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Session 9

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Information about Session 9

Published on November 26, 2007

Author: athenamilis

Source: slideshare.net

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Separate but Equal?

Agenda School Reform Model Presentations Share ASCD Articles PPT: School and Neighborhood Segregation Read and Discuss: “The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Socratic Discussion: “How the Question we Ask Most…” Preparation for final Updated Grades

School Reform Model Presentations

Share ASCD Articles

PPT: School and Neighborhood Segregation

Read and Discuss: “The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality”

Socratic Discussion: “How the Question we Ask Most…”

Preparation for final

Updated Grades

ASCD Article Share How is the issue of curriculum and/or inequality/equality addressed in your article?

How is the issue of curriculum and/or inequality/equality addressed in your article?

Top Challenges in Education School-Family-Community Partnerships Diversity of race, language and income Meeting the needs of diverse learners--Special Education Working with NCLB Adequate funding for education Public Support of Public Education

School-Family-Community Partnerships

Diversity of race, language and income

Meeting the needs of diverse learners--Special Education

Working with NCLB

Adequate funding for education

Public Support of Public Education

Emerging Divide: US Economy and Society

Traditional Theory of Assimilation The US economy/society allows equal opportunity for those who are poor to become wealthy through hard work and education. Immigrants arrive poor and with less education than their US counterparts. Through hard work and education of their children, their children attain middle-class status.

The US economy/society allows equal opportunity for those who are poor to become wealthy through hard work and education.

Immigrants arrive poor and with less education than their US counterparts.

Through hard work and education of their children, their children attain middle-class status.

Segmented Assimilation The US is an increasingly divided economy/society by race and class. Service-sector is fastest growing sector of the economy: highly skilled workers in the knowledge economy and many unskilled low-level jobs Income disparities, and education as the key to one’s income/occupation. It becomes harder to move between economic levels (Waters, p. 254-255).

The US is an increasingly divided economy/society by race and class.

Service-sector is fastest growing sector of the economy: highly skilled workers in the knowledge economy and many unskilled low-level jobs

Income disparities, and education as the key to one’s income/occupation.

It becomes harder to move between economic levels (Waters, p. 254-255).

Segmented Assimilation Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class.

Therefore, immigrants are not necessarily assimilating into the middle class but into these divided sectors of the economy: the professional class and the unskilled class.

A Little Background about School and Neighborhood Segregation in the US

18% of children live in poverty* but they tend to live in areas and go to schools where poor children are in the majority. *Federal poverty threshold = $19,350 for family of four in 2005; Orfield is using reduced or free lunch as the indicator of family poverty, which goes up to $22,290 for family of four (2005-2006) National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, “Low-Income Children in the United States,” January 2006.

What is the effect of concentrated poverty on school achievement?

School Achievement Loss of successful role models: Adults that a child sees are unemployed or working low-paying jobs Loss of access to networks to get jobs Loss of tax resources to support high-quality schools

Loss of successful role models: Adults that a child sees are unemployed or working low-paying jobs

Loss of access to networks to get jobs

Loss of tax resources to support high-quality schools

One factor is neighborhood segregation, by class and race. Schools reflect that segregation, but do not create it.

Neighborhoods Provide and determine: Education Recreational facilities Insurance rates Employment Transportation Safety Health Tax base for government services

Provide and determine:

Education

Recreational facilities

Insurance rates

Employment

Transportation

Safety

Health

Tax base for government services

What happens when poor people are concentrated together? Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants) Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails) Loss of medical facilities and clinics Loss of revenue for public schools Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357

Loss of private businesses: grocery stores, banks, etc

Loss of political power: environmental discrimination (waste processing facilities and chemical plants)

Lower property values: deteriorating buildings and and unsavory facilities (jails)

Loss of medical facilities and clinics

Loss of revenue for public schools

Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2): 329-357

While the majority of poor people are white, they are less likely than poor African-Americans and Latinos to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty.

Racial discrimination combines with class segregation for African-Americans and Latinos to produce “hyper-segregation,” particularly in old industrial areas of the Midwest and Northeast.

Three-quarters of African-Americans live in highly segregated neighborhoods today, whereas 90-100% of other groups experience only moderate levels of segregation. Massey, Douglas S. and Mary J. Fischer. 2000. “How Segregation Concentrates Poverty.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23(4): 670-691.

Why do many African-Americans live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty and racial segregation?

Racial Discrimination Individual prejudice and feelings of comfort/discomfort Discrimination in real estate and banking industries Government policies increasing racial and class-based housing segregation

Individual prejudice and feelings of comfort/discomfort

Discrimination in real estate and banking industries

Government policies increasing racial and class-based housing segregation

1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference Neighborhood that is 20% black: One-third of whites uncomfortable and unwilling to live there. Neighborhood where one-third of the residents are black: 59% of whites would be unwilling to live there, 44% would be uncomfortable, and 29% would seek to leave. Neighborhood that is 50-50 black and white: becomes unacceptable to all but a small minority of whites.

Neighborhood that is 20% black: One-third of whites uncomfortable and unwilling to live there.

Neighborhood where one-third of the residents are black: 59% of whites would be unwilling to live there, 44% would be uncomfortable, and 29% would seek to leave.

Neighborhood that is 50-50 black and white: becomes unacceptable to all but a small minority of whites.

1992 Detroit Survey on Neighborhood Preference For African-Americans: The most popular choice is a neighborhood that is half black and half white. 87% willing to live in a neighborhood that is 20% black.

For African-Americans:

The most popular choice is a neighborhood that is half black and half white.

