Published on March 11, 2014
Simplify Consolidation with Oracle Database 12c Oracle Multitenant Maris Elsins Co-Authors: Marc Fielding, Alex Gorbachev and Oracle! September 18, 2013
Māris Elsiņš • 8y+ Oracle [Apps] DBA, 3y PL/SQL Developer • Oracle Applications DBA / TTL at Pythian • Oracle Certified Master • Oracle Certified Professional 9i, 10g, 11g, 11i, R12 • Frequent Speaker (15) UKOUG, OUGF, LVOUG, Collaborate, … • Blogger http://www.pythian.com/blog/author/elsins/ • MarisElsins, Maris.Elsins, , • FAN of BAAG (BattleAgainstAnyGuess.com) 2 © 2013 Pythian
Who is Pythian? • 15 Years of Data infrastructure management consulting • 170+ Top brands • 6000+ databases under management • Over 200 DBA’s, in 26 countries • Top 5% of DBA work force, 9 Oracle ACE’s, 2 Microsoft MVP’s • Oracle, Microsoft, MySQL partners, Netezza, Hadoop and MongoDB plus UNIX Sysadmin and Oracle apps © 2013 Pythian3
Agenda • Multitenant Architecture • Use cases and benefits © 2013 Pythian4
© 2013 Pythian5 Multitenant Architecture
Pre-12c Consolidation Options Share nothing • Each Database on it’s own server Share HW • Multiple virtual machines on the same HW Share HW and OS • Multiple databases on the same server Share HW, OS and DB • Multiple schemas in the same DB Flexibility Efficiency © 2013 Pythian6
Consolidation options today (12c) Share nothing • Each Database on it’s own server Share HW • Multiple virtual machines on the same HW Share HW and OS • Multiple databases on the same server Share HW, OS and DB • Multiple pluggable databases • Multiple schemas in the same DB Flexibility Efficiency © 2013 Pythian7 = Flexible and Efficient
Pre-12c Oracle Database Architecture Requires memory, processes and database files © 2013 Pythian8
12c Multitenant Architecture Memory and processes required at Container DB level only © 2013 Pythian9 PDBs Root Adding additional PDBs has only a little memory overhead
Files in the CDB • PDB owns – User TS data files – SYSTEM, SYSAUX – TEMP (optional) • Root owns – SYSTEM, SYSAUX – Redo logs – UNDO – TEMP – Control Files – (s)pfile © 2013 Pythian10
Users and Privileges • Local users – Defined only in one PDB – Connects to one PDB only – Same as user schemas in non-CDB • Common Users – Defined in Root – Present in all PDBs – Connects to PDBs where “create session” is granted – Starts with “C##” or “c##” Authorization is checked in the container where the SQL is attempted considering only the privileges that the user has in that container • Locally granted Privileges – Granted to any user in a PDB (or Root) – Applies to the PDB or Root only • Commonly granted Privileges – Only for common users – Common roles can be created – Applies to all PDBs © 2013 Pythian11
Plug / Unplug Unplug from the old CDB… © 2013 Pythian12
Plug / Unplug …and plug into the new CDB • PDBs are self-contained, only metadata need to be moved. • Upgrading and patching is a simple move from one CDB to another. © 2013 Pythian13
Plug / Unplug unplug… SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 close immediate; Pluggable database altered. SQL> alter pluggable database PDB1 unplug into '/tmp/PDB1.xml'; Pluggable database altered. © 2013 Pythian14 SQL> create pluggable database PDB2 using '/tmp/PDB1.xml'; Pluggable database created. …plug
How to get to 12c Multitenant? • In-place Upgrade to 12cand plug into CDB • Migrate using Replication: – Create PDB from Seed – Use GG or DP to move data • Use Full Transportable Export / Import (DP) – copy all user data files – Export metadata from source – Import to an empty PDB – Export available in 126.96.36.199 © 2013 Pythian15
CDB is Like a single database • One Instance • One buffer cache and shared pool • One set of background processes • Can be backed up all at once • Can be Data Guard all at once • Supports hundreds of applications in one CDB • Do RMAN, data guard configuration once • Global resource management © 2013 Pythian16
CDB are Like Separate Databases • Isolation of different applications • No application changes required for consolidation • Support for public synonyms without conflicts • PDBs can be backed up individually • startup / shutdown / recover PDBs individually • Internal PDB resource management • A client is unable to tell if it’s a PDB or a non-CDB © 2013 Pythian17
Limitations of a Multitenant Architecture • Same version/patches for all PDBs • Limited ability to manage settings for each PDB – Memory tuning for individual PDBs – Some parameters can’t be set at PDB level. (local_listener, diagnostic_dest) • The same character set for all DBs • Some operations don’t work within the CDB – RMAN DUPLICATE to clone a PDB • Maximum of 252 PDBs (too many?) • Cloning a PDB requires the source to be in read only mode © 2013 Pythian18
© 2013 Pythian19 Use Cases and Benefits
Manage as one • Backups – Backup whole CDB as one – Restore/recover the whole CDB or PDBs individually. • Data Guard – Configure Data guard for the whole CDB at once – Database roles are associated at CDB level. – Switch/Fail-over happens for the whole CDB – Role changes at PDB level are not possible. © 2013 Pythian20
Patch as one • Install patches once per CDB • Effective in all PDBs immediately © 2013 Pythian21
Upgrade as one The old version CDB The new version CDB © 2013 Pythian22
Simple cloning Locally SQL> create pluggable database test2 from test1; Pluggable database created. © 2013 Pythian23 Remotely using a DB Link SQL> create pluggable database test2 from test1@remote; Pluggable database created. • The source PDB has to be in read-only mode Storage snapshot ( on ACFS, ZFS Storage Appliance or NetApp?) SQL> create pluggable database test2 from test1 snapshot copy; Pluggable database created.
