Siu School Of Medicine And School Of Law June 13 2008

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Information about Siu School Of Medicine And School Of Law June 13 2008

Published on June 12, 2008

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ELSI of Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine: Future Legal, Ethical and Policy Considerations SIU School of Medicine and School of Law Presentation, June 13, 2008 Linda MacDonald Glenn, JD, LLM

The NBIC Report Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance N anotechnology, B iotechnology, I nformation Technology, and C ognitive Science NSF/DOC-sponsored report June 2002 Arlington, Virginia http://www.technology.gov/reports/2002/NBIC

Scale Canary Island palm Mosquito Nano-needle penetration micropenetration nanopenetration Offshore oil rig macropenetration 0.1 m 0.001 m 0.01 m 10 m

Eight nodes of societal discussion on nanotechnology ( Munshi, Kurian, and Bartlett, 2007) 1) technoscientists, especially those either working on or supervising some nanotechnological application who, almost invariably, tend to glorify nanotechnology; (2) leaders of business and industry who want to cash in on the projected benefits by developing a market for nanotechnology-driven products; (3) official or quasi-official bodies that generate a significant amount of literature; (4) social science and humanities researchers who tend to focus on the social, economic, political, legal, religious, philosophical, and ethical implications of nanotechnology;

( Munshi, Kurian, and Bartlett, 2007)

1) technoscientists, especially those either working on or supervising some nanotechnological application who, almost invariably, tend to glorify nanotechnology;

(2) leaders of business and industry who want to cash in on the projected benefits by developing a market for nanotechnology-driven products;

(3) official or quasi-official bodies that generate a significant amount of literature;

(4) social science and humanities researchers who tend to focus on the social, economic, political, legal, religious, philosophical, and ethical implications of nanotechnology;

Eight nodes, continued (5) fiction writers with imaginative scenarios, both utopian and dystopian; (6) political activists, particularly those with an environmental worldview, who tend to extend to nanotechnology the issues long raised by them with regard to biotechnology; (7) journalists and popular science writers who report on current events, perspectives, and funding regimes relating to the field; and (8) John Q. and Jane D. Public, who are yet to significantly grapple with or discuss nanotechnology in any depth.

(5) fiction writers with imaginative scenarios, both utopian and dystopian;

(6) political activists, particularly those with an environmental worldview, who tend to extend to nanotechnology the issues long raised by them with regard to biotechnology;

(7) journalists and popular science writers who report on current events, perspectives, and funding regimes relating to the field; and

(8) John Q. and Jane D. Public, who are yet to significantly grapple with or discuss nanotechnology in any depth.

Three Approaches (1) Optimists-'technology is good'-Full speed ahead (with 'responsible' drivers at the wheel); (2) Realists-'technology is neutral'-Invite a few of the passengers to suggest alternative routes (the 'upstream' approach); (3) Skeptics-'technology is political'-Get out the map and let everyone decide if they want to take a trip and if car, bike or bus is the best way to go"

(1) Optimists-'technology is good'-Full speed ahead (with 'responsible' drivers at the wheel);

(2) Realists-'technology is neutral'-Invite a few of the passengers to suggest alternative routes (the 'upstream' approach);

(3) Skeptics-'technology is political'-Get out the map and let everyone decide if they want to take a trip and if car, bike or bus is the best way to go"

First, the Promises… 'Nano-needle' operates on cell BBC News, December 15, 2004 - Japanese scientists have performed a delicate surgical operation on a single living cell, using a needle that is just a few billionths of a metre wide. (200-300 nanometers) The needles used much less force to penetrate the cell than a conventional Atomic Force Microscope probe, causing less damage and deformation to the cell. In one experiment, on a human embryonic kidney cell, the scientists managed to insert the needle accurately into the cell's nucleus, which contains its genetic material.

The humble mosquito http://www.nomorebites.com Malaria Viral encephalitis Dengue fever

Malaria Malaria kills 2 million people each year. Worldwide prevalence of falciparum malaria is half a billion people. The Current Global Picture Malaria is a public health problem today in more than 90 countries, inhabited by a total of some 2,400 million people - 40% of the world's population. How might nanomedicine help to fight diseases like malaria?

