Published on January 31, 2008
Slide1: Adara Totino, Lori Lee, Nicholas Ugbode, Paolo Pepe Sex education Sex in the media Deviant sexual behavior Sexuality and the rise of AIDS in China Sexuality in Chinese Youth Pornography and prostitution Interviews and much, much more… Slide2: The Chinese Psychiatric Association used to classifies homosexuality as a mental disorder, regarding sexual orientation as a curable illness, using shock treatments as a desperate attempt to convert individuals to heterosexuality. Increased acceptance of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender community; sexual orientation is no longer a mental illness. Any deviance in sexual orientation was not forbidden by law so the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community were charged for hooliganism or disturbing the public order by police. Many Chinese still stay hidden about their orientation due to heavy social discrimination. The Chinese Tongzhi conference is a four day workshop/retreat type program designed for the Chinese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community, that allows them to learn about STD’s and AIDS, find business and travel opportunities, share experiences, learn to deal with family approval and disapproval, and most importantly show them that they are accepted and acknowledged in society and to help them identify themselves. Same-sex marriage is forbidden in China. Chen Lili- A 24- year old Chinese model from Sichuan province who was rejected from the Miss Universe pageant because she wasn’t considered a natural woman. Slide3: Tongzhi (同志) once meant “comrade,” but today, it is used as a slang term in Mandarin referring to homosexuals. This term is a pun on the formal word for homosexuality/ homosexuals, tongxinglian (同性戀), which literally means same-sex relations or love. Another slang term is boli (玻璃), which is much less common, meaning glass. Terminology Ancient China “Breaking the sleeve", refers to Emperor Ai of Han’s act of cutting his sleeve off on one occasion in which his favorite male concubine, Dongxian (董賢), was sleeping on his sleeve and , in order not to wake him up, he cut his sleeve off. Scholar Pan Guangdan (潘光旦) came to the conclusion that nearly every emperor in the Han dynasty had one or more male sex partners. It is believed homosexuality was popular in the Song, Ming and Qing dynasties. The first law against homosexuals in China went into effect in1740. There was no record in the history as to how effectively the law was enforced. Slide4: 1. Same Sex Love Always Exists 2. Same Sex Love is Being Discriminated Against 3. Traditional Chinese Society was Tolerant Towards Same Sex Love 4. The Hostility and Violence Against Homosexuality is not Found in traditional Chinese Culture 5. Increased Exchanges among Tongzhi in Chinese Societies is Beneficial 6. Confrontational politics in the West Should Not be Imposed Upon Chinese Societies 7. We Should Respect Each Other Regardless of Sexual Orientation Slide5: Pornography is illegal in china, but the root of China’s pornography issue is over the internet. And thus China has launched a “People’s War” against internet pornography. Internet service providers across the nation have introduced a real-name registration system and are forbidden to collect service charges for pornographic websites. Those violating the rules will be placed on a blacklist by local telecom supervisory authorities. Experts warn that exposure to porn websites is damaging young people's attitudes towards sex. Many Chinese websites publish pornographic images to attract viewer’s attention. Slide6: sdf SEXUALITY IN CHINESE MEDIA: SEXUALITY IN CHINESE MEDIA Chinese Film Showcase (CFS) annually selects a group of films for a film viewing festival where they deal with important issues facing the immediate Chinese community (for the betterment of the general Chinese public). Chinese generally dislike discussing anything sexual because it is regarded as ‘dirty' by the Chinese public [Beida Professor]. Attitudes toward sexuality are changing due to the increased influence of urbanization. Younger Chinese are recorded to be having sex earlier and experimenting with sexual positions and masturbation more often and at a younger age. Media Sexuality Cont’d: Media Sexuality Cont’d China to this day remains conservative with media representation when it comes to sex. Compared to the newsstands in Paris and New York the Chinese magazines shy away from the overtly sexual covers with nearly-naked models. Example of Chinese media is the television show “Pink Ladies” which is supposedly the Chinese version of “Sex and the City” except without the sex. The Television censors forbid televising anything remotely explicit. The borderline is often drawn with kissing and showing a man and woman going into the bedroom. Media tries to be conservative with sex but there are certain media outlets that cannot be barred i.e. the INTERNET. Thanks to the internet, soft-porn images can be viewed in certain shady internet cafes where the ban on pornography isn't really adhered to. PRESENCE OF SEX IN CHINESE YOUTH : PRESENCE OF SEX IN CHINESE YOUTH A 1997 survey showed that 40% of Chinese young couples did not hug or kiss before marriage, a statistic which I am sure has dropped throughout the 90s and into the 21st century. Chinese youth presently need more sexual education. Typically the youth learns about sex through sex education which is usually given in the 6th grade and upwards, if its given at all. (historically in the 19th century, the female youth learned about sex through an 11th hour dowry scroll which contained sexually explicit pictures as a sort of ‘how-to’ manual for their marriage). Contemporarily the Chinese youth craves more knowledge about sex and sexuality and with the western and outside influence on china the youth is exposed to more about sex and are having sex at a younger age. Also historically the youth dressed in shapeless and body disguising Mao-jackets which was meant to hide their bodies. Presently the Chinese youth dress is western clothes that shape and