Multitenant works with RAC • Same efficiency – one CDB instance per server • RAC = Avoid downtime caused by node failures • Advanced features – Oracle Database Quality of Service Management – Application Continuity • Agility With Changing Workloads and Requirements – No need to plan ahead which nodes the PDB is running on – RAC, DG are features of CDB, plug the same PDB to enable these features © 2013 Pythian24
Mixed Workloads • OLTP peak time is day • DWH peak time is night • Pre-12c DBs – high resource allocation for peak use – Low resource usage during non-peak activity • OLTP + DWH in the same CDB on the same Hardware = efficient use of resources © 2013 Pythian25 0 20 40 60 80 100 day night day OLTP 0 50 100 150 200 Pre-12c 0 50 100 150 day night day 12c 0 20 40 60 80 100 day night day DWH
Perfect for Private Clouds • Creating a DB – Rapid provisioning • From Seed • From pre-created DB • Into the requested configuration – Simplified cloning – Quick cloning with copy-on- write snapshots • Improved and Simplified AaaS • Finally! DBaaS! © 2013 Pythian26 0 5 10 15 20 25 Non CDB PDB Clone PDB using Copy-on-Write File System Time Taken to Provision New Database (minutes)
© 2013 Pythian27 Summary
Benefits • Saving resources • Plug/unplug entire PDB database • Rapid PDB cloning and provisioning • Separation of roles (PDB admin vs CDB admin) • Resource management • Recovery of individual PDBs • Quick starting / stopping of PDBs • Agility © 2013 Pythian28
Feature Availability • Multitenant – Enterprise Edition only – Extra cost option • Singletenant – CDB with one PDB • Useful for upgrades (Full Transportable Exp / Imp) • Ability to use (un)plug feature without consolidation – SE1 / SE / EE – No Extra Cost © 2013 Pythian29
License costs. • List prices (August 16, 2013) per CPU 1. Oracle Multitenant 17,500$ 2. Database Enterprise Edition 47,500$ 3. Real Application Clusters 23,000$ 4. Diagnostic Pack 5,000$ 5. Tuning Pack 5,000$ 6. Partitioning 11,500$ 7. Cloud File System 5,000$ • +37% in addition to EE • +19% in addition to EE + RAC + Part + Diag + Tun © 2013 Pythian30
© 2013 Pythian31
Patrick Wheeler, senior director of product management, introduces Oracle Multitenant, a new architecture for consolidating databases and ...
1 | DATABASE CONSOLIDATION WITH ORACLE DATABASE 12C Executive Overview ... opportunities to simplify and standardize: infrastructure components ...
Oracle Database 12c changes the game with automatic data optimization, ... Simplify Database Consolidation: Oracle Multitenant. See the Infographic.
Oracle Database 12c – Built to Simplify IT By Kristin Rose on Jul 11, ... which can help accelerate database consolidation and Cloud projects. ...
You might want to try Oracle Database 12c for database consolidation to ... Oracle Database 12c ... Oracle database consolidation, let's simplify ...
... Simplify Consolidation with Oracle Database 12c ... The Oracle Database 12c use of Heat Maps track how data is being accessed for data optimization ...
Expert Consolidation in Oracle Database 12c is your key to reducing data management costs and increasing data center efficiency.
DATABASE CONSOLIDATION WITH ORACLE DATABASE 12C UNMATCHED SCALABILITY, ... number of more powerful systems can simplify data center infrastructure, ...