Red blood cells Image taken from "The Microscopic Diagnosis of Tropical Diseases", Published by BAYER in 1955 (Public Domain). Each erythrocyte contains 270 million hemoglobin molecules 10,000 nm Plasmodium falciparum

The Future: Nanorobots? Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some primitive devices have been tested. The first useful applications of nanomachines will likely be in medical technology, where they could be used to identify pathogens and toxins from samples of body fluid and destroy them. (Wikipedia)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Optical tweezers stretch a healthy red blood cell (top row of images; left to right, increasing force in the picoNewton range) and a cell in a late stage of infection with the P. falciparum malaria parasite (bottom row; same force levels as above). Note the parasite visible in the bottom three images, and how the cell cannot be easily stretched by the tweezers. Photo courtesy / Suresh et al. http://www.voyle.net/Nano%20Medicine/Medicine%202004-0068.htm MIT professor Subra Suresh, left, and research scientist Ming Dao Here Now: Optical Tweezers Silica spheres or beads are attached to opposite sides of a red blood cell, and a laser beam is aimed at one bead. Under the right conditions, the laser "traps" the bead, so that the trapped bead can be pulled, stretching or deforming the cell.

Genomics DNA molecule Complete 24 mb genome sequence of Plasmodium falciparum published in Nature [2002 Oct 3; 419(6906): 498-511 Information at the nanoscale 1 nm

Plasmodium falciparum genome CTAAACCTAA ACCTAAACCC TGAACCCTAA ACCCTAAACC CTGAACCCTA AACCCTGAAC CCTGAACCCT AAACCCTGAA CCCTAAACCC TGAACCCTGA ACCCTAAACC CTAAACCCTA AACCCTAAAC CCTAAACCCT AAACCCTGAA CCCTAAACCC TGAACCCTAA ACCCTAAACC CTAAACCCTA AACCCTAAAC CCTGAACCCT AAACCCTGAA CCCTGAACCC TAAAACCTAA ACCCTAAACC CTAAACCCTG AACCCTAAAC CCTGAACCCT AAACCCTAAA CCCTGAACCC TAAACCCTAA ACCCTGAACC CTAAACCCTG AAACCTAAAC CCTGAACCCT AAACCCTGAA CCCTGAACCC TAACCCTAAA CCCTAAACCT AAAACCCTGA ACCCTAAACC CTGAACCCTG AACCCTAAAC CCTGAACCCT AAACCCTAAA CCCTGAACCC TAAACCCTGA ACCCTAAACC CTAAACCCTG AACCCTGAAC CCTAAAACCT AAACCCTAAA CCCTAAACCC TAAACCCTGA ACCTAAACCT AAAACCTAAA ACCTAAAACC CTGAACCCTT ACTTTTCATT TCTTCTTCTT ATCTTCTTAC TTTTCATTCT TTACTCTTAC TTACTTAGTC TTACTTACTT ACTCTTACTT ACTTACTCTT ATCTTCTTAC TTTTCATTTC TTAGTCTTAC TTACTTACTC TTACTTACTT ACTCTTATCT TCTTACTTTT CATTCCTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTGTTAT CTTCTTACTT TTCATTCCTT ACTCTTACTT ACTTACTCTT ACTTACTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAT CTTCTTACTT TTCATTCCTT ACTCTTACTT ACTTACTCTT ACTTACTTAC TCTTATCTTC TTACTTTTCA TTCCTTACTT TTCATTTCTT AGTCTTACTT ACTTACTCTT ACTTACTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAC TTTCTTCTTC TTATCTTCTT ACTGTTATCT TCTTACTTTT CATTCCTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAT CTTCTTACTT TTCATTCCTT ACTCTTACTT ACTTACTCTT ATCTTCTTAC TTTTCATTCC TTACTCTTAC TTACTTACTC TTATCTTCTT ACTTTTCATT CCTTACTCTT ACTTACTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAC TTACTTACTG TTATCTTCTT ACTTTTCATT CCTTACTCTT ACTTACTTAC TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAC TTACTTACTC TTATCTTCTT ACTTTTCATT TGTTAGTCTT ACTTTCTTCT TCTTAGGTCC TTACTTTTCA TTTCTTAATC ATATATTCTT ACTCATATAG TTCTTGACTT AACTTCTTAT TCTTACTTAC TTACTCTTAT ATTCTTTTTA TCATGTTCAA GGTCTTACTT CTTAAATATT AGGTCCTTAA TCTCATAATT CTACTCTTAC TTTCTTACTT CTAGAACCTT ATTCTTACTT TCTTCATCTT ACATCCTCAG TCTCAAGTCT TTAATCTTAT CTTCTTACTC TTACTTACTT ACTCTTATCT TCTTACTTCT CATTTCTTAC TCTTACATAC CTTCTCTTCA TTCTTCAATC ATCAATTCTC ACTCTTCATT CCTTGGTCTT ACTTCTTTCT TCTTAATGTC ATACTTTTAT CCCCTATTAT CATCTACTTA GTCTTCATTT ACTCTTCTAA CTTCTTCATC TATCACTTTT CATCATCATT CATGCTTACT TAACTTACTT TCATATACTT ACTTCTACTA CATCTTCACC AAATCCGGAC TTAGCTTAAC TTTTCTCTCT TTATTCTTAC CTTACTTAGC TCTTACATAC TTAGGATCTA CTTCTTACTT ACTACTACCT TACTTACCTC TTATTTCACT TACATCTAGG TACTTATCCT ACTTTACTTC TCTTATCTTA CTTCTTTATT CTCAGATTCC GGACTTAGCT TAACTTTTTT GTGTTTGTTC TTATCTTACT TAGCTCTTAC ATACTTAGGA TCTACTTCTT TACTTACTTT CTTCTTACTT ATGTGGTAAT AAGCTACTCG GTTGGGCACT AAGGTTAGGT TTAGCTGTTC TTTAGTTCTT AAAGGGTAAG AATTTAAGGT TTGTATTGAA TTATTATTAC TATTTCATTA CTATTGTTGC TATTAAGGAC TTATAATGTT ATGTTTTCTA TCCATTTTGT TCTTTTATGT TACTAAATTC ATTGTAGATT CCGGATTTAG CTCATTAACT ATGCTTCTTA CTTCTTCTTT TACTCTTTTT AGGTCTTATG TTGTATTTAG AGTAGTAATG TTACTTAATT AGTACTTAGG ATTCATCTCA TGTAGGTTAT ATGTTCTTAT AAGGTGCACC TACATGCATA ATATCATCCA ATATATCTCA TTTAGTACTA CTATGATGAC TTATATTATC ATTATCTTAC etc. etc. nucleoside diphosphate kinase B

Proteomics and drug targeting Pfal007254AAA Plasmodium falciparum/ Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key glycolytic enzyme. This target has been an exploratory target for drug design by the MMV (Medicines for Malaria Venture: http://www.mmv.org ).

Nanomedicine frontiers Diagnostic tools Rapid DNA analysis on a chip using a small sample size Nanoparticle probes (quantum dots) linked to biomolecules Drug delivery Increased surface area enhances antimicrobial properties Target-specific drugs that release antibiotic only when infection is detected Nanomaterials Coatings to increase implant adhesion and durability Nanostructure scaffolds for tissue regeneration Implantable drug delivery systems

Diagnostic tools

Rapid DNA analysis on a chip using a small sample size

Nanoparticle probes (quantum dots) linked to biomolecules

Drug delivery

Increased surface area enhances antimicrobial properties

Target-specific drugs that release antibiotic only when infection is detected

Nanomaterials

Coatings to increase implant adhesion and durability

Nanostructure scaffolds for tissue regeneration

Implantable drug delivery systems

Nanopore immuno-isolation devices Nanoporous membrane with 24.5-nm pores. S.L. Tao and T.A. Desai, Microfabricated drug delivery systems: from particles to pores, Adv Drug Delivery Rev 55 (2003), pp. 315–328

Nanoshells Metal “nanoshells” are 100 nm diameter spheres of gold-coated silica. Molecular conjugates can be designed to recognize and bind to tumor cells. Nanoshells have size-dependent tunable optical properties. When they come into contact with cancer-specific membrane biomarkers, their absorption peak shifts to the near-infrared spectrum. Light passing harmlessly through normal tissue causes cancer cells to heat up and be destroyed. Drezek and West, Rice University

Nanofiber scaffolds Stupp, Kessler, et al., Northwestern University Self-assembling nanofiber scaffold Mouse neurons growing within scaffold

Self-aggregating structure Beta-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer’s disease Beta-amyloid fibril aggregates have been used as templates for growing metal nanowires.

