slavery society period   Chris island is the cradle of ancient Aegean civilization. About 2500 BC,Chris began to transite to slavery society;in 2000 BC,Chris island emerged the earliest slave society in Europe,and reached its peak in 17-16 BC.   About 1600 BC-1450 BC, Greek tribe Mycenaean founded a slave society,it can against with Chris.    Slide21:  希腊荷马时代大约在公元前1000——公元前700年间。荷马时代之后,希腊各地奴隶制城邦国家约有200多个、它们以一城为中心,包括附近若干村落,形成国小民寡的城市(邦)国家,其中最重要的是希腊中部的雅典、南部的科林斯和斯巴达、小亚细亚的米利都等。   古罗马是古代欧洲经济文化发达的另一个代表和扩散源,古罗马是对古希腊文明的继承和弘扬光大。 2、 封建社会时期欧洲的政治地图 西法兰克国即法国。 东法兰克国即德国。 意大利长期处于分裂之中。   不列颠群岛的原住居民是凯尔特人,盎格鲁-撒克逊人等日耳曼部落从5世纪中叶起由欧洲渡海侵入并建立了许多小国。 next exit Slide22:  Greek Homeric Age is about 1000 BC——700 BC. After Homeric Age,Greek slavery city-state have about more than 200,Among which the most important are Athens in central Greek, Clis and Sparta in the north、Miletus of Asia Minor etc.   Roman is another representative of the prosperity of ancient European economic culture,Rome is the development of ancient Greece civilization. 2、 European political map of feudal society West Frank is France East Frank is German Italy remains disunited under long years   The inhabitant of British Isles are Celtic,Anglo-Saxon etc.Germanic tribes sailed here and founded many small counties. next exit Slide23:  next exit (二) 资本主义时期欧洲的政治地图 1、 欧洲的资产阶级革命 资产阶级革命为资本主义生产力发展扫除了思想政治障碍,为确立资本主义政治制度奠定了基础。英国和法国的资产阶段革命都程度不同地起到了这个作用。英国资产阶段革命开始于1640年,结束于1688年,最终确立了资产阶级的君主立宪制,成为人类社会进入资本主义社会的标志,为英国乃至欧洲资本主义的发展奠定了基础。其实,对欧洲和世界影响最大的还是法国的资产阶级大革命。 Slide24:  next exit (二) European political map of capitalist period 1、 European bourgeois revolution Bourgeois revolution removed all the thought disorders for the development of capitalist productivity,which laid the foundation of capitalist political system. England capitalist revolution started at 1640,and ended in 1688.and finally established constitutional monarchy,and became a mark of human tansition to capitalist society. Slide25:  next exit 欧洲资产阶级革命一直持续到19世纪,柏林、布拉格、布达佩斯、科隆、巴黎、维也纳、罗马、威尼斯、那不勒斯等地都是革命运动的重要中心。特别是德意志1848年力求建立统一的资产阶级共和国的革命、奥地利人民要求废除封建关系、建立民族独立国家的革命和1861年沙俄自上而下废除农奴制度的革命等,对欧洲政治地图的变化都产生着重要影响。 Slide26:  next exit European capitalist revolution lasted to 19th century,many places are the important center of revolutionary movements,especially the German Revolution of 1848、Austrian Revolution about establish national independence country and Russia Revolution in 1861 about abolishing the feudal serf,has important influence to European political map. Slide27:  2、 第一次世界大战政治地图的变化 19世纪初期,沙皇俄国、普鲁士、奥匈帝国和法国是欧洲大陆上的主宰。 英国在18世纪就由于在率先完成工业革命而成为一 个强大的国家。 法国到1870年成为仅次于英国的世界第二工业大国。 沙俄以东欧为基础,不断对外发动战争,从其临国, 特别是其东方临国那里掠取土地。 3、 两次世界大战时期欧洲政治地图的变化 next exit Slide28:  2、 Changes of political map during the First World War Early 19th century,czarist Russia、Prussia、 Austro-Hungrian Empire and Franch dominate the European continent. England became a super country in 18th century because it firstly completed the Industry Revolution. France become the second industry country of the world in 1870. On the basis of eastern Europe, Russia constantly made war on its neighbours, especially its eastern Neighbour country, plundering land from them. 3、 Changes of political map during the Second World War next exit Slide29:  next exit (三) 第二次世界大战以后欧洲的政治地图 1、 战后到20世纪80年代欧洲政治地图变化    其主要政治事件分为两个方面:第一,根据波茨坦协定,欧洲有关国家的疆界发生了重要变化;第二,欧洲出现了以苏联为首的社会主义国家和在美国支持下的欧洲资本主义国家两大集团对峙的格局。    Slide30:  next exit (三) European political map after the Second World War 1、 Changes of European political war from the Second World War to 1980s   There are two aspect of political events:Firstly,According to the Potsdam Agreement, boundaries of some European countries changed a lot;Secondly,Europe develops a confronted pattern of socialist countries, headed by the Soviet Union, and European capitalist countries, supported by American.    Slide31:  2、 European political map since early 1990s    Changes of Political map in Europe is the greatest since early 1990s,mainly cover four areas: Firstly,socialist system collapse;Secondly,the number of independence countries uprushed from 33 before 1990s to 43 after 1990s;Thirdly,Middle Europe political map changed noticeably;fourthly,“European Economic Integration”and“North Atlantic Treaty Organization”are growing constantly. While Council for Mutual Economic Assistance、Warsaw Treaty Organization respectively disbanded in June and July of 1991,passed into history. Slide32:  next exit 三、The foundation and spread of modern European economic (一)16-18th century:Development and primitive accumulation of capital of Handicraft industry and business (二)18th century-1940s:Industrial Revolution and foundation and spread of modern European economic 四、European modern economic regional pattern   From the Second World War till now,Europe is always the continent of the highest economic development level and with the most developed countries. Europe remains the position to be one of the centre of world economic. Changes of European economic pattern is generally divided into two periods: Slide33:  next exit (一) Early after the war to early 1990s 1、 Two major economic group coexist European Communities,“EC” for short,is the a national economic political group, established by major capitalist countries in western Europe in 1960s.   Since the establishment of this community,It contributed a lot in founding customs union、common agricultural policies、founding economic and currency union、establishing general budget etc.   The Council Mutual Economic Assistance, “CMEA” for short,is a national economic political union with Soviet and socialist country in Eastern Europe as the major. Slide34:  next exit 2、 Economic development feature of five major geographic zone in Europe (1)Northern Europe Northern Europe is a vast area but sparsely populated,and now its economy is booming, and its living welfare standards is the highest in Europe. Population, city, industry and agriculture are concentrated on the south of Europe, especially the south of coastal areas. Slide35:  next exit The Finland flag: Formal name:Finland Republic Population:51.7 million Capital:Helsinki Area:338145 square meter National day:December 6th Religion:Protestantism Finland Slide36:  next exit (2)Western Europe Western Europe is the earliest to develop industry, is the concentrate place of old metropolitan state, and is also the place of highest economic development level. Western Europe is narrow and with dense population,consist of world sense economic centre, industry centre, business centre, financial centre and shipping centre. Industry and agriculture and population are mainly concentrate on coastal Western Europe, along the rivers, and on the south of Great Britain Island and its coastal. Slide37:  next exit (3)Middle Europe Middle Europe develops late, and develops quikly .since 19th century. Its industry is major for heavy industry;Agricultural production level is higher,animal agriculture is the pillar department;Industry, population and city are mainly concentrated on inland or coastal area. Economic strength of German is the most powerful in Middle Europe and the whole Europe. Slide38:  next exit National flag: Formal name:Swiss Confederation Population:72.4 million Capital:Berne Official language:German, ranch, Italy and latin man language Area:41284 square metre National Day:August 1st Religion:Christianism, Catholicism Switzerland Slide39:  next exit (4)Southern Europe South Europe ha a long history, ancient culture and economic develops well, capitalist factor develops early but slow. and is awlays the area of lower economic level. From 1960s,the development spreaded,industry focused around heavy industry,agricultural focused on crop farming. Italy and Spain are economic super country,economic development level of Slovenia、Croatia, Greek and Portuguese are also very high. But there are also less developed country, such as Albanian, Macedonian. Slide40:  next exit National flag Formal name:Spain Population:394 million Capital:Madrid Official language:Spanish Currency:Euro Area:505925 square meter Religion:Catholicism Spain Slide41:  next exit Formal name:The Italy Republic Population:573.4 million Capital:Rome Official language:Italian Area:301277 square meter National Day:June 2nd Religion:Catholicism National flag: Italy Slide42:  next exit 比萨斜塔 米兰教堂 Slide43:  next exit Pisa Campanile Milan Church Slide44:  next exit (5) Eastern Europe Eastern Europe had vast area,rich resources.The political map and economic system changed a lot.Industry develops well,and focus on heavy industry,agriculture is important,but undeveloped. Russia is the potential economic and political great country in Europe,even in the world.The industry and agriculture,city and popution all concentrated in the south central district. Slide45:  next exit Formal name:Russian Federation Population:1455 million Capital:Moscow Offical language:Russian Currency:Ruble Area:17075400 square meter National Day:June 12th Religion:Eastern Orthodoxy,Islamic National flag: Slide46:  next exit (二)New changes of European economic pattern since 1990s   Firstly,EC and EU are becoming the effective platform in integrating European economic.   Secondly,Since 1990s,Russia collapsed from a great world power to a general economic country.    Slide47:  next exit 五、 European Economic Integration    Among the integration of world region,the achievement of European Economic Integration is the most extraodinary.   “European Union”(EU),has the most far-reaching influences and directly effect among all the integration organization mentioned above. Slide48:  next exit EU had established a single market in January 1st 1993,on which production, crew, capital and service can circulate freely.    European Currency Administration was founded in January 1st 1994,Single Legal Euro is put into use formally in 1999(EUR),Euro was put into circulation on January 1st 2002. Slide49:  next exit In order to propel the integration of Europe, European Union had made three orders that is:making the inner frame to be the core(European Communities consists of 15 countries at the present),the middle frame to be the basis(European Free Trade Association),the outer frame to be the foundation(three countries of Baltic Sea and Eastern Europe),and generally expanded to the outer frame. Slide50:  next exit 一、England 二、French 三、German 四、Russia Section three Main European countries Slide51:  一、英国 (一)岛国地理环境特征 (二)能源资源优势 (三)三大产业兴衰演化 (四)伦敦——世界金融中心之一 Slide52:  一、England (一)Geography environment characteristic of island country (二)Energy resource superiority (三)Three industrial prosperity and decline evolve (四)London——one of the world financial centers Slide53:  next exit Section three Main European countries 一、England    Formal name:United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Population:592 million Capital:London Official language:English Currency:Pound Area:244100 square meter National Day:the second Wednesday in each June every year Religion:Protestantism National flag: England Slide54:  next exit 大英博物馆 Slide55:  next exit The British Museum Slide56:  next exit (一)Geography environment characteristic of island country England is the world famous island, and also the largest island in Europe, covers an area of 244 100 square meter.Its full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,and consists of Great Britain,Northern Ireland and many nearby small islands.Among them,Great Britain is the largest island in Europe,ocupies 94% the total area of England. Slide57:  next exit England coastline long can reach 11 450km,belongs to submersion seacoast. Along the coast is muti-bays, caps, peninsula and islands. London, Liverpool, Manchester and so on all are the important harbors, are also advantageous in the foreign trade. England belongs to typically warm marine climate   The English rain water is sufficient, Therefore the network of waterways is dense, the rivers are short.   The population of England is 601 million(2001),mainly are England(occupies 83% of the total population)、asacotland, Wales and Ireland. Population density is 248/km2,is one of the dense population countries. The biggest population density is London, Scotland population is the most thin area. Slide58:  (二)Energy resources advantage In European Union, England has the richest energy resources . Its coal resources are extremely rich. The coal industry is one of English most ancient industry sectors. England discovered petroleum and natural gas in 1960s in North Sea, so England's energy production and consumption pattern therefore has the huge changes. The nuclear electricity is an English another quick energy industry. next exit Slide59:  next exit (三)Prosperity and decline evolve of three industries 1、 Primary industry   In the middle ages England can support grain by itself.   In 1846 the England parliament cancelled the corn laws of protection domestic agriculture, and implemented the free trade of agricultural product.Then the agriculture started to go down unceasingly . In 1998 the England total agricultural output value reached 7.3 billion. In 2000 the output value of animal husbandry (including gardening and fishery) was 153 pounds, produced 55 billion pounds foods for the nation, occupied 2/3 of the national total consumption. Slide60:  next exit 2、Secondary industry   1783-1802, England industrial production grew at an average speed of 3.4%. 1803-1880,It grew at a speed average of 3%. In 1850, the industrial output accounted 2/5 of the total volume of world industrial output, the coal output occupied 3/4 of the world, the coal, hard, cotton‘s consumption quantity accounts one half for the world total consumption quantity.    England droped gradually in the world status. Its industrial output was surpassed by US in 1990s, and was surpassed by Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Slide61:  England had taken a series of measures in 1980s, making the industry growth to speed up. England now still are the world industrialized nation, its industry may divide into three kinds: the traditional department, the emerging department and the high tech department. next exit Slide62:  next exit 3、Tertiary industry   The tertiary industry is the biggest department in English economy, in which output value occupies 65% of the GDP. The employed population occupied 73.4% of the total number of people. England always focuses on the transportation shipping industry. It was once one of the main marine transportation countries in the world, it owns a modernized merchant fleet, the freight transportation efficiency is high.      The England tourist resources are rich and has developed for a long history. Slide63:  next exit 伦敦远景 (四)伦敦——世界金融中心之一 Slide64:  next exit Perspective of London (四)London—— one of the financial centre Slide65:  next exit The reason about London to be the financial centre: ①To many foreign countries, London has the special attraction ②London has the massive financial structure, the experienced staff and the most efficient communications net. ③The English Government's financial control, brings in foreign capital . ④England‘s domestic bank also welcome foreign banks. ⑤The financial enterprise requests in the distribution to gather highly in order to rapidly makes the reflection to the market. ⑥London, New York of US and Tokyo of Japan are separated by approximately 8 time zones, and this safeguarded the global financial transaction to be possible to carry on in any time.    Slide66:  next exit (四)London——one of the world financial center   London is the capital of England,is the centre of national political, economic, culture and traffic, Its financial industry is highly developed, is one of three big international finance centers in the world. London becomes the world biggest port city The London foreign exchange market resides in the first place in the world foreign exchange market. London is the hometown of the world insurance business, also is the global re-employment center. Slide67:  二、French (一)Advantage, disadvantage analysis of natural condition (二) The prominent status of Agriculture in European (三)Complete industrial system (四)Development of tourism Slide68:  next exit 二、 French National flag: Formal name:The French Republic Population:601.9 million Capital:Paris Official language:French Currency:Euro Area:551602 square meter National day:July 14th Religion:Catholic, Protestantism French Slide69:  next exit 欧洲最高峰 ——勃朗峰 Slide70:  next exit European’s highest peak ——Mont Blanc Slide71:  next exit France ,is the French Republic for short,covers an area of 55×104Km2,is the largest country in Western Europe. The territory includes mainland part and Corsica island of Mediterranean Sea. Slide72:  next exit (一) Advantage, disadvantage analysis of natural condition 1. Lots of plain 2. Diverse climate 3. Complete river system 4. The energy resources are deficient Slide73:  Broad plain The broad plain, the basin have provided advantage to France’s economical development and the agricultural production. Slide74:  next exit (二) Prominent status of agriculture in Europe   France is the largest agricultural nation, is specially important agricultural product supply country in Europe. is also the world second modernized agriculture export state.   The prominent characteristic of France agricultural production (1) labor productivity is high. (2) agricultural structure is reasonable. (3) specialized level is high. Slide75:  (三) Complete industrial system France is the developed industrial nation, GDP is lower than America and Japan, Germany occupies world fourth. The industry occupies the important status in the France national economy, the industrial output occupies 1/4 of GDP, the employment population approximately composes 1/5 of the national employed population. Slide76:  next exit   After Second World War, the machinery, the automobile, the airplane, the shipbuilding, the electron, the steel and iron, build up the aluminum, the refinery, the petroleum chemical industry, the artificial fiber, the plastic, the nuclear power, the astronavigation and so on the emerging industry sector develop rapidly, many industry products hold the important status in the world. Slide77:  next exit 1、 Automobile industry   The automobile industry is one of French pillar industries, is a postwar development extremely rapid department. 2、 Aerospace industry   The France aerospace industry holds the important status in the world, its output value, the turnover, the export amount are only inferior to US, Russia occupy world third. Slide78:  next exit 3、 Electric power   The French are short of coal and oil resources, therefore the nuclear electricity development was took highly. In the world its nuclear power station quantity, the nuclear electricity installed capacity is only inferior to US, occupies second. 