accentuate their body. As we all saw on our trip to downtown Xi’an and Beijing, there are countless stores and malls where western clothes and accessories are spread throughout and create such modern environments where the youth can dress in a loose fashion. Youth Sexuality Cont’d: Youth Sexuality Cont’d Also historically the youth dressed in shapeless and body disguising Mao-jackets which was meant to hide their bodies. Presently the Chinese youth dress is western clothes that shape and accentuate their body. As we all saw on our trip to downtown Xi’an and Beijing, there are countless stores and malls where western clothes and accessories are spread throughout and create such modern environments where the youth can dress in a loose fashion. Dating among the youth in China has come a long way from the 19th and 20th century. Now-a-days the Chinese youth are more open minded about western style dating. There exists such an interest about the dating rituals of Westerners that the Chinese youth look to such thing as McDonalds as a classy first date, while from a western stand-point it is not more than a fast-food place with greasy specialties that serve instant and fleeting gratification. Sexual Education China Vs. U.S.A: Sexual Education China Vs. U.S.A Similarities: Much of sexual education is learnt from family, friends, or the media. Differences: No Sex Ed./Health class taught to students. Sexual Education China Vs. U.S.A: Sexual Education China Vs. U.S.A In a recent poll, 79.9% of female university students in Beijing obtained sexual knowledge from their mother’s. Among them 51.3% were taught how to deal with menstruation, 21.8% had been taught about hygiene of their reproductive organs, 4 % had been taught how to keep their virginity and less than 0.1% had obtained knowledge about contraception. Sexual Education Rural Vs. Urban: Sexual Education Rural Vs. Urban Four factors of: Education Level Occupation Parental Relationship Marital Status of Parents Sexual Education &Psychological Side Effects: Sexual Education & Psychological Side Effects Fear of Sex in Adulthood Pornography Fear of AIDS in China: Fear of AIDS in China 57% of urbanites and 47% of people from small townships, said that they would be willing to take care of family member with A.I.D.S 33.9% of urbanites and 19% of small town residents acknowledged that they could treat HIV/AIDS victims equally at work 57.2% of urbanites and 63% of residents in small towns would keep it a secret if a family member come down with AIDS AIDS in China: AIDS in China AIDS has recently been recognized by the government a problem. Recent figures show that 25,000 people in China are living with HIV, however experts believe that over 1,500,000 people are actual infected. It is predicted that by the year 2010 10,000,000 people in China will be infected. Reasons for the Rise of AIDS in China: Reasons for the Rise of AIDS in China Injecting drug use Blood transfusion Prostitution Homosexuality Change in Tune: Change in Tune UNICEF Gay men get fast HIV tests HIV treatment center to be built Project Dragonfly Increase in condom usage Slide19: Poverty Since the 1980s there has been a resurgence of prostitution in China. The main reason for this resurgence has been economic. Heading further west across China, the prevalence of prostitution is inescapable. For many women, prostitution is the only way to make a living because of the arrival of capitalism. In which many state-owned enterprises vanished, taking jobs with them. Many of these women are attracted to the cities where they can attempt to make enough money to start their own businesses or return home. AIDS In August 2001, the Chinese government finally admitted that the country was facing a serious AIDS crisis. There are 3 main types of high risk activities relating to HIV transmission in China, the third being unsafe sexual practices. For example, the use of condoms is the choice of the client. In a study, 30% of prostitutes use a condom when they last had sex. Another study showed that prostitutes don’t use condoms when they have non-commercial partners. Slide20: The current large scale migration of the rural labor force has contributed to the spread of STDs including AIDS. According to UN figures Yunnan Province had a 3.5% HIV-rate for prostitutes tested, and Sichuan had a less than 1% rate. In Xinjiang, which is north of Tibet, it was found that 5 out of 13 prostitutes tested positive in 1998. This lucky customer is going home with MORE than a smile tonight… Slide21: Sex Trafficking Tens of thousands of women are bought in China each year. China is a destination of trafficked women from Ukraine and Russia. And traffickers are increasingly transferring Burmese and Chinese girls. Prostitution is a phenomenon largely controlled by organized crime. Women are regularly kidnapped and forced into prostitution. The out right selling of women as wives is also common. For some poor women, who are not professional prostitutes, prostitution has become a way for them to supplement their income. Since these women are scared and marginalized, they do not receive proper health care, and they unwillingly help the spread of S.T.D.’s. Laws Strike hard or red light district strategy????? China is fighting back against gangs involved in prostitution of women and children. Unlike other countries which offer silent support to this activity, China is taking a hard line. For example, China recently executed eight people for selling women and children. This reflects China’s determination to stop a widespread trade in women sold as brides or into prostitution and children, usually boys, bought by families who want an heir. Slide22: China Are you a virgin? If so how old where you at your first experience? AND if not, why? Yes, I’m a virgin. I think if you go to bed with a girl, I will be under an obligation to make her feel blessedness ad far as possible. You know I study in Sichuan province which is very far from Beijing, so I know we won’t be together after graduate. Maybe I just want to find a emotional life in university. 