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Session 6 Malaysia MMU

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Information about Session 6 Malaysia MMU
Education

Published on April 8, 2008

Author: Ubert

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  What do we think about for the next generation Internet? 20 August, 2003 Seminar on Network Security Management and Positive Use of the Internet Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Professor Ryoichi Komiya Faculty of Information Technology Multimedia University, Malaysia komiya@mmu.edu.my MMU Table of contents:  Table of contents History of Telecommunication Basic Telecommunication Networks Next Generation Networks (NGN) Basic services to be provided over the NGN Various Services over the Internet Future issues MMU 1. History of Telecommunication:  1. History of Telecommunication MMU 1.1 Three great inventions in telecommunication were done by laymen, but the Internet is different:  1.1 Three great inventions in telecommunication were done by laymen, but the Internet is different (1) 1837: Invention of telegraph by Morse (He was a painter) (2) 1876: Invention of telephone by Bell (He was a teacher for the deaf) (3) 1879: Invention of the automatic switching system, Girless telephone system by Strawger (He was an undertaker) The Internet 1959: Invention of the basic principle of packet switching, the technology underpinning the Internet by Leonard Kleinrock (He was a graduate student at MIT) MMU Slide5:  1.2 Transmission & Switching are key technologies Transmission more channels longer distance more economical transmission (e.g.) copper cable, wireless, satellite, optical fiber cable Switching more subscribers connectivity, faster connection signaling system innovation for various services provision (e.g.) Strowger, Cross bar, ESS, ATM MMU Slide6:  2. Basic Telecommunication Networks MMU Slide7:  2.1 Analog signal/Digital signal MMU Slide8:  2.2 Why digital? 1. Easy to multiplex many different information 2. Digital information source has been increasing 3. Easy to reduce bit rates (compression) 4. Tolerant to noises 5. Inexpensive digital devices (ICs & LSIs) 6. Optical fiber is optimum for digital transmission MMU Slide9:  2.3 Information bit rates 1 k 10 k 100 k 1 M 10 M 100 M bit/s Video Data Fax Voice, Music 64 kbit/s 2 Mbit/s MPEG4 Videophone MPEG 1 MPEG 2 Broadcasting Low middle high super high G3 G4 Mobile tel fixed tel Hi-Fi music MMU Slide10:  2.4 Analog network/ Digital network Modem Modem A/D, D/A A/D, D/A Analog network Digital network Telephone/video network ISDN, ATM network MMU Slide11:  2.5 Packet communication Source data Chopped into pre-determined length Header Packetization node node MMU Slide12:  2.6 Connection oriented (circuit switched) communication Telephone network Circuits A B Procedures (1) Select one physical circuit between A and B by using signaling (2) Sending information using the selected circuit (no other call is used) (3) The circuit is released after communication by signaling A B Selected physical circuit MMU Slide13:  2.7 Connectionless oriented (packet switched) communication Internet A B C Virtual circuit Procedures (1) A sends a packet with destination address B. The packet will arrive at B by selecting idle circuit. (2) A sends a packet with destination address C. The packet will arrive at C by other circuit. (3) A packet with destination address B will be reached to B again. Selected physical circuits for packet transmission MMU Slide14:  2.8 ISDN MMU Slide15:  2.9 ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) B B D 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 16 kbit/s Basic rate interface (2B+D) 144 kbit/s B ch for information transfer D ch for signaling transfer MMU 2B+D Slide16:  2.10 Primary Rate Interface (PRI) D B B B 30B+D 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s Primary Rate Interface (2.048 Mbit/s) 30 B channels MMU Slide17:  2.11 Broadband ISDN Today’s N-ISDN Circuit switched network Packet switched network MMU Slide18:  To be integrated by B-ISDN ATM and Optical Fiber Network Broadband ISDN (continued) MMU Slide19:  2.12 ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Information (48 Bytes) Header (5Bytes) ATM Cell Structure Incoming data is chopped every 48 bytes, added a header then an ATM cell is formed. Transmission and switching are conducted by cell basis. MMU Slide20:  2.13 STM/ATM STM MUX # 1 # 4 # 3 # 2 STM MUX STM: Synchronous Transfer Mode MMU Slide21:  2.14 Multimedia network configuration Transmission equipment Transmission equipment ATM node ATM node Optical Fiber transmission system ATM node ATM node Router Router DLE DLE Multimedia Data (IP pkt) Telephone Multimedia Data (IP pkt) Telephone (ATM Cell transfer) MMU Slide22:  Transmission equipment Transmission equipment High speed router High speed router Router Router VoIP Gate way VoIP Gate way Optical Fiber transmission system (IP packet transfer) Data, multimedia (IP services) Telephone network Data, multimedia (IP services) Telephone network Multimedia network configuration (continued) MMU Slide23:  2.15 IP over ATM, IP over SONET, IP over WDM DATA IP ATM cell chopping SONET (SDH) Multiplexed into transmission frame WDM(IP packet/ramda) IP over WDM IP over SONET IP over ATM MMU Slide24:  2.16 Commercial internet network configuration Access net Access net Leased lines To other provider MMU 2.17 Summary of PSTN(ISDN) & the Internet:  2.17 Summary of PSTN(ISDN) & the Internet MMU 3. Next Generation Networks:  3. Next Generation Networks MMU Slide27:  3.1 Requirements for the NGN Broadband: Broadband access Real-time: Real-time protocol, Network structure Ubiquitous: Terminal mobility, Embedded Secured: Encryption MMU Slide28:  3.2 Broadband access by PON PC TV Central office 1.3μm 1.55μm IP Net ATM -OLT 1.3μm 1.49μm High speed IP High speed IP 1.49μm ONU Optical splitter SDTV 500ch or HDTV 100ch 100Mbps 100Mbps Video 1.55μm HE SCM -OLT Courtesy of NTT Labs MMU 3.3 Real-time protocol:  3.3 Real-time protocol The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) Without using RTP, the video and audio data, which eventually does not arrive at the same time at the receiving host because of delays in the network. A videoconference does not work very well if the audio and video have different delays. MMU Slide30:  3.4 Ubiquitous 無線LAN mobile embedded Remote sensing Wearable sensors Contents roaming ITS・telematics Mobile computing Kiosk terminal Networked home appliances Connection roaming Road pricing Inventory control Courtesy of NTT Labs MMU 3.5 Security by encryption and decryption:  3.5 Security by encryption and decryption Network Encryption algorithm Decryption algorithm Plain text Plain text Ciphertext Sender Receiver MMU 4. Basic services to be provided over the NGN:  4. Basic services to be provided over the NGN 4.1 IP telephony 4.2 Video transmission MMU 4.1 IP telephony:  4.1 IP telephony MMU 4.1.1 IP telephony what is this?:  4.1.1 IP telephony what is this? Circuit switched network PSTN GW PSTN IP Network VoIP network MMU 4.1.2 Service classification:  4.1.2 Service classification Voice quality Rates Fixed line telephony Mobile telephony IP telephony MMU 4.1.3 Various delays in IP telephony :  4.1.3 Various delays in IP telephony Packetization delay: due to the packetization at gate way Transmission delay: due to the absolute transmission delay Queuing delay at IP nodes: due to the packet routing processing delay Jitter delay at the receiving end: due to the jitter absorbing delay by buffer memories MMU 4.1.4 Jitter (Why this happens?):  4.1.4 Jitter (Why this happens?) Even if the transmission gate way is sending packets periodically, the received packets are not arriving with equal time interval. This is due to the transmission path difference for traveling packets over the IP Network. This is referred to as jitter and jitter will be smoothed by buffers, but this associates with delay. MMU 4.1.5 Voice quality is determined by :  4.1.5 Voice quality is determined by CODEC: Quantizing noise Delays: depending on network conditions Packet loss: depending on network conditions Jitter: Buffer size Echo: depending on delays MMU 4.2 Video transmission :  4.2 Video transmission MMU 4.2.1 Compression is necessary:  4.2.1 Compression is necessary In 525-line system (USA, Canada, Japan) Using 4:4:4 format, 8 bits per pixel Y = Cb = Cr = 720 (horizontal pixels per line) x 480 (vertical lines) Memory requirement per frame = (720x8x3) x 480 = 8,294,400 bits per frame = 8.2944 Mbits per frame Bandwidth required = 8.2944 x 30 = 248.832 Mbits/s Very large bandwidth & memory required to transmit raw video/image MMU 4.2.2 Compression:  4.2.2 Compression Courtesy to Professor Georganas of University of Ottawa MMU 4.2.3 Video compression:  4.2.3 Video compression Courtesy to Professor Georganas of University of Ottawa MMU 4.2.4 