# Simultaneous Equations

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Published on July 19, 2008

Author: MoreThanMaths

Source: slideshare.net

## Description

Presentation explaining what simultaneous equations are, how to use graphs to solve them and the elimination method of sloving.

Simultaneous Equations 2x + 3y = 12 x + y = 5

Aims for this topic: You will know what simultaneous equations are You will be able to solve simultaneous equations using graphs You will be able to solve simultaneous equations using an algebraic method

You will know what simultaneous equations are

You will be able to solve simultaneous equations using graphs

You will be able to solve simultaneous equations using an algebraic method

What are simultaneous equations? If we have an equation like this with just one letter representing an unknown number, we can solve it. What number does x stand for? Obviously x = 6! x + 2 = 8

If we have an equation like this with just one letter representing an unknown number, we can solve it.

What number does x stand for?

Obviously x = 6!

What are simultaneous equations? If we have two letters there are lots of possible solutions x could be 1 and y could be 4 Or x could be 2 and y could be 3 How many other possibilities can you think of? x + y = 5

If we have two letters there are lots of possible solutions

x could be 1 and

y could be 4

Or x could be 2 and

y could be 3

How many other possibilities can you think of?

What are simultaneous equations? Suppose we have two equations We know there are lots of possible pairs of values for x and y that fit the first equation One of these pairs of values also fits the second equation x + y = 5 2x + 3y = 12

Suppose we have two equations

We know there are lots of possible pairs of values for x and y that fit the first equation

One of these pairs of values also fits the second equation

What are simultaneous equations? If x=3 and y=2 both equations are true If you are asked to solve simultaneous equations , you are being asked to find the values for x and y that fit both the equations . x + y = 5 2x + 3y = 12

If x=3 and y=2 both equations are true

If you are asked to solve simultaneous equations , you are being asked to find the values for x and y that fit both the equations .

How do you solve simultaneous equations? There are two main methods: Using graphs Using algebra

There are two main methods:

Using graphs

Using algebra

Solving simultaneous equations using graphs There are just three easy steps: Do a table of values for each equation Draw the two graphs Write down the x and y values where the graphs cross

There are just three easy steps:

Do a table of values for each equation

Draw the two graphs

Write down the x and y values where the graphs cross

Solving simultaneous equations using graphs Here is an example: Solve simultaneously y = 3 - x x + 2y = 4

Here is an example:

Solve simultaneously

y = 3 - x

x + 2y = 4

1. Do a table of values for each equation: y = 3 -x x + 2y = 4 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 y 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 X 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 y 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 X

y = 3 -x

2. Draw the two graphs:

3. Write down the x and y values where the graphs cross : The lines cross where x = 2 and y =1

Solving simultaneous equations algebraically There are several methods for solving simultaneous equations using algebra We will use a method called elimination ELIMINATE!

There are several methods for solving simultaneous equations using algebra

We will use a method called elimination

Solving simultaneous equations by elimination There are six steps: O rganise your equations M ake sure two coefficients are equal E liminate a letter S olve the equation S ubstitute … and finally check your answer!

There are six steps:

M ake sure two coefficients are equal

E liminate a letter

S olve the equation

S ubstitute

Solving simultaneous equations by elimination It sounds complicated, but just remember: N O MESS and check your answer … easy… lets try an example…

It sounds complicated, but just remember:

N O MESS

… easy…

lets try an example…

1. Organise your equations For example, look at this question: Solve 2a = 16 – 5b a + b = 5 This is much easier if we rearrange the first equation: 2a + 5b = 16 a + b = 5

For example, look at this question:

Solve 2a = 16 – 5b

a + b = 5

This is much easier if we rearrange the first equation:

2a + 5b = 16

a + b = 5

2. Make Sure Two Coefficients are Equal If we are going to eliminate a letter from our equations, we need to make the number of either a’s or b’s the same in both the equations: 2a + 5b = 16 a + b = 5 If we multiply the second equation by 2, we get: 2a + 5b = 16 2a + 2b = 10

If we are going to eliminate a letter from our equations, we need to make the number of either a’s or b’s the same in both the equations:

2a + 5b = 16

a + b = 5

If we multiply the second equation by 2, we get:

2a + 5b = 16

2a + 2b = 10

3. Eliminate a Letter Now we can get rid of a! Just subtract the second equation from the first: 2a + 5b = 16 2a + 2b = 10 _________ 3b = 6 (Sometimes you will need to add instead of subtracting – a reminder about this will appear later!)

Now we can get rid of a! Just subtract the second equation from the first:

2a + 5b = 16

2a + 2b = 10

_________

3b = 6

4. Solve the equation This is the easy part! We worked out that 3b = 6 So b = 2

This is the easy part!

We worked out that

3b = 6

So

b = 2

5. Substitute Now we know that b = 2, substitute this into one of our original equations: a + b = 5 a + 2 = 5 a = 3 Now we have solved the equations 2a = 16 – 5b and a + b = 5 , our final solutions are: a = 3 and b = 2

Now we know that b = 2, substitute this into one of our original equations:

a + b = 5

a + 2 = 5

a = 3

Now we have solved the equations 2a = 16 – 5b

and a + b = 5 , our final solutions are:

a = 3 and b = 2

6. Don’t forget to check your answer! All you have to do is substitute your answers into the other equation to make sure it works out correctly If it does, you know your answer is correct If it doesn’t, then you’ve gone wrong somewhere and sadly, you’ll have to do it all again…

All you have to do is substitute your answers into the other equation to make sure it works out correctly

If it doesn’t, then you’ve gone wrong somewhere and sadly, you’ll have to do it all again…

Just checking: Our final solutions were: a = 3 and b = 2 Substitute these into 2 a = 12 – 3 b 2 x 3 = 12 – (3 x 2 ) Both sides equal 6, so it works!

Our final solutions were:

a = 3 and b = 2

Substitute these into

2 a = 12 – 3 b

2 x 3 = 12 – (3 x 2 )

Both sides equal 6, so it works!

Remember the six steps for the elimination method: O rganise your equations M ake two coefficients the same E liminate a letter S ame signs -> S ubtract the equations A lternate signs -> A dd the equations (but ONLY use this rule when deciding whether to add or subtract simultaneous equations!) S olve the equation S ubstitute … and finally check your answer!

M ake two coefficients the same

E liminate a letter

S ame signs -> S ubtract the equations

A lternate signs -> A dd the equations

(but ONLY use this rule when deciding whether to add or subtract simultaneous equations!)

S olve the equation

S ubstitute

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