Session 6.5 restoring riparian vegetation

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Information about Session 6.5 restoring riparian vegetation
Education

Published on February 19, 2014

Author: agroforestry

Source: slideshare.net

RESTORING RIPARIAN VEGETATION – A PROMISING MEANS TO ENSURE CLEAN WATER Kamal Melvani, Neo Synthesis Research Centre, Sri Lanka, email: neosynth@sltnet.lk

SURFACE WATER

Riparian zones can be broadly defined as the land that adjoins or directly influences a body of water (Price & Lovett 2002) Paradeke Oya, Gampola

Structure and characteristics of riparian lands

Riparian ecosystems: • Shade and lower stream temperatures • Filter and sorb pollutants • Provide areas for sediment deposition • Promote microbial decomposition of organic matter and nutrients • Minimize stream bank erosion • Provide habitat for biodiversity • Open wildlife corridors • Enhance infiltration replenishing groundwater • Increase reservoir life (Chin 2012)

Major components of riparian vegetation that affect stream water chemistry (Dosskey et al. 2010)

Soil Organic Matter is a biomembrane that filters pollutants, reduces sediment load in rivers, degrades contaminants, and is a major sink for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 (Lal, 2004)

Processes through which major components of vegetation in riparian ecosystems affect stream water chemistry (Dosskey et al. 2010)

• Deep rooted trees in biologically active zones remove Nitrates in shallow ground water. Hydraulic residence time critical (Melvani, 2011). • Nitrate removal minimal when water moves to regional groundwater and emerges as base flow(Dosskey et al. 2010). • For sediment borne P retention, fine sediment control coupled with use of vegetation, can increase P uptake into plant tissue (Dosskey et al. 2010)

• However, riparian forests have low net dissolved P retention (Dosskey et al. 2010). • Non nutrient chemicals absorbed from soil by plant roots. Heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), metalloids (e.g., As, Se), and other elements (e.g.: B, Cs, Sr) (Dosskey et al. 2010). • Riparian buffers could reduce electrical conductivity (Melvani, 2011).

Riparian zone destruction Illicit felling, dumping ground for garbage and erosion Lemastota Oya, Haputale

Restoration • Riparian forest buffer systems (RFBS) reduce Non Point Source pollution after it leaves source area but before it reaches the stream • important on 1st and 2nd order streams where intense interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurs • slope of the RFBS main factor limiting the effectiveness of sediment removal • use of native vegetation a key factor (Lowrance & Vellidis 2004).

Vegetated riparian zones can strongly influence the chemical contents of adjacent streams, particularly through the removal of nutrients in runoff from agricultural uplands

Maragala Oya, Maragalakanda, Moneragala RESTORATION WITH COMMUNITY

Riparian forest buffers for gullies in forest gardens on Maragalakanda, Moneragala Arumugam’s forest garden