2. What are your views on birth control and protection? You can see in china the population problem is very serious, so I think Birth-C is an correct policy now, I approve it. I am not sure that what is the birth protection, is that means not allow to abortion? In my mind abortion is just bad to a woman’s health, and I don’t think it deprive a new life’s human rights. 3. How aware are you of aids, its prevention, its causes, its long term and short term side effects? You know my school in university is The public health school, so I know more about Aids than others. 4. What are acceptable behaviors between couples? [ie: can a couple kiss in public? when is it okay for a couple to move in together?] Why not allow a couple to kiss in public, like square, park, street, and so on?I think if the boy and girl loves each other, they can move in together anytime, even if they have not married. Slide23: When did you have your first kiss? Do you think that age is average for Chinese youth's first kiss? My first kiss, when I was near to 20. You know I was silly student before university. In China before university, teachers and parents don’t advocate or disapprove students to have a love affair. Actually, in Beijing only one or two fifth students can pass the exam of entrance the normal high school, and others have to an other kind of high school, it is called: technical high school, which is aim at training workers. Students in that kind school usually are not good at study, so their love maybe earlier than normal high school’s students. I thinking Beijing the average age of first kiss is about 16 to 20. What is a typical date like in china? How do the men in China ask women on dates that they are attracted to? is it acceptable for a woman to ask a man? The men phone or communicate with the women face to face. A woman to ask a man is very normal thing. Have you ever asked a woman on a date or is that only for more vulgar men? Yes, I have. I don’t think that is for more vulgar men. Do you know if a typical prostitute in China would use a condom without being asked? Slide24: I am not sure, I think in China the health graduation is making more and morepeople know how to protect themselves. 9. What is the extent of ease in which an individual can find and hire a prostitute? In bar, massage center, hotel, and by internet chat room. Were you ever educated in school about sex and its side effects? Were you ever taught about your body? And if not, what age do you think, if you think, should people be educated about their bodies? You know I graduate from medical university so I know my body. And as far as I know boys know their bodies usually about 15 or 16, but boys may don’t know girl’s, clearly. And much more girls don’t know boy’s. I think health education is necessary . Have you noticed that the more recent influence of western culture has brought about sexual undertones in Chinese advertising and media? Yes, I think that is ordinary. 12. Which do you feel are more educated about their bodies: Men or women? I think women need more educate. Slide25: Are there male prostitutes? Are they more, less or equally as common as female prostitutes? Yes. There are male prostitutes, I am not sure, but they must less than female. 14. What is the degree of tolerance regarding the homosexual lifestyle? I don’t care gays, but I can’t tolerate their behaviors in public. 15. What are your views on pornography and the "destruction" of society that it brings? Have you ever been exposed to pornography? I think pornography is not a good phenomenon, the government had better forbid it. America No. 15 years old. Sexual Protection is completely necessary when engaging in any sexual activity. The government should not interfere or prohibit any type of birth control unless it clearly and has been proven to endanger the lives of the mother and the child-to-be. Birth control is completely necessary in order to prevent the further growth of the already over-populated world. Been aware since i was in 3rd grade. Learned of the disease through t.v. and in 5th grade through Sex education classes. Every individual/group of individuals should have the liberty to do as they wish when it comes to sexual matters, especially within the privacy of their homes. They could do as they wish in the privacy of their homes but whilst in public they should limit themselves to the activities they do (kissing, feeling up) as these would not be socially moral. Slide26: First Kiss = 12 years old. Whether or not it is an average age for a first kiss, I really have no idea. I guess its just a little bit before the average age (which I would think would be 13,14?) Depends on the guy/girl. The cliche date would be dinner and a movie? Depends on the guy. Could be suave about it or could just ask them. idk.. Women asking men out on dates should be completely acceptable. Of course, the older generation would probably disagree. What type of question is this? LoL In the U.S. there would not be ANY prostitute who would not use a condom. This is due to the education on STD's and HIV Very easily. LOL... sex has side-effects.. yea, it may cause vomiting and drowsiness.. LOL... yes, I was educated since 5th grade, although i started learning about that stuff in 3rd grade. I would say 6th grade would be an ideal grade to be taught about sex. Have you noticed that the more recent influence of western culture has brought about sexual undertones in Chinese advertising and media? women? because of their mothers? they seem to be more open about their bodies with their mothers due to menstruation and that stuff. Yes and I would say that they are equally common. People are becoming more and more tolerant of homosexuality although there are still many groups and a large amount of the older generation that does not agree with the lifestyle. It's a business and it should be completely acceptable. Yes, I have actually... a couple of hundred times.. all completely accidental... =]
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People of China: What is, and what will be, the demographic impact of Deng Xiaoping opening up policy in mainland China?