4、 Chemical industry   The France chemical industry is the important industry sector, has the complete system, chemical industry scale of the output value is only followed by US, Japan, Germany, occupies world fourth. Slide79:  next exit 5、 Shipbuilding industry   France is one of the main shipbuilding countries in the world.    (四)Development of tourism   France borders on Mediterranean Sea, also borders on Atlantic, and also has Alps and the Pyrenees mountain landscapes, which has provided the rich natural resources for the development of tourism. The famous traveling area are Nice, Cannes and so on. Slide80:  next exit The France northwestern Pyrenees mountain, the central plateau in central south, the southeastern Alps have provided the paradise for the winter ski and the summer mountaineering. Paris is the world famous traveling city. In recent years, French make full use tourist resources superiority, carry out promotion vigorously in the main tourists market. France also attaches importance to the development of domestic traveling market, vacation has become the essential constituent in Frenchman’s life.       Slide81:  三、Germany (一)"Locomotive" of the Europe (二)The development of political map (五)"Industry period" of Ruhr District (四)The strong manufacturing industry (三)Virtuous race and its’ homogeneous distribution of settlement system Slide82:  next exit 三 Germany National flag Formal name:The Federal Republic of Germany Population:82,090,000 Capital:Berlin Official language: Germany Currency:Euro Area:356970km2 National Day:10-3 Religion:Catholic , Protestant 德 国 Slide83:  next exit Slide84:  next exit (一)"Locomotive" of the Europe   Germany is located in the middle of European continent, is being in Western Europe to lead to Eastern Europe, the Northern Europe arriving at southern Europe land transportation intersection, the strategic location is extremely important. Germany borders with 9 countries. Germany is the highly developed capitalism industrialized country, the economic potentiality occupies the first place in European, occupies third in the world. Slide85:  next exit The Germany formidable industry economy, the steady economy growth, the strong currency and the prosperity domestic market are always the leading status safeguards of German.   Compared with Western Europe’s England and France, Germany is maintaining the stable economical growth. The stable profits of Germany to a great extent in obtains exterior investment from these countries with the European market opportunity. Slide86:  next exit (二) The development of political map    In the history, Germany was split up the condition for a long time, the economy was quite backward. In 1871,the franco-prussian war ended, Germany had finished several hundred years feudal separatism, realized the unification for the first time, the German empire proclaimed the founding. Henceforth, the German one divides into two, east, west Germany had stepped onto the different advance path, belonging socialism and the capitalism two big camps.   Germany had realized the unification once more in October 3, 1990. Slide87:  next exit (三)German nationality and uniform distribution settlement system  Germany is a sole nation state,95% of the inhabitant are the German nationality. The long-term feudalism, the multitudinous city-state countries, cause Germany’s cities distribution relatively quite even, has the characteristic of big disperser, small centralism. We may from the nature, the history, the economy and so on the various condition know the reason of German settlement uniform distribution : ① Germany’s natural condition is homogeneous, does not have the plateau, extremely hot, the dry extreme condition area, the condition is suitable for humanity’s production activity. ② In the German history multitudinous vassal state all have their own economical cultural center.    Slide88:  next exit ③ Since the ancient times, Germany is the East and west, the north and south transportation intersection, the transportation and the trade are well developed, the national network of waterways is multitudinous, the water, the land extends in all directions. ④ German pays more attention to controling the scale of cities,makes great effort to develop middle and small cities, to disperse the function of cities. Slide89:  next exit (四)Formidable manufacturing industry   Germany is third industrialized nation of the world. The electronic electricity, the machine manufacture, the automobile manufacture, the chemical industry are its prop industries. 1. Automotive industry   Germany is one of world automobile industry birthplaces, the world’s first automobile, in 1886 was born in Germany. The Daimler - coursing, the populace and the Bavaria automotive factory (BMW) is the Germany automobile industry three big giants. Slide90:  next exit 2. Mechanical manufacturing industry   whose employment population are most, also is the history is most glorious,the richest traditional industry sector. The variety is many, taking the engine bed as most important. The base mainly distributes in Ruhr Basin District, Berlin, Stuttgart and Shiweiyinfu special grade field. 3. Chemical industry The history is glorious, the research strength is abundant, the technical craft occupies the world front row. The chemical fertilizer, plastic, diamars, plasthetics, artificial rubber, medicine, pesticide, dyestuff, output such as coating material, photographic material occupy world front row. Frankfurt, Ludwigshafen, Leverkusen, Reiner and so on are the main chemical industry centers. Slide91:  next exit 4. Electron electrical industry  Emerges fast, its scale occupies second in the world. Munich, Stuttgart, Berlin and Nuremberg and so on are the important electronics industry centers. 5. Steel industry  Mainly distributes along the bank in Ruhr Basin District Rhine, the Duisburg are the biggest steel and iron center. In addition, Bremen and Hamburg also have the iron and steel plant distribution. Slide92:  next exit (五)The Ruhr Basin District "industrial cycle "   Ruhr Basin District is the most important industrial park of Germany , is also one of famous industrial park of world. The main body part is located in Rhine and their branch Ruhr and Li Po River between. Slide93:  next exit Ruhr Basin District is area industry centering on heavy industry such as coal mining , iron and steel , chemistry , machine manufacture local industry complex compound.   Ruhr Basin District becomes advantageous the most important industrial park of Germany geographical feature condition: ①Coal is abound in natural resources. ②Convenient land and water transportation and sufficient source of water.   Ruhr Basin District has experienced the cyclical process which is popular - fades - popular. Slide95:  next exit The Ruhr Basin District economic recession mainly creates by the coal steel and iron primarily unitarity economic structure. In order to change this kind of condition, Germany adopted a series of measures to inspire the economic : ①Formulation plan, unification improvement. ②Developing the emerging industry, the promotion economic structure diversification. ③Adjustment industry layout. ④Development and perfect communications network. ⑤The development science and technology, promoteing economic prosperity. Slide96:  四. Russia (一)Geographic conditions and natural resources (二)Great Power’s formation and strength change the world (三)Economic system transforms and economic growth (四)Region system analyses economy Slide97:  next exit Formal name: Russian Federation Population: 145,500,000 Capital: Moscow Official language: Russian Currency: Ruble Area:17075400 square Kilometers National Days: June 12 Religion: Eastern Orthodox Church ,Islam National flag: 四. Russia Slide99:  next exit Russian Federation is called the Eurasia north part for short for Russia , is located in, that territory includes European east and Asian north part, is the area biggest country in the world. The country borders on 14 , the Russia coastline lasts a long period of time on dry land, be on verge of 12 border seas, be geared to the needs of three ocean.   Russian population 145,200,000 people (in 2003), were composed by more than 160 nationalities. Eluosi national minority 116,000,000 people, account for the national population approximately 82.6%, other main national minorities have Tartar, Ukraine, Chuwashi,Moldova,Belarus,Japan,Judah,Chechnya,Ingushetia,Kazakhstan,Armenia etc. Slide100:  next exit (一)Geographic conditions and natural resources    Vast territory, landform are various.    Most Russia area latitude higher, belongs to the temperate zone continental climate, there is the part cold zone climate. Whose characteristic is that winter is endless but chill, summer is short and pressing but warm.   Bigger rivers of Russia have the Volga ,the Don river, Ob River, Yenisei river, Lena etc.   Russia is a very rich country of natural resources, resource kind are many, reserves are big ,resource such as mineral, hydro energy, forest are especially protruding. Slide101:  In mineral resources, coal, iron, petroleum, gas, potassium compound, copper-manganese, mineral resources reserves such as lead, zinc occupy world front row. Iron mine resource enriches,has "abnormal area of maximal world iron mine area Kursk magnetic force". Petroleum, natural gas resource distribute in Siberia, vanquish you to add Ural, meter of autonomous rule republic of section, Sakhalin etc. The hydro-energy source is only inferior to China, occupies second in the world. Slide102:  next exit Russia is the richest country of forest resources in the world.    