87% willing to live in a neighborhood that is 20% black.

Neighborhood Turnover In a neighborhood that is 20% black, whites begin to not move in because they are uncomfortable, blacks move in because they comfortable with that balance. The balance tips towards a mix of 70% white, 30% black, and now some whites begin to sell their houses in order to move out.

In a neighborhood that is 20% black, whites begin to not move in because they are uncomfortable, blacks move in because they comfortable with that balance.

The balance tips towards a mix of 70% white, 30% black, and now some whites begin to sell their houses in order to move out.

Neighborhood Turnover When the neighborhood is 50-50, blacks begin to move in because the neighborhood is ideal; the majority of whites want to sell their houses Soon the neighborhood is entirely black

When the neighborhood is 50-50, blacks begin to move in because the neighborhood is ideal; the majority of whites want to sell their houses

Soon the neighborhood is entirely black

Neighborhood Turnover This is what happened in central cities during the 1980s and 1990s, in which white people for the most part abandoned cities and fled to the suburbs However, now, the same thing is happening with the inner ring of suburbs so that segregation is maintained even in the suburbs

This is what happened in central cities during the 1980s and 1990s, in which white people for the most part abandoned cities and fled to the suburbs

However, now, the same thing is happening with the inner ring of suburbs so that segregation is maintained even in the suburbs

Does neighborhood and school segregation apply to the students at your school? If so, to what extent?

Agree/Disagree “ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.”

“ Tracking [ability grouping by performance] promotes overall student achievement --- that is, that the academic needs of all students will be better met when they learn in groups with similar capabilities or prior levels of achievement.”

The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality By Jeanie Oaks September 1986

By Jeanie Oaks

September 1986

Access to Knowledge : high status vs. low status Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning 1) How do these three areas, as described by Oakes, impact/relate to curriculum and instruction practices at your school cite? In your classroom? 2) What are the differences observed between classes in different tracks?

Access to Knowledge : high status vs. low status

Opportunities to Learn : instructional time and teaching quality

Classroom Climate : teacher/student/peer relations and intensity of student involvement in learning

Socratic Discussion “How the Question We ask Most about Race in Education is the very Question we Most Suppress” by Pollack.

“How the Question We ask Most about Race in Education is the very Question we Most Suppress” by Pollack.

Last Class Technology Group Presentation WEB 2.0 Book share FINAL OPTIONS Option 1: Take home final (due by Wednesday December 5th at 10:00pm) Option 2: Take final at regularly scheduled date and time: FRIDAY DECEMBER 7, 2007 4:00 TO 5:20.

Technology Group Presentation

WEB 2.0

Book share

FINAL OPTIONS

Option 1: Take home final (due by Wednesday December 5th at 10:00pm)

Option 2: Take final at regularly scheduled date and time: FRIDAY DECEMBER 7, 2007

4:00 TO 5:20.

Preparation for Final and “Comps” Make a list of major contributors to curriculum philosophy. Summarize the positions of contributors and philosophies Write down key quotes or phrases representative of the different perspectives/philosophies/ philosophers

Make a list of major contributors to curriculum philosophy.

Summarize the positions of contributors and philosophies

Write down key quotes or phrases representative of the different perspectives/philosophies/ philosophers

Major Philosophies studied in this course: Education: Essentialism (Bagley) Progressivism (Dewy) Existentialism (Apple) Perennialism (Adler) Sociological Theories: Role of Education Durkheim (Functionalism) Marx (Conflict Theory)

Education:

Essentialism (Bagley)

Progressivism (Dewy)

Existentialism (Apple)

Perennialism (Adler)

Sociological Theories: Role of Education

Durkheim (Functionalism)

Marx (Conflict Theory)

Concepts of Importance Aims of education (changing purposes over time--causes and effects) Curriculum Criteria (historical perspectives--Hass and Parkay) Equality and Access in Curriculum Design School Reform: (What can be done? New research, trends affecting education, changing purposes of ed, historical perspectives)

Aims of education (changing purposes over time--causes and effects)

Curriculum Criteria (historical perspectives--Hass and Parkay)

Equality and Access in Curriculum Design

School Reform: (What can be done? New research, trends affecting education, changing purposes of ed, historical perspectives)

Helpful Articles to Review before “Comps.” “ The Paideia Proposal,” by Mortimer Adler “ The Case for Essentialism vs. The Case for Progressivism,” by Bagley and Kilpatrick Schooling in America: Where are We Headed” by E.W. Eisner “ Eighty Years of Curriculum Theory,” by Glen Hass Who Should Plan Curriculum” by Glen Hass “ Perspectives on Curriculum Criteria” by Forrest Parkay. “ Accountability Systems: Implications of Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” “ Keeping Track Part 1:The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Jeanie Oakes

“ The Paideia Proposal,” by Mortimer Adler

“ The Case for Essentialism vs. The Case for Progressivism,” by Bagley and Kilpatrick

Schooling in America: Where are We Headed” by E.W. Eisner

“ Eighty Years of Curriculum Theory,” by Glen Hass

Who Should Plan Curriculum” by Glen Hass

“ Perspectives on Curriculum Criteria” by Forrest Parkay.

“ Accountability Systems: Implications of Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001”

“ Keeping Track Part 1:The Policy and Practice of Curriculum Inequality” Jeanie Oakes

Extra Credit Posts Session 9: Post a response to one of the two articles assigned. Session 10: Post your study guide for final! 5pts each.

Session 9: Post a response to one of the two articles assigned.

Session 10: Post your study guide for final!

5pts each.

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