Arumugam’s gully restored Before After Jane Nona’s garden

Podisingho’s garden with Spathyphyllum patini planted on stream bank

Maha Oya, sub catchment in Great Valley, Deltota

Planting in year 1 RESTORATION WITH PRIVATE COMPANY

Contour

Restoration of the riparian zone of Lake Richmond through Landcare

CLEARING GULLY PLANTED GULLIES PLANTING GULLY

Gully C - School Gully D Gully E Around the Lake Total plants Ankenda Hana Heen Aratta Maha Aratta Green Bamboo Yellow Bamboo Thel Keena Cassia Star apple Pinna Thebu Tree fern Erabadu Mora Kotadimbula Forest species Goraka Wild Ginger Rathu Kenda Wild Impatiens Beeriya Wild Tobacco Bukenda Nika dawula Sapu Malaboda Kududawla Dawul Kurundu Forest bamboo Heen Bowitiya Pavatta Karanda Nelu Damba Alubo Heen Damba Gadumba Sawan Idala Gully C Aconychia pedunculata Agave rigida var. sisalana Alpinia calcarata Alpinia zerumbet Dendrocalamus giganteus Bambusa vulgaris Calophyllum tomentosum Cassia spectabilis Chryssophyllum cainito Clerodendrum chinense Costus specious Cyathea sp. Erythrina lithosperma Euphoria longana Ficus hispida Forest species Garcinia quaesita Hedychium coronarium Homolanthus populifolius Impatiens sp. Litsea ovalifolia Lobelia nicotianifolia Macaranga indica Meliosma pinnata Michelia champaca Myristica dactyloides Neolistea fuscata Neolitsea cassia Ochlandra stridula Osbeckia lanata Pavatta indica Pongamia pinnata Strobilanthes sp. Syzygium assimile Syzygium sp. Syzygium umbrosum Trema orientale Wendlandia bicuspidata Total Plants Established Gully B - Lake Down area Common Name Gully b - Upper Lake area Scientific Name Gully a1 Upper Lake area o Planting in micro watershed 4,724 trees and plants in 39+ native and indigenous species were planted in the micro watershed of Lake Richmond. 10 8 8 4 67 76 30 25 15 97 23 103 41 10 33 75 1 6 16 7 2 5 28 40 72 62 37 33 11 12 2 7 324 8 218 308 6 3 210 1 2 13 19 1 3 0 22 444 10 510 347 2 126 18 134 3 90 161 172 216 15 40 6 53 667 93 3 19 1 6 4274 1 13 2 1 1 12 1 20 84 1 2 2 2 4 1 3 34 1 84 44 12 1 2 7 87 85 1 1 30 10 6 29 21 15 3 9 83 1 2 3 5 2 1 1 1 1 6 3 89 14 13 5 15 10 4 13 40 61 4 1 1 59 21 90 3 1 3 1 1 365 581 1 290 31 4 67 13 2 11 8 20 38 1 42 16 60 15 27 25 30 4 13 8 17 4 26 7 12 4 4 8 27 44 63 78 53 3 29 60 4 26 51 33 1 6 2 430 1193 70 62 11 58 3 97 31 121 1 170 83 6 19 2 1 150 13 1 7 1 2 690 11 63 14 1 344 11 105 5 1 381

Ground Water

Bioremediation Kalmunai Kalpitiya

2003 Dense planting round the well with deep rooted, native trees forming a ‘root mat ’ below the surface to uptake the contaminants.

0 Feb ' 4 April '04 June '4 August '04 Sept '4 October' 04 Nov '4 December' 04 Jan' 5 February'5 March'5 April'5 May'5 June'5 July'5 August'5 Sept'5 Oct'5 Nove'5 Dec'5 Jan'6 Feb'6 March'6 April'6 May'6 June'6 July'6 Aug'6 Sept'6 Oct'6 Nov'6 Dec'6 Jan'7 Feb'7 March'7 April'7 May'7 June'7 July'7 Aug'7 Sept'7 Oct'7 Nov'7 Dece'7 Jan'8 Fed'8 March'8 April'8 May'8 June'8 July ' 8 August'8 Sept'8 Oct'8 Nov'8 Dece'8 Jan'9 Concentration of N-N03 in mg/l Concentration of N-No3 over time 80 70 60 50 Lower Well 40 30 20 Upper Well 10 Concentration of Nitrate Nitrogen over time

Electrical Conductivity at 250C over time

References Chin, DA 2012, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems : Fate and Transport Processes in the Water Environment, 2 edn, Wiley, New York. Dosskey, MG, Vidon, P, Gurwick, NP, Allan, CJ, Duval, TP & Lowrance, R 2010, 'The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams1', JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 261-77. Lal, R 2004, 'Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security', Science, vol. 304 no. 5677 pp. 1623-7. , R & Vellidis, G 2004, 'Riparian forest buffers: hype? Or the silver bullet for NPS pollution control?', Resource: Engineering & Technology for a Sustainable World, vol. 11, no. 10, p. 7+. Melvani, K 2011, 'Bioremediation of Nitrates in Ground Water', M.Sc. thesis, University of Peradeniya Price, P. and Lovett, S. 2002, ‘Managing riparian land’, Fact Sheet 1, Land & Water Australia, Canberra

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