The rich natural resource, has provided the formidable material base for Russia's economical development, also constitutes the Russian formidable country comprehensive national strength important attribute. Slide103:  next exit (二)The formation and the strength change of the world’s great nation   A.D.9 latter half scheduled time: Kiev Ross 11st century, Kiev Ross broke up for more than ten duchies such as Moscow duchy, Kiev duchy, Novgorod. At the end of 15th century, taking Moscow as central Russian central collection authority and legality country. The middle of the 16th century, the Ivan fourth beginnings called “the czar”, and started to expand. Slide104:  next exit The czar carried out aggression and expansion on China unceasingly starting from the middle of the 17th century.   Latter halves of the 19th century, Russia had entered the capitalism development stage. On November 7th,1917, had founded Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. On December 30th,1922,tenable soviet socialism republic alliance (i.e. Soviet Union). Slide105:  next exit In 1991 year's end Soviet Union disintegrated, and the Russian federation became the completely independent country.   The society was turbulent, the political situation drastic change, caused the economical sudden landslide.   After 1993,the Russian economy further would worsen, the inflation, skyrocketing prices, the lives of the people level dropped unceasingly, the unemployment rate stayed at a high level. Table Russia GDP change (1998-2000) Material origin: World economics yearbook(2002) Slide106:  next exit (三)经济制度转型与经济发展 1、 经济制度转型 苏联解体后,俄罗斯联邦政府进行了一系列经济改革。1990年5月,俄罗斯开始按照“休克疗法”的方式进行经济体制改革。   所谓休克疗法就是在肯于承担巨大的暂时经济衰退的风险条件下,对已有的经济体制实行全面的和迅速的改革,力求在短时间里度过阵痛,实现彻底的体制转轨。具体的做法包括:放弃国家对市场价格的控制,放弃政府对工业企业和农场的所有权,放开资金、土地、资源、人才等要素市场,实行完全的市场经济。 Slide107:  next exit (三)Economic system reforming and the economy develop 1. The economic system reforms After Soviet Union disintegrates, Russian federation Government had carried on a series of economic reforms. In May,1990,Russia started defers to shock therapy”; the way to carry on the economic restructuring.   The shock therapy The concrete procedure includes: The giving up country to the market price control, giving up the government to the industrial enterprise and the farm property rights, letting loose essential factor markets and so on the fund, land, resources, talented person, implements the complete market economy. Slide108:  next exit 2. Main industry sector (1) Fuel power industry. It Include departments and so on petroleum, coal, natural gas and electric power. (2) Machine manufacture industry. It is one of the Russia’s biggest industry sector the layout quite is also reasonable. Slide109:  The textile machinery factory distributes in consumer areas and so on middle various states; The agricultural machinery factory distributes in agricultural regions and so on northern Caucasus; Ball bearing and tool manufacturing industry, Mainly concentrates in fine steel habitats and so on the Ural, or close fine steel habitat mechanical industrial center, like Moscow,St.Petersburg and so on,as well as fine steel habitat and between mechanical industrial center area, like Volga River basin. (3) Iron and steel industry Distributes in quite strongly, mainly is Ural, the mid-continent region and Siberia's three big iron and steel industry base. Slide110:  next exit (四) The economical region system analyzes 1. West economical region   West economical region refers to Russia’s European area, it is the core where the Russian nationality emerges. The Soviet full use the western area had the economic basis and the resources potential, have with emphasis carried on the western area economic development. But the western zone also has the environment problem, the construction uses, the process water to be day by day anxious, the environmental pollution is day by day serious, the energy and raw material degree of self-sufficiency drop unceasingly. West economical region mainly include the mid-continent region and the Ural area. Slide111:  next exit West economical region (1)Mid-continental region (2)Ural area East region Slide112:  next exit 2. East region   The east region refers to Russian Asia area, here economy falls behind extremely. The east region resources are rich, each fuel energy resource, the non-ferrous metal, the rare metal, the forest resources reserves is big, this and the western area economy grows to the eastern area itself economic development all is the huge support strength. Slide113:  Thanks Teaching design: Cheng Ying Teacher : Cheng Ying     2006.2. exit

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