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Published on December 5, 2007

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The 2003 Dublin Core Conference On-line Proceedings: Building Metadata-Based Navigation Using Semantic Web Standards:  The 2003 Dublin Core Conference On-line Proceedings: Building Metadata-Based Navigation Using Semantic Web Standards Bradley P. Allen Siderean Software LLC Joseph T. Tennis The Information School, University of Washington Overview:  Overview Metadata-based systems Faceted navigation as a metadata-based system Faceted navigation and RDF DC2003 Proceedings: a case study “View source” for the Semantic Web Metadata-based systems:  Metadata-based systems From presentation to information architecture as the central focus in specifying and implementing information access [Lider and Mosoiu 2003] Specify applications using: Ontologies Formal specifications of how to represent concepts, and instances and the relations between them Controlled vocabularies Instances Application profiles Metadata is interpreted to generate presentation and behavior Faceted navigation as a type of metadata-based system:  Faceted navigation as a type of metadata-based system Metadata may be faceted, i.e., have a set of properties whose ranges form a near-orthogonal set of controlled vocabularies Creator: Dickens, Charles Subject: Arsenic, Antimony Location: World > U.S. > California > Venice Facets form a frame of reference for information overview, access and discovery Other properties serve as landmarks and cues Based on work from the library science community now moving into computational realization [Ranganathan 1967], [Bates 1990], [Hearst 2000] Faceted navigation and Semantic Web standards:  Faceted navigation and Semantic Web standards Enabling more effective retrieval is a major goal for the Semantic Web (SW) RDF [Beckett 2003] is the fundamental representation for metadata in the SW RDF Schema for defining ontologies RDF for describing collections of instances and CV terms Our work demonstrates how RDF can be used to specify faceted navigation Building metadata-based systems with RDF:  Building metadata-based systems with RDF Define/reuse ontologies expressed in RDF(S) Classes for defining instances and controlled vocabularies Properties for facets and additional attributes Import/transform instances into an RDF representation Resources referred to in place through URIs Write application profiles in terms of RDF DC 2003 Online Proceedings Project:  DC 2003 Online Proceedings Project Further the goals of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) by providing DC-centric faceted navigation of online proceedings Show that RDF is usable as a notation and exchange format for information architecture Project timeline:  Project timeline July 2003 Initial experiment using DC 2002 site August 2003 Initial proposal to DCMI Iterative prototyping involving Selection and development of ontologies Generation of instance metadata Specification of application profile September 2003 Design and editing of controlled vocabulary Final iterations on site pages Launch at conference Ontology:  Ontology Reused ontologies and metadata vocabularies Papers and posters: Dublin Core [Beckett, Miller and Brickley 2002] Creators: Friend Of A Friend (FOAF) [Brickley and Miller 2003] Subjects: Thesaurus Interchange Format (TIF) [Matthews, Miles and Wilson 2003 Added relatively few properties and classes in a conference ontology Events Tracks Ontology for conferences:  Ontology for conferences <s:Class rdf:about="&dcconf;Event"> <s:label>Presentation</s:label> </s:Class> <s:Class rdf:about="&dcconf;Paper"> <s:label>Paper</s:label> <s:subClassOf rdf:resource="&dcconf;Event"/> </s:Class> <s:Class rdf:about="&dcconf;Track"> <s:label>Conference Track</s:label> </s:Class> <rdf:Property rdf:about="&dcconf;track"> <s:label>Track</s:label> <s:comment>The track that the given paper is in.</s:comment> <s:domain rdf:resource="&dcconf;Event" /> <s:range rdf:resource="&dcconf;Track" /> </rdf:Property> Controlled vocabulary:  Controlled vocabulary Author-assigned keywords used as source materials Combined author-assigned with editorial judgment about the CV terms and structure Seed thesaurus:  Seed thesaurus Wrapping author-assigned keywords:  Wrapping author-assigned keywords <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Relational_Database"> <tif:value>Relational Database</tif:value> <tifs:USE rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Relational_Databases" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;relationship_metadata"> <tif:value>Relationship metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;requirements"> <tif:value>Requirements</tif:value> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;resource_discovery"> <tif:value>Resource discovery</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Discovery" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;resource-level_metadata"> <tif:value>Resource-level metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;SCORM"> <tif:value>SCORM</tif:value> <tifs:USE rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Sharable_Content_Object_Reference_Model_SCORM" /> </tif:Term> Adding editorial control:  Adding editorial control <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata"> <tif:value>Domain Metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Applications" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Governments"> <tif:value>Governments</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Organizations_and_Domains" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Federal_Geographic_Data_Committee_Metadata"> <tif:value>Federal Geographic Data Committee Metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata" /> <tifs:RT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Governments" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Geospatial_Metadata"> <tif:value>Geospatial Metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata" /> <tifs:RT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Organizations_and_Domains" /> </tif:Term> <tif:Term rdf:about="&dcconf2003;Government_Agency_Metadata"> <tif:value>Government Agency Metadata</tif:value> <tifs:BT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Domain_Metadata" /> <tifs:RT rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Governments" /> </tif:Term> Instance metadata:  Instance metadata Paper and poster metadata automatically extracted from author submissions Ad hoc Perl script Manual review and cleanup of generated RDF Mostly Dublin Core with some application-specific properties Creator and organization metadata manually collated from paper and poster metadata Represented in FOAF (but not in the manner in which FOAF is typically used) Papers and posters:  Papers and posters <dcconf:Paper rdf:about="http://www.siderean.com/dc2003/103_paper-22.pdf"> <seamark:texturl>http://www.siderean.com/dc2003/103_paper-22.pdf</seamark:texturl> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&dcconf;Event"/> <dcconf:track rdf:resource="&dcconf;Interoperability" /> <dc:title>Two Paths to Interoperable Metadata</dc:title> <dc:creator rdf:resource="&dcconf;Godby_Carol" /> <dc:creator rdf:resource="&dcconf;Smith_Devon" /> <dc:creator rdf:resource="&dcconf;Childress_Eric" /> <dc:description> This paper describes a prototype for a Web service that translates between pairs of metadata schemas. Despite a current trend toward encoding in XML and XSLT, we present arguments for a design that features a more distinct separation of syntax from semantics. The result is a system that auomates routine processes, has a well-defined place for human input, and achieves a clean separation of the document data model, the document translations, and the machinery of the application. </dc:description> <dc:subject rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;metadata_schema_translation" /> <dcconf:authorKeyword rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;metadata_schema_translation" /> <dc:subject rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Web_services" /> <dcconf:authorKeyword rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;Web_services" /> <dc:subject rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;communities_of_practice" /> <dcconf:authorKeyword rdf:resource="&dcconf2003;communities_of_practice" /> </dcconf:Paper> Creators and organizations:  Creators and organizations <foaf:Person rdf:about="&dcconf;Greenberg_Jane"> <foaf:name>Greenberg, Jane</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox rdf:resource="mailto:janeg@ils.unc.edu" /> <foaf:memberOf rdf:resource="&dcconf;University_of_North_Carolina_at_Chapel_Hill" /> <foaf:publication rdf:resource="http://www.siderean.com/dc2003/202_Paper82-color-NEW.pdf" /> </foaf:Person> <foaf:Organization rdf:about="&dcconf;University_of_North_Carolina_at_Chapel_Hill"> <foaf:name>University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA</foaf:name> <foaf:member rdf:resource="&dcconf;Greenberg_Jane" /> <foaf:member rdf:resource="&dcconf;Crystal_Abe" /> </foaf:Organization> Application profile:  Application profile Expressed in XRBR (XML For Retrieval By Reformulation) Specifies a view over (possibly heterogeneous) RDF schemas with hints as to its interpretation and use for faceted navigation Provides a language for query reformulation and refinement in the context of navigation Query: “give me all resources where…” + advice Response: result set + suggested query refinements + original query Application profile: specifying dimensions:  Application profile: specifying dimensions <xrbr:query xmlns:xrbr="http://www.siderean.com/2001/10/xrbr/" item-type="http://www.dcmi.org/dcconf/objects#Event" sort-dimension="title" > <xrbr:hint flattenresults="yes" startpagecolumns="4"/> <xrbr:dimensions> <xrbr:dimension name="title" predicate="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title"> <xrbr:hint textsearch="yes" label="Title" function="itemlabel"/> <xrbr:return /> </xrbr:dimension> <xrbr:dimension name="description" predicate="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description"> <xrbr:hint textsearch="yes" label="Description" function="itemdescription"/> <xrbr:return /> </xrbr:dimension> … </xrbr:dimensions> </xrbr:query> Application profile: specifying hierarchical facets:  Application profile: specifying hierarchical facets … <xrbr:dimension name="BT1" predicate="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/subject" display-predicate="http://www.w3c.rl.ac.uk/2003/07/31-tif#value" root-resource="http://www.dcmi.org/dcconf/2003#Organizations_and_Domains" ancestor-predicate="http://www.w3c.rl.ac.uk/2003/07/31-tif-simple#BT" > <xrbr:hint label="Organizations and Domains" facet="yes“ scopenote="Sectors, languages, special literatures or communities that use metadata" /> <xrbr:suggestions count="7" /> </xrbr:dimension> … Application profile: flattening graphs:  Application profile: flattening graphs … <xrbr:structure