Nanoencapsulation Lambda cyhalothrin capsules attach to the mosquito’s hairs when it comes into contact with a treated net. This insecticide is highly effective at low doses against many insects that vector human diseases. Syngenta has developed a water-based, capsule suspension formulation for the treatment of bednetting and is exploring nanoencapsulation methods.

Improving work efficiency and learning Enhancing sensory and cognitive capabilities Revolutionary changes in healthcare Enhancing human capabilities for military purposes Nanotechnology-based implants Brain-to-brain and brain-to-machine interfaces Some anticipated NIBC payoffs (pp. ix-xi)

Improving work efficiency and learning

Enhancing sensory and cognitive capabilities

Revolutionary changes in healthcare

Enhancing human capabilities for military purposes

Nanotechnology-based implants

Brain-to-brain and brain-to-machine interfaces

The Perils… We have seen just some of the potential benefits of nanomedicine research. They are compelling and should be pursued. What potential adverse effects should concern us as a society? Practical Ethical and Legal Concerns

We have seen just some of the potential benefits of nanomedicine research. They are compelling and should be pursued.

What potential adverse effects should concern us as a society?

Practical

Ethical and Legal Concerns

Chances are, you have recently been monitored by this optical surveillance structure: 1 mm

Practical Concerns How to build nanodevices that Do what is intended Accurate indicators of biologic function Minimize false negative diagnoses Minimize false positive diagnoses Reliable therapeutic effect Are economical to manufacture Are safe Minimize tissue toxicity Needs further study Minimize environmental impact “ Gray goo” and ecosystem toxicity

How to build nanodevices that

Do what is intended

Accurate indicators of biologic function

Minimize false negative diagnoses

Minimize false positive diagnoses

Reliable therapeutic effect

Are economical to manufacture

Are safe

Minimize tissue toxicity

Needs further study

Minimize environmental impact

“ Gray goo” and ecosystem toxicity

Ecological effects need further study Water concentration of 500 ppb led to a 17-fold increase in lipid peroxidation in largemouth bass brain tissue. Eva Oberdorster of Southern Methodist University Buckyballs cause brain damage in fish New Scientist, 29 March 2004

Protecting Our Borders: The Blood-Brain Barrier Experiments by University of Rochester toxicologist Gunter Oberdoerster showed that nanoparticles can make their way from a rat's throat into its brain, apparently via the nasal cavities and olfactory bulb. “ Who knows how they interact with cells there?” Oberdoerster asked. “Maybe they do something bad and lead to brain diseases.” For Science, Nanotech Poses Big Unknowns Rick Weiss, Washington Post Sunday, February 1, 2004; Page A01

Nanotech ‘borg’ dystopia? “ The twenty-first century could end in world peace, universal prosperity, and evolution to a higher level of compassion and accomplishment. . . . It may be that humanity would become like a single, distributed and interconnected ‘brain’ based in new core pathways of society.” (NBIC, p. 6)

Could nanotechnology achieve a symbiosis of brain and computer? And should we hope for that? “ We see this future in terms of a coming nano-neuro-cogno-symbiosis that will enhance human potential . . . by opening direct channels of natural communication between body and artificial nervous systems for the seamless fusion of technology and mind.” (NBIC report p. 256 ) “ Hive mind. . . . Think Vulcan mind-meld. We would perhaps become more of a hive mind – an enormous, single, intelligent entity.” (NBIC p. 169)

“ We see this future in terms of a coming nano-neuro-cogno-symbiosis that will enhance human potential . . . by opening direct channels of natural communication between body and artificial nervous systems for the seamless fusion of technology and mind.” (NBIC report p. 256 )

Concern Malicious use If powerful new technology were available to Rogue governments Terrorists Once the means to a technology is developed, it may eventually fall within reach of any interested ($) party A new arms race of more powerful nanoweaponry

Malicious use

If powerful new technology were available to

Rogue governments

Terrorists

Once the means to a technology is developed, it may eventually fall within reach of any interested ($) party

