Published on October 13, 2014
1. SHARP WASTE DISPOSAL IN PAKISTAN
2. Introduction “Sharps“ instruments used ‒ to puncture, cut, or scrape body parts Hundreds of thousands of accidental needle sticks and sharps injuries occur annually. Improper management ‒ a health risk to the public and waste workers.
3. Intro contd.. Syringes ‒ not always properly disposed off Generates ‒ considerable risk for injury, infection and opportunities for reuse. Disposed off syringes in special containers.
4. Contd… Major risk factor in outbreaks of blood borne infectious diseases. Exposes millions of people to infections. – 20 million for Hepatitis B – 2 million for Hepatitis C – 250, 000 case of HIV – 1.3 million deaths
5. Contd.. Widespread re-use of syringes and needles in the developing world is due to several factors: – lack of awareness – lack of supplies of syringes and needles – absence of infrastructure for the safe collection and destruction of used injection
7. Objective of the study To aware people about sharp waste disposal in Pakistan.
8. Subjects & Methods Study type ‒ cross sectional. Sample size – 50 Place of study ‒ Jinnah University for women. Duration ‒ March 28, 2014 – April 18, 2014. Statistical analysis ‒ Microsoft Excel.
9. Result S/N Questions Answers Frequency (count) Percent 1 Have you ever heard about reusing syringes? a) Yes b) No Total N 39 11 50 78 22 100 2 Why it is necessary to dispose off syringes? a) To prevent spreading of disease b) Because it made of plastic c) Don't know Total N 50 005 0 100 00 100 3a. What do you think; reusing syringes is harmful to health? a) No, it has no effect b) Yes, it's very harmful c) I have no knowledge Total N 04 8 25 0 0 96 4 100 3b. If yes, then it leads to which type of infection? a) Hepatitis A, B, C b) Aids c)Hepatitis B and C both d) All Total N 5383 4 50 10 6 16 68 100 4 Why are syringes re-used in the developing counties, even nowadays? a) Lack of awareness b) Lack of supplies of syringes c) Abscise of infrastructure for safe collection d) Don't know Total N 44 3125 0 88 624 100 5 What contributes safe syringe dispose? a) Placed in safety box b) Incineration c) Disposed off in bin d) Don't know Total N 61 0 33 15 0 12 20 66 2 100 6 Can the syringe be used again after sterilization (complete elimination or destruction of all living microorganisms)? a) Yes b) No c) Don't know Total N 53 9 65 0 10 78 12 100
10. S/N Questions Answers Frequency (count) Percent 7 In which type of people, re-use of syringes mostly done? a) Drug addicted people b) Ill patients c) Cleaners/Sweepers d) Pregnant women Total N 44 2405 0 88 480 100 8 If the needle of syringe is left open, what do you think would it be safe to use? a) Yes b) No c) Don't know Total N 34 6 15 0 6 92 2 100 9 Should government take action against the reuse of syringes? a) Yes b) No c) Don't know Total N 47 305 0 94 6 100 10 From where syringes are mostly disposed off? a) Hospitals b) Clinics c) Laboratories d) Other places, Total N 33 2785 0 66 4 14 16 100 11 If syringes are not correctly disposed in laboratory/hospital should this be reported? a) Yes b) No c) Don't know Total N 44 425 0 88 84 100 12 What do you think; hospitals and laboratories workers dispose off syringes properly? a) Yes b) No c) In laboratories properly done d) In hospitals properly done Total N 92 5 12 45 0 18 50 24 8 100
11. Bar – Diagram
12. Pie – Diagram
13. Discussion P - value = 0.0000000000042189 The p-value with Chi-square shows that our findings are statistically significant. Majority of the students have knowledge of reuse of used or disposed off syringes. 66% knows major source of health care waste.
14. Contd.. 12% - people knows how to dispose off syringes 88% - were of the view that reuses of syringes is mostly done in drug addicts. 68% - were aware of the blood borne infections that results from improperly disposed off syringes. The study reveals that majority of the students are aware of reuse of syringes and outlook for minimizing wrong health care activities.
15. Conclusion Good Level of knowledge among students Large scale study Role of professional organizations and government Role of health care professionals
16. Contd.. Proper knowledge of health professionals Lessen the prevalence of diseases like hepatitis and AIDS, among future generation. Proper knowledge must be provided by medical and nursing schools. Moreover, proper checking and monitoring is highly essential.
17. Jinnah university for women Thank You Presented by: Leila Muhammadi Iqra Altaf Faiza Perveen Ayesha Siddiqui Hina Jaffri
Mitos y realidades de las sustancias psicoactivas
Mitos y realidades de las sustancias psicoactivas.
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