Published on March 9, 2014
Content : + Axial skeleton -Skull -Vertebrae -Ribs + Appendicular skeleton -Forelimb -Hindlimb + Splanchnic skeleton -Os penis
General view :
Skull : -The skull consist of 3 bones combined with each other to form the skull. -The skull consist of cranium , mandible and hyoid bone. -The cranium consist of many bones which combine with each other to form the cranium. -Those bones are : Frontal bone-nasal bone-maxillary bone-occipital bone sphenoid bone-temporal bone-parietal bone Lacrimal bone-zygomatic bone-incisive bone Palatine bone-vomer bone-pterygoid bone Ethmoid bone
-The facial crest and facial tuberosity are absent
-Only the frontal paranasal sinus is observed and divided into cranial –middle and caudal part. -The maxillary sinus is small and open directly to the nasal cavity and called maxillary recess.
Mandible: -The mandible consist of body and 2 ramus. -The 2 halves of the mandible is not completely fused with each other by the mandibular symphysis. -The masseteric fossa is very deep for the insertion of the masseter muscle.
Skull radiology: Tongue Hyoid bone
Vertebrae: -The vertebrae is a group of bones which form the vertebral column in which the spinal cord is found. -It is divided into : Cervical(C) thoracic(T),lumber(L),sacrum(S),and caudal(Cd) -The vertebrae formula is : C=7 T=13 L=7 S=3 Cd=20-23
Cervical vertebrae: -1st vertebra is called atlas. -2nd vertebra is called axis -The last vertebra has articulation surface for 1st rib.
Thoracic vertebrae: -It is characterised by long spinous process -The last 3 vertebrae have accessory processes -It has articular surface for the rib articulation
A.Vertebral canal; B.Transverse process; C. Dorsal spinous process; D.Vertebral arch; E. Body; F. Cranial articular process; H. Cranial costal fovea.
Ribs: Each rib is a curved rod, which at its dorsal end is movably articulated to the vertebra, and at its ventral end is either connected with the sternum, or ends freely. In the dog there are thirteen pairs of ribs, nine pairs of which are directly connected with the sternum, while the remaining four end freely and are known as floating ribs. Each rib is obviously divided into two parts, a dorsal or vertebral part, and a ventral or sternal part. The vertebral portion, which forms about two-thirds of the whole rib, is a flattened, regularly curved rod, completely ossified. Its dorsal end is rounded, forming the head or capitulum, which articulates with a concave surface furnished partly by the corresponding vertebra and partly by the vertebra next in front. The last three or four however articulate with one vertebra only
J. Head; K.Tuberculum.
Articulation between ribs and thoracic vertebrae
Sternum: This is an elongated cylindrical structure lying in the mid-ventral wall of the thorax, and is divided into eight segments or sternebrae. The anterior segment, the presternum (fig. 76, 1) or manubrium sterni is expanded in front; the next six segments, which, together form the mesosternum are elongated, somewhat contracted in the middle and expanded at the ends. The last segment or xiphisternum (fig. 76, 4) is long and narrow, and terminates in a flattened expanded plate of cartilage. The first pair of sternal ribs articulate with the sides of the presternum, and the remaining pairs between the successive sternebrae. Between the last sternebra and the xiphisternum two pairs articulate. Development shows that the sternum is formed by the union in the middle line of two lateral portions; this can be well seen in the presternum and xiphisternum of the puppy, but no traces of this median division remain in the adult dog.
Thoracic cage : -It is formed : +Dorsally Thoracic vertebrae +ventraly Sternum +Lateraly Ribs -Thoracic inlet : +dorsaly 1st thoracic vertebra +venteraly presternum +lateraly 1st rib -Thoracic outlet : dorsaly last thoracic vertebra ventraly xiphoid process of sternum lateraly last rib
B.Transverse process; C. Dorsal spinous process; E. Body; F. Cranial articular process; G. Caudal articular process. A.Vertebral canal; B.Transverse process; C. Dorsal spinous process; D.Vertebral arch; E. Body; F. Cranial articular process.
Sacral and caudal vertebrae: sacrum (A) coccygeal or caudal vertebrae (B).
From this dorsal view, notice the attachment of the wings of the sacrum (C) to the ilium (D). E is the pelvic symphysis
Forelimb: -Forelimb bones are completely separated from the axial skeleton due to the absence of clavicle bone in dog; while communication occur by muscules. -Forelimb bones are: scapula-humerus-radius and ulna-carpusmetacarpus and phalanges.
Scapula: -Scapula is a flat bone which form the shoulder girdle. -The ratio between supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa is 1:1. -The scapular spine end by wide trunkated acromion and the tubular spinae is absent.
The articular surface, the glenoid cavity (E) is at the distal end of the bone, and the .supraspinous fossa (C) is cranial to the spinous process (A), or spine of the scapula The distal end of the spinous process (A) of the dog has an acromium process (B) . When we dissect the thoracic limb, we will find that the supraspinatous muscle sits in the supraspinous fossa (C) and that the infraspinatous muscle sits in the infraspinous fossa (D). Note that the supraspinatous is above (supra) the spine and the infraspinatous fossa is below (infra) the spine. This second image shows the medial aspect eht fo left scapula dionelgarpus eht taht ecitoN . .(E) ytivac dionelg eht fo tcepsa lainarc eht (arpus) evoba si (F) elcrebut The small process on the supraglenoid tubercle is the corocoid process (G). The smooth surface corresponds to where the subscapularis muscle lies, and it is known as the subscapular fossa (H) (don't worry about these muscle names for now). The roughened surface is the serrated face (I), and it is where the serratus ventralis muscle attaches
Humerus: -It is a long bone which is called also the brachium-The head of the humerus with the glenoid cavity of the scapula form the shoulder joint. -The presence of supratrochlear foramen
Radius and ulna: In case of dog the radius and ulna is separated from each other like human , while in farm domestic animals ( horse, cattle, sheep, goat, camel ) the radius and ulna is fused.
Bone A is the radius and bone B is the ulna. Image 1 is the cranial view, and because the olecranon (E) curves medially and the styloid process (F) of the ulna is found caudal and lateral to the distal end of the radius, we can identify these bones as the left radius and ulna. Image 2 is then a view of the lateral aspect of these bones. The proximal extremity of the radius is the head (C), and the distal extremity is the trochlea (D). The ulna consists of the olecranon (E) proximally and the styloid process (F) distally. Notice that the styloid process resembles a stylus pen. The trochlea of the humerus sits within the trochlear notch (G).
Carpus , metacarpus and phalanges: Carpus is a group of small bone which form the wrist joint , it is arranged in rows which differ from species to another . No. of carpal bone : 7 No. of bones in the proximal row : 4 No. of bones in the distal row : 4
Metacarpal bones is a group of long bones which form the palm in human hand, the number of these bones differ from species to another. No. of metacarpal bones : 5 The first one is the shortest while the III and IV is the longest .
Phalanges is a group of 3 bones which form the fingers ( except in the first finger 2 bones ) , they are called 1st , 2nd ,3rd . The 3rd phalange and the distal part of the 2nd phalange is coverd by claws.
Hind limb: The hind limb which is the lower limb in human is directly connected to the axial skeleton through the joint between os coxae and the sacrum It consist of : Os coxae – femur – patella – tibia – fibula – tarsus – metatarsus –and digits
Os coxae : It is the first bone in the hind limb which form the pelvis The right and left bone fused with each other by the pelvic symphysis It consist of 3 bones ilium- ischium and pubis The gluteal surface is concave ( spoon like)
Femur : It is a long bone which form the thigh region. The head of the femur form the hip joint with the acetabulum of the os coxae . The caudal surface characterized by 2 rough lines diverge proximally and distally towards the extremities called linea Aspera The present of the supracondyloid facets.
Hip joint: Hip joint is formed of the head of the femur with the acetabulum of os coxae.
Fibula , tibia and patella : B= tibia C= fibula D = Patella
The fibula (B) is lateral to the tibia (A), and the tibial tuberocity (C) and tibial crest (D) are on the cranial aspect of the tibia. This means that image one is a cranial view and image two is a lateral view of the left tibia and fibula. The tibial tuberosity is on the proximal aspect of the tibia
Stifle joint : Stifle joint is a compound joint which is formed of 3 bones (distal extremity of femur – proximal extremity of tibia – patella)
Tarsus , metatarsus and phalanges : Tarsus
The cluster of bones are the tarsal bones (A), which make up the tarsus, or hock. The tibial-tarsal joint is the same as your ankle. The calcaneus (B) is the large tarsal bone that makes up the heel of man. Unfortunately, I could not get a good view to show that the calcaneus is in the lateral portion of the hock. The metatarsal bones are labelled C. Remember that at the tarsus, cranial becomes dorsal (E) and caudal becomes plantar (F), just like when you plant your foot on the ground. The phalanges (D) are similar to those in the thoracic limb.
Os penis (baculum) : Os penis is a bone which is found in the penis of the dog which help to prevent the closure of the urethra during intercourse due to the contraction of the vaginal muscles of the bitch .
A= os penis B= urethra
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