A new arms race of more powerful nanoweaponry

Some technologies May be too dangerous to develop If the risk of reaching the wrong hands exceeds our ability to contain extremely lethal strains securely What can our knowledge of infectious agents teach us about conceiving precautionary standards for biologically active self-replicating nanodevices? Killer flu recreated in the lab BBC News, October 7, 2004 Genetically modified Yersinia pestis Antibiotic resistant anthrax

May be too dangerous to develop

If the risk of reaching the wrong hands exceeds our ability to contain extremely lethal strains securely

A Double Edged Sword The American humorist Will Rogers once quipped: "You can't say civilization isn't advancing. In every war they kill you in a new way." “ Technology has always been a double-edged sword, empowering both our creative and our destructive natures. It has brought us longer and healthier lives, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities. Yet it has also introduced new and salient dangers…Stalin’s tanks and Hitler’s trains used technology. And we still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons—not all of which appear to be well accounted for—to end all mammalian life on the planet.” – Ray Kurzweil

The American humorist Will Rogers once quipped: "You can't say civilization isn't advancing. In every war they kill you in a new way."

“ Technology has always been a double-edged sword, empowering both our creative and our destructive natures. It has brought us longer and healthier lives, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities. Yet it has also introduced new and salient dangers…Stalin’s tanks and Hitler’s trains used technology. And we still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons—not all of which appear to be well accounted for—to end all mammalian life on the planet.” – Ray Kurzweil

Some Ethical/legal Issues Nanomedicine is likely to face over the next 25 years Privacy, confidentiality Informed consent (Artificial Research Subjects) Augmentation: Enhancement vs. therapeutic, the President’s commission report Emotions, competence, autonomy, and the law Capability and culpability (proportional autonomy) Synthetic humans: are they persons or property? Issues of Identity A new lexicon, taxonomy to describe new, complex relationships. (Personal Cognitive Aides) Issues of justice and equity (the “digital divide”)

Privacy, confidentiality

Informed consent (Artificial Research Subjects)

Augmentation: Enhancement vs. therapeutic, the President’s commission report

Emotions, competence, autonomy, and the law

Capability and culpability (proportional autonomy)

Synthetic humans: are they persons or property?

Issues of Identity

A new lexicon, taxonomy to describe new, complex relationships. (Personal Cognitive Aides)

Issues of justice and equity (the “digital divide”)

Humans and Persons All humans are persons BUT, the law says… All “persons” are NOT humans...for example, corporations, municipalities, even ships have been granted status as persons by the US Supreme Court

All humans are persons BUT, the law says…

All “persons” are NOT humans...for example, corporations, municipalities, even ships have been granted status as persons by the US Supreme Court

Criteria for Personhood? All Living Things Consciousness Sentience Peter Singer & Tom Regan Self-Awareness Rationality Descartes

All Living Things

Consciousness

Sentience

Peter Singer & Tom Regan

Self-Awareness

Rationality

Descartes

Joseph Fletcher’s 15 Propositions for Personhood 1. minimum intelligence, 2. self-awareness, 3. self-control 4. a sense of time 5. a sense of futurity 6. a sense of the past 7. the capability of relating to others, 8. concern for others, 9. communication 10. control of existence 11. curiosity, 12. change and changeability 13. balance of rationality and feeling, 14. idiosyncrasy 15. neocortical functioning

1. minimum intelligence,

2. self-awareness,

3. self-control

4. a sense of time

5. a sense of futurity

6. a sense of the past

7. the capability of relating to others,

8. concern for others,

9. communication

10. control of existence

11. curiosity,

12. change and changeability

13. balance of rationality and feeling,

14. idiosyncrasy

15. neocortical functioning

What Beings Should be Considered Persons? Fetuses? Animals? Artificial Intelligence? Categories inbetween? Beings with Numerous Neural Implants and Augmentations?

Fetuses?

Animals?

Artificial Intelligence?

Categories inbetween?

Beings with Numerous Neural Implants and Augmentations?

What the Courts have said… The U.S. Court of International Trade, in Toy Biz, Inc. v. United States in tariff dispute U.S. Customs classified the action figures as dolls representing only human beings. Toy Biz argued that the action figures were toys or non-human creatures (i.e. robots and monsters). The Court held that the action figures did not represent human beings because they had ‘robotic’ features or ‘monster-like’ features.