Video coding:  MPEG-1: VCD MPEG-2: DVD, Digital Satellite Broadcasting (ASTRO), MMU NMES (Networked Multimedia Education System) MPEG-4: Japan NTT DoCoMo Videophone at 64kbit/s H.261: Video Conferencing (MMU NMES) 4.2.4 Video coding MMU Slide44:  4.2.5 Video codec example 2D (8x8) DCT Quantization Entropy encoding (VLC) Encoded Bit stream Video Frame I frames implementation schematics Difference Computation DCT Q EE (VLC) Encoded Bit stream DQ IDCT Frame Memory Motion Compensation Motion Estimation Video Frame Motion vector P frames implementation schematics MMU Slide45:  4.2.6 Frame types and prediction I P P I P P I B B P B B I Prediction Prediction Bi-directional Predictions Frame sequences with I and P frames Frame sequences with I, P & B frames MMU Slide46:  4.2.7 Video Compression Standards MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.261, H.263 & H.263+, H.263++, H.261 - Developed by ITU-T for the provision of video telephony and video conferencing services over an integrated services digital network (ISDN) at p x 64Kbps, where p can be 1 through 30. - Started at 1984 & became an international standard at 1990 - Input digitized video format is either Common Intermediate Format (CIF) or Quarter CIF. H.263 - Developed by ITU-T for use in a range of video applications over wireless and public switched telephone networks (PSTNs) - Is a very low-bit-rate video coder/decoder from 14.4 to 56kbits/s - Encoder structure is based on that used in H.261, with several improvements MMU Slide47:  Developed by Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) under ISO Started at 1988, became an international standard at 1991 Multimedia Standard with specifications for coding, compression, and transmission of audio, video and data streams in a series of synchronized, multiplexed packets Intended for storage of VHS-quality audio and video on CR- ROM at bit rates up to 1.5 Mbps Video coding algorithm is very similar to H.261/H.263 Video rate + Audio rate = 1.406 Mbps, near to CD bit rate of 1.412 Mbps Video rate of 1.15 Mbps Video CD (VCD) is based on MPEG-1 technology MP3 is based on MPEG-1 Audio Layer III 4.2.8 MPEG-1 MMU Slide48:  4.2.9 MPEG-2 Second phase of MPEG video coding solution for applications not originally covered by MPEG-1 standard. Started at 1991, achieved international standard at 1994. A superset of the MPEG-1 standard and is backward compatible to the MPEG-1 standard. Designed to provide capability for compressing, coding, and transmitting high-quality, multi-channel, multimedia signals over terrestrial broadcast, satellite distribution, and broad-band networks Digital video transmission (2 - 15 Mbps) including Digital Storage Media (DVD), existing TV (PAL, SECAM and NTSC), HDTV & etc. MMU Slide49:  4.2.10 MPEG-4 Overview A new object-based representation of Audio-Visual (AV) information Integrates synthetic and natural AV Objects (AVO) Interactivity with AVOs Started in 1994, achieved international standard at 1999 Initially targeted for very low bit rate video compression similar to H.263 (less than 64Kbps), but expanded to embrace a wide range of interactive multimedia applications Support resolution of QCIF up to CCIR601 Offers not only efficient video compression, but also content-based functionalities not included in MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Has six parts: 1) System, 2) Visual, 3) Audio, 4) Conformance testing, 5) Software, 6) Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework (DMIF) MMU Slide50:  4.2.11 Why MPEG-4 ? Convergence of three traditionally separate application areas, telecommunication, information technology, TV/Film/Entertainment Emerging user requirements that need to be satisfied: - Content-based interactivity - Interaction with information - Integration of natural & synthetic content - Universal access MMU 5. Various services over the Internet:  5. Various services over the Internet 5.1 E-commerce 5.2 Customer Centric Enterprise 5.3 SOHO 5.4 Intelligent Home MMU 5.1 E-commerce:  5.1 E-commerce MMU 5.1.1 Market size of e-commerce (USA):  5.1.1 Market size of e-commerce (USA) B2C 1999: 20.2 BUSD (17 million households) 2004: 184 BUSD (49 million households) B2B 2000: 336 BUSD 2005: 6.3 TUSD (42% of the entire industries trading) (Jupiter Media Metrix, 2000.10.2) MMU 5.1.2 Direct model (Dell Computer):  5.1.2 Direct model (Dell Computer) PC vendor Dell Consumer Internet Catalogue & Telephone Traditional Present