name="creator" predicate="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator"> <xrbr:dimension name="creatorname" predicate="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/#name"> <xrbr:hint label="Author" textsearch="yes"/> <xrbr:suggestions count="7" /> <xrbr:return /> </xrbr:dimension> <xrbr:dimension name="creatororg“ predicate="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/#memberOf" display-predicate="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/#name"> <xrbr:hint label="Author Affiliation" /> <xrbr:suggestions count="7" /> <xrbr:return /> </xrbr:dimension> </xrbr:structure> … Interpreting the metadata:  Interpreting the metadata Metadata loaded into the Seamark navigation server [Siderean 2002] Bases navigation on metadata imported from relational databases and in XML documents Automatically generates faceted retrieval interfaces for navigation from this metadata Provides Web services for integration of metadata-based navigation into existing Internet and intranet applications Seamark server hosted at co-location facility and integrated into main conference site Setup:  Setup Automatically generated interface:  Automatically generated interface Alternate view: creators:  Alternate view: creators Alternate view: subjects:  Alternate view: subjects Site start page:  Site start page Site drilldown:  Site drilldown Related work:  Related work SIMILE [Bass and Butler 2003] Haystack [Quan, Huyhn and Karger 2003] XFML [Van Dijck 2003] FacetMap [Wilson 2002] Future work:  Future work Controlled vocabulary refinements As the collection grows we’ll need to modify the CV Will add more structure and terms Will develop a more rule-based subject description Future work:  Future work Match IA with Digital Library concerns Utilize Adobe metadata fields (another metadata layer) Establish citation best-practice advice (another metadata component) Work with DCMI on institutionalizing this structure (another metadata component and interoperability issue) Future work:  Future work Development work underway Integrate DC 2002, DC 2004 work and additional resources Present results at DC 2004 and perhaps establish as core publication site for DC Issues:  Issues Scaling will depend on having creators provide metadata with submissions Open problem in metadata creation RDF(S) in the wild is immature, frustrating reuse DC, RSS 1.0 are important counterexamples Rapidly evolving vocabularies make standardization tricky TIF(S) now SKOS! User interfaces for faceted navigation are immature as well Anecdotal feedback is positive, but usability studies are just beginning The good news: now decoupled from the underlying architecture and implementation of navigation Conclusions:  Conclusions RDF(S) can be used as a vehicle for specifying information architecture Supports reuse of ontologies, CVs Faceted navigation can be built with this approach Systems can be generated by individuals in hours or minutes Normal people can and are willing to do this An existence proof for “view source” for the Semantic Web References:  References [Lider and Mosoiu 2003] Brett Lider and Anca Mosoiu, “Building a Metadata-Based Website.” Boxes and Arrows, http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/building_a_metadatabased_website.php, April 21, 2003. [Ranganathan 1967] Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan, Prolegomena to Library Classification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House. 1967. [Bates 1990] Marcia J. Bates, "Design for a Subject Search Interface and Online Thesaurus for a Very Large Records Management Database." Proceedings of the 53rd ASIS Annual Meeting 27 (1990): 20-28. [Hearst 2000] Marti Hearst, “Next Generation Web Search: Setting Our Sites.” IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Special issue on Next Generation Web Search, Luis Gravano (Ed.), September 2000. [Beckett 2003] Dave Beckett, ed., “RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised).” W3C Proposed Recommendation, http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar/, 15 December 2003. [Beckett, Miller and Brickley 2002] Dave Beckett, Eric Miller and Dan Brickley, “Expressing Simple Dublin Core in RDF/XML.” http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmes-xml/, July 31, 2002. [Brickley and Miller 2003] Dan Brickley and Libby Miller, “FOAF Vocabulary Specification.” RDFWeb Namespace Document, http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/, 16 August 2003. [Matthews, Miles and Wilson 2003] Brian Matthews, Alistair Miles, and Michael Wilson, “Modelling Thesauri for the Semantic Web.” http://www.w3c.rl.ac.uk/SWAD/thesaurus/tif/deliv81/final.html, 2003. [Siderean 2002] Siderean Software LLC, “From Site Search to the Semantic Web.” http://www.siderean.com/SemanticWebWhitePaper.pdf, February 2002. [Bass and Butler 2003] Mick Bass and Mark H. Butler, “Introduction to SIMILE.” http://web.mit.edu/simile/www/documents/introduction/introduction.html, June 20, 2003. [Quan, Huynh and Karger 2003] Dennis Quan, David Huynh, and David R. Karger, “Haystack: A Platform for Authoring End User Semantic Web Applications.” International Semantic Web Conference, http://haystack.lcs.mit.edu/papers/iswc2003-haystack.pdf, September 2003. [van Dijck 2003] Peter Van Dijck, “Introduction to XFML.” XML.com, http://www.xml.com/pub/a/2003/01/22/xfml.html, January 22, 2003. [Wilson 2002] Travis Wilson, “FacetMap: Your Home for Faceted Classification.” http://facetmap.com, 2002.

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