Sets & Reps - a new training model

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Information about Sets & Reps - a new training model
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Published on October 31, 2008

Author: markmckean

Source: authorstream.com

Sets & Reps A New Model : Sets & Reps A New Model Presented by Mark Mckean, Dip.T, CSCS, PhD Student USC, Fitness Direct Health Studio History : History First research used 3 x 10 reps Moved into variations of this theme One set max, Multiple sets, LOM, ROM, SOM concepts All fit into the spectrum of loading pattern options available to us In strength & conditioning there is an accepted table of reps & sets for various strength qualities Change is required : Change is required All variations of sets and reps currently used are based on the needs and physiology of the phasic & global muscles Assumed there was no real demands on postural muscles or they were already working well No suggestions on how to train tonic & local muscles or link them to the reps and sets currently used in fitness programs Exercise prescription is more than just determining how many sets and reps will create glorious changes Today’s demands are different : Today’s demands are different Aware of the need to train tonic and phasic muscles and local global systems. Aware of the postural component to fitness programs Aware of the variations within exercise development (3p’s) Aware of the different type of people using fitness related training activity compared with twenty years ago A Combined approach : A Combined approach Phasic muscles require isotonic contractions – traditional sets and reps Tonic muscles require isometric contractions – non traditional loading Most muscles require both properties – i.e. combining the loading patterns specific to the system they work in. APPLICATION : APPLICATION Some muscles with both tonic and phasic properties require both types of contractions. Some muscles change their physiology to match the demands. Poor muscle behaviour is the result of incorrect learned behaviour. Example : Example Abdominals function both as stabilisers and mobilisers. Training only one type of contraction limits their functional ability in the dynamic environment. Training Tonic Muscles : Training Tonic Muscles Assume correct postural position. Integrate breathing into assumed position. Develop low contraction intensity less than 30% MVC. Hold contraction for a short period of time. Develop the function by increasing the time the muscle can contract at low levels for rather than change the contraction intensity. Progress difficulty by changing degree of dissociation. APPLICATION : APPLICATION Poor control of a joint during a movement may indicate low level of postural awareness of the joint stabilisers. Rather than trying to increase the phasic strength of the mobiliser muscles, spend time strengthening the tonic strength of the local system muscles and joint proprioception.. Example : Example The inability to maintain true tracking of the knees during the descent in the squat may be due to weak external rotators of the hip Making them stronger to resist this movement requires more tonic strength, not phasic strength Training Phasic Muscles : Training Phasic Muscles Ensure ability to maintain postural position first. Practice dissociation principle under light loads and increase % of MVC of the phasic muscles. Ensure control is maintained at all times i.E. Never overload under poor control. Time under tension at % of MVC important – muscles can’t count reps. APPLICATION : APPLICATION The inability to control the joint under heavier loads means an imbalance between tonic and phasic ability of the muscles surrounding the joint – tension of stabilisers less than tension of mobilisers, hence loss of balance Strength around a joint needs to be developed evenly between the two abilities for optimal function Example : Example Too much weight in the lat pulldown will cause the scapula to lift and shrug the shoulders instead of staying in the same position Down and back is not always ideal scapula position Traditional Models : Traditional Models 1. General Strength Max 8-12 6-8 4-6 2. Toned Big Bigger 15-20 8-15 6-20 APPLICATION : APPLICATION No room for training postural positions and control Ranges from one set max type loading to multiple sets Most novice exercisers find it all confusing With the variations required and individual needs so different all traditional reps and sets can be correct at some point for all clients. But when? Problems : Problems How does a novice exerciser maintain position during a one set to failure workout as the intensity increasingly strains the stabilisers and the condition of the muscle based on its history of exercise? How can a person increase strength in high loads-low reps if the base of stability doesn’t support repeated strain of multiple sets or all muscles work in perfect unison for this goal? How do you determine what is a suitable starting range for each person and select suitable exercises? Function Quadrant : Function Quadrant Low Strength High Strength High Control Low Control Weak & Unstable Weak & Stable Optimal Function Strong & Unstable Strength Levels : Strength Levels 1. Unable to maintain neutral position of spine with low tonic recruitment of stabilisers whilst performing basic static postures 3. Able to perform basic movements using body weight such as step up, wall squat, crunch & hold, modified pushup, with low thresholds of recruitment. 