Published on July 8, 2009
Simple Quality Improvement Techniques for South Carolina Businesses and Organizations (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
All South Carolina Businesses and Organizations Should Embrace Continuous Improvement • No business or organization should ever rest on its laurels • To stay ahead of your competition and to survive in tough economic times, South Carolina businesses and organizations should continuously work to improve quality of products and services, costs of products and services, and delivery of products and services (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
A Simple Technique for Continuous Quality Improvement • TPAP is the acronym for the technique – Trend Chart • Shows performance over time – Pareto Analysis • Helps you focus on the vital opportunities for improvement – Action • Take actions to improve quality – Paynter Chart • Verify quality improvement (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
What are you trying to improve? • Be clear on what you are trying to improve • The “what” is often called the response variable or “green Y” • Make sure you can measure the response variable (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Create a Trend Chart of the Response Variable • A trend chart presents data in a time sequence Trend Analysis of Shooting Percentage for an Eighth Grade Basketball Team mode 50.00% Variable FG Shooting % • How has the response Mean P e r c e n t a g e o f S h o t s M a d e in Ga m e 45.00% variable behaved over time? Are there any 40.00% patterns to the behavior? 35.00% • Steps for Creating a Trend Chart 30.00% – Draw an x and y axis – The time variable will be on the x 25.00% axis and the response variable will be on the y axis 20.00% – Plot the response variable in the 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 time sequence of the data Game – Interpret the chart (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Create a Pareto Diagram of the Opportunities for Improvement • 80/20 rule: Approximately 80% of problems are caused by approximately 20% of problem categories • A pareto diagram helps you focus on the vital few opportunities for improvement • The pareto diagram helps you best utilize your resources. You will be working on the right things. (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
How To Create a Pareto Diagram Defect Total Percent of Cumulative Cumulative Category Defectives Total Total Percent • Step 1: Write the categories in Emulsion- 67 23.9 67 23.9 descending order along with the glue amount for each category Oil/Dirt 59 21.1 126 45 • Step 2: Add up the amount to get a total amount Hot melt- 30 10.7 156 55.7 glue • Step 3: For each category, calculate the percent of the total amount. (This Sewing Thread 29 10.4 185 66.1 will be the height of each bar) Gilding 28 10.0 213 76.1 • Step 4: Write a cumulative total beside defects each category. (This will be used to End Sheet 25 8.9 238 85 plot the straight line on the Pareto Diagram) Case 17 6.1 255 91.1 • Step 5: For each category, calculate Damage the cumulative percentage Square 17 6.1 272 97.1 • Step 6: Create the pareto diagram. Variation The height of each bar is the Head 6 2.1 278 99.3 percentage from step three. Draw in Bands the cumulative line using the Upside 2 0.7 280 100.0 percentage from step five down books Total 280 (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Example of Pareto Diagram Pareto Chart of Paint Defects 90 100 80 umber of Defectives 80 70 60 Percent 60 50 40 40 30 20 20 N 10 0 0 Paint Defects ay un s s er tte r nt er pr R r ip is t ai th S D Bl la P O t Sp ad Li gh B Number of Defectives 30 25 11 10 7 5 4 Percent 32.6 27.2 12.0 10.9 7.6 5.4 4.3 Cum % 32.6 59.8 71.7 82.6 90.2 95.7 100.0 (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Take Action on the Opportunity for Improvement Using the PDCA Cycle of Improvement Plan Avoid the “shot gun” approach. Have a plan. Decide what you want to do and how you will do it. You don’t know if it will work but put your best foot forward. Think ahead to the check phase and decide now how you will measure results. You have planned, done, and checked. Now you must decide what to do with the results of your check. The Act Do Once you have a plan, carry out options typically include: the change or test on a small Adopt the change Continuous scale to minimize disruption to Abandon it and go back to Improvement of normal activity. Example: Don’t the drawing board Work Processes run a trial (with a process Run it through the cycle change) for an entire week. If it again using a different area, fails, the costs could be high. Try running a larger scale trial, or it on a smaller scale (ex. one half making the trial more shift) first. It is important to do complex. something. The best plans are Start over at the planning worthless if they are not carried phase out. Check In the Plan phase, you should have decided how to measure the results of the Do phase. After completing the Do phase, check to see if the changes or tests are working (What did you learn? What went right? What went wrong? What does the data mean?) (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
The Structure of Improvement Actions • What is the action? • Who is responsible for the action? • When will the action be completed? (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Verify the Improvement Action • There must be a process Defect Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 for monitoring the effectiveness of Emulsion C -glue 7 6 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 improvement action. – Simply put, the problem Oil/Dirt C must not be seen after the 3 4 5 7 10 13 0 0 0 action is taken. Hot Melt • Paynter chart is a great glue tool for verifying Sewing improvement action. Thread Gilding Defects (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Quality Team Improvement Boards • Sometimes called story boards • Used to summarize the activities of quality improvement teams • There is no set format. It is left to the creativity of the team. • Keep it simple-I suggest the following: – Trend Chart – Pareto Chart – Process Flow Diagram – 5W2H Problem Definition – Fishbone Diagram – Nominal Technique – Corrective Action (PDCA) – Paynter Chart (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
Team Story Board Exteme Values 30 Fishbone Diagram Trend 20 10 0 M T W Th F Sa S M T 100 90 80 Cumulative Percentage of Total Defectives Pareto 70 Percent of Total Defectives 60 50 40 30 Nominal Technique 20 10 0 Emulsion-Glue Oil/Dirt Hot Melt-Glue Sewing Thread Gilding Defects T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T Process Flow Who What Action Plan Paynter Chart Plan M T W Th When 5W2H Where Defect 8 5 6C 0 Act Do Why How Detected How Many Check (C) Quality Minds Inc July 2009
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