The U.S. Court of International Trade, in Toy Biz, Inc. v. United States in tariff dispute

U.S. Customs classified the action figures as dolls representing only human beings.

Toy Biz argued that the action figures were toys or non-human creatures (i.e. robots and monsters).

The Court held that the action figures did not represent human beings because they had ‘robotic’ features or ‘monster-like’ features.

Identity and Rights Jack-O-Lantern case – US Supreme Court 1922 'In rebuilding operations the test is whether the identity of the vessel has continued, or has been extinguished… This court has not undertaken and will not now essay to announce rigid definitions of repairs and new construction; but we do not accept the suggestion that the two things can be accurately differentiated by consideration of the ultimate use to which the vessel is to be devoted. Held despite extensive repairs, identity remained the same

Jack-O-Lantern case – US Supreme Court 1922

'In rebuilding operations the test is whether the identity of the vessel has continued, or has been extinguished…

This court has not undertaken and will not now essay to announce rigid definitions of repairs and new construction; but we do not accept the suggestion that the two things can be accurately differentiated by consideration of the ultimate use to which the vessel is to be devoted.

Held despite extensive repairs, identity remained the same

Legal and Ethical Considerations While the law is well-equipped to hold an autonomous individual culpable for his or her actions, the law is not so well designed for such systems. Nanotechnology presents a unique challenge for the legal profession to help shape policy, since the technology is cutting-edge and very little is currently written in statutes, case law, or law journals.

While the law is well-equipped to hold an autonomous individual culpable for his or her actions, the law is not so well designed for such systems.

Nanotechnology presents a unique challenge for the legal profession to help shape policy, since the technology is cutting-edge and very little is currently written in statutes, case law, or law journals.

Legal and Ethical Considerations Rights of the Individual vs. Rights of Persons Persons vs. Property Persons -> Persons + Augmentation <-Machines

Rights of the Individual vs. Rights of Persons

Persons vs. Property

Persons -> Persons + Augmentation <-Machines

Legal and Ethical Considerations One of the questions facing our courts will be: where do the rights of an autonomous system begin, assuming that an individual is an inherent part of that autonomous system? Whether using a property-personhood dichotomy or property-person continuum, the rights of the individual may change when the human performance of the individual is enhanced by machine or other technology. This raises issues about privacy, autonomy, and culpability.

One of the questions facing our courts will be: where do the rights of an autonomous system begin, assuming that an individual is an inherent part of that autonomous system?

Whether using a property-personhood dichotomy or property-person continuum, the rights of the individual may change when the human performance of the individual is enhanced by machine or other technology.

This raises issues about privacy, autonomy, and culpability.

Recommendations and Conclusions The establishment of a common lexicon between policy makers, implementation agents, and multidisciplinary users for terms such as ‘autonomous’ An exploration and discussion of the property – personhood continuum, issues of personal identity, and whether current law is sufficient or will new laws be needed? The establishment of new lexicon for the new relationships that are being created as result of new technologies, with thoughtful consideration to the impact on current informed consent policy. The possibility of legal reform and the creation of specialized science courts, where the judges will have ongoing education and training to recognize and deal with these new legal issues and categories that arise from emerging technologies.

The establishment of a common lexicon between policy makers, implementation agents, and multidisciplinary users for terms such as ‘autonomous’

An exploration and discussion of the property – personhood continuum, issues of personal identity, and whether current law is sufficient or will new laws be needed?

The establishment of new lexicon for the new relationships that are being created as result of new technologies, with thoughtful consideration to the impact on current informed consent policy.

The possibility of legal reform and the creation of specialized science courts, where the judges will have ongoing education and training to recognize and deal with these new legal issues and categories that arise from emerging technologies.

Thank you for your attention! A special thank you to Dr. Jeanann S. Boyce, who said “Converging Technologies are like duct tape, they have a dark side, a light side and they hold things together.” For further info, references contact me at [email_address]

A special thank you to Dr. Jeanann S. Boyce, who said “Converging Technologies are like duct tape, they have a dark side, a light side and they hold things together.”

For further info, references contact me at [email_address]

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