5. Able to perform movements such as chin ups, squats, pushups, bench press at high ratios of body weight whilst maintaining neutral joint positions. APPLICATION : APPLICATION To determine basic strength levels, you can test for persons ability to move body weight during exercises such as step up, wall squat, crunch & hold, modified pushup or/. find out at what level of effort they lose control in normal exercises. Look for the ease with which the movement is performed and progressively add loads or increase exercise effort to determine level of strength. There is no ideal level. Each body part will have different strength levels. Control Levels : Control Levels 1. Unable to stand on leg or move limbs without losing correct neutral position of the hips and trunk 3. Able to maintain good posture during functional movements such as standing, sitting, or walking etc 5. Able to maintain good posture during dynamic movements where stress on posture is high, such as deadlift, running, Swissball drills etc APPLICATION : APPLICATION To determine basic control levels, you can test for a persons ability to handle an unstable environment or perform a basic movement. Look for the ease with which a position is achieved and progressively increase stress to determine level of control. There is no ideal level. Control will change for different body areas. Example – what approach to take? : Example – what approach to take? A person may be able to kneel on a Swissball, but not be able to maintain lumbar curve during an unloaded squat! A person may be able to do a chin up, but shoulders may lift forward throughout the movement! A person may be unable to keep hips in correct position or do a Swissball wall squat! More to decide than just sets & reps : More to decide than just sets & reps Specific exercises can be selected to suit different levels of strength & control. The loading progression of an exercise can increase control or strength or both. If a tonic muscle is long and we train it to behave like a phasic muscle it will get phasically stronger but not necessarily shorter. If a phasic muscle is weak and we train it tonically it will create more control but not necessarily get stronger. How do we decide on what exercise is appropriate? Slide 24: The 3 ‘P’s Exercise Selection POSTURE – Specific demands of the exercise to maintain good posture PROPRIOCEPTION – Specific proprioceptive demands placed on the body from the exercise PATTERN = Complexity of the pattern of movement of the exercise Posture : Posture 1. The exercise requires no effort to hold posture due to assistance of machine or object that support posture 5. The exercise requires dynamic postural free range control in order to perform the movement correctly Example : Example Lying machine chest press – requires little or no postural control Sets & Reps suited to persons needs and training history. Increase loads according to biological adaptation rather than any having to learn control Standing cable chest press – requires more stabilisers to be used to control posture of the trunk and scapula to perform the movement Sets & Reps more likely to suit level of control the person can sustain – start with light loads and initially increase reps before increasing load to train postural control Proprioception : Proprioception 1. The exercise requires little or no proprioceptive feedback to assist in the performance of the movement 5. The exercise requires a high degree of proprioceptive feedback in order for the exercise to be performed correctly Example : Example Lying machine chest press – requires little or no proprioceptive feedback to perform well. Sets & Reps can be any range as there is little proprioceptive learning required to improve technique. Can get into more stressful loading patterns quickly. Alt DB Swissball chest press – high demand on proprioceptive feedback to sustain exercise position and balance during the movement. Sets & Reps loads needs to be kept low initially until the person learns to read the feedback and control position of exercise and movement. Pattern : Pattern 1. Exercise consists of one joint movement with the body remaining stationary 5. The exercise consists of multiple joints moving in coordination with the movement of the whole body Example : Example Rotator cuff drill – single joint movement requiring basic control of scapula whilst moving humerus Sets & Reps need to be matched to performance ability but due to low loads and single joint action, the load can be increased as well as number of reps. Specific muscle require volume training initially Throwing a ball – requires coordination of the whole body to initiate power from the legs and deliver this to the trunk and shoulder Sets & Reps require repetition to reinforce complex nature of movement – start with light loads and initially increase reps before increasing loading systems Loading patterns : Loading patterns Isometric light loads position specific Light support positions ensuring stable posture Light movements to control limits, reps should cease when control lost or stabilisers fatigue. Normal rep range whilst posture is maintained In Summary When selecting sets & reps : In Summary When selecting sets & reps Be conscious of functional level of the client – function quadrant position. Be aware of the rating of each chosen exercise – the 3 ‘P’s. Vary the exercise used to allow you to give the client what they want, but be part of what you know they need. Match the loading patterns with clients intended goals and physical needs. Use traditional loading patterns when required not as a be all and end all.

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