MMU 5.1.3 Direct model application To which business?:  5.1.3 Direct model application To which business? <Business, business, business> PC, Car, home appliances, clothing, shoes, furniture, foods, books, CDs, Flight tickets, hotel booking, ……. To which business the direct model is applicable? To which business the go-between is necessary? MMU 5.1.4 Information middleman:  5.1.4 Information middleman Customer introduction: Autobytel, ITN Potential customer introduction: Persona, Lumeria Company introduction: MySimon, Bizrate Auction: eBay, MetalSite Reverse auction: PriceLine Catalogue: Chemdex, Plasticsnet Matching: NTE, PaperExchange MMU 5.1.5 Customer introduction :  5.1.5 Customer introduction Autobytel.com Consumer Car dealer Cars’ info Purchase request Customers’ info Membership fee, commission Quotation Contract for sale MMU 5.1.6 Inverse auction:  5.1.6 Inverse auction PriceLine.com Travel agent A Travel agent B Travel agent C Buyer Request KL-TKY By 500 USD Quotation meets the request payment By 600 USD By 550 USD By 420 USD Request KL-TKY Request KL-TKY Request KL-TKY Buyer purchases from Travel agent C paying 500 USD MMU 5.1.7 Ticket sales are suitable for the net:  5.1.7 Ticket sales are suitable for the net 1. Huge amount of information 2. Suitable for retrieval 3. Text information (non multimedia) 4. Consumers need not touch it in advance 5. Digitized information 6. Easy to deliver MMU 5.1.8 Other services on the WEB:  5.1.8 Other services on the WEB Information provisioning by newspaper publishing companies Advertisement (banner, texts, push, pop up) On line banking Internet broadcasting Contents distribution (digital music by MP3) MMU Slide61:  5.2 Customer Centric Enterprise MMU Slide62:  5.2.1 Mass customization Definition: The technologies and systems to deliver goods and services that meet individual customers’ needs with near mass production efficiency. Mass customization is only products for which the value of customization, to the extent that customers are willing to pay for it, exceeds the cost of customization. MMU Slide63:  5.2.2 Personalization versus customization Personalization: involves intense communication and interaction between two parties, customer and supplier. Customization: relates to changing, assembling or modifying product or service components according to customers’ needs and desires. Personalization is increasingly considered to be an important ingredient of Web applications. MMU Slide64:  5.2.3 Personalization – My something My shoes My handbags My clothes My jewely My cups My CDs My watches My ??? MMU Slide65:  5.2.4 Examples Lectra: http://www.lectra.com Clothes, leatherwares, automobile, furniture, … 2. Pool: http://www.poolonline.com My cups MMU Slide66:  5.3 SOHO (Small Office Home Office) MMU Slide67:  5.3.1 Why necessary? Increase of senior people They have strong desires to contribute to the society Company can not sustain the senior people The society should utilize the senior to revitalize economy and social activities This helps to maintain healthy and co-operative relationship between human and organizations MMU Slide68:  5.3.2 SOHO business chances Consultancy Story telling Project proposals Translation services MMU 5.3.3 SOHO terminals :  5.3.3 SOHO terminals Home Gateway To access network MMU 5.3.4 SOHO Terminals should be:  5.3.4 SOHO Terminals should be More senior people friendly Human Terminal Interaction (e.g.) Big font on display & on key boards, light in weight easy terminal portability 2. Single entity, but multifunctional capabilities 3. Short downloading time & short document uploading or transmission time MMU Slide71:  5.4 Intelligent home MMU 5.4.1 Intelligent home:  5.4.1 Intelligent home Service menu and positive use of the Internet (bolded) Home automation Energy management Home entertainment Home security Structured wiring Whole-house surge protection Home networking Lighting control Audio/video Distribution MMU Slide73:  5.4.2 IP applications to home appliances IP Network Courtesy of NTT Labs MMU 6. Future issues :  6. Future issues Network: Real-time IP network implementation Protocols network design methodology From distributed to centralized 2. Services: Killer application(?) 3. Social acceptability: SOHO 4. Accurate grasp of social demands: consumer friendly or consumer oriented R&D MMU Thank you for your attention!:  Thank you for your attention! MMU

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