Published on February 19, 2014
Environmental services as a vehicle for synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation Lalisa A. Duguma*, Peter A. Minang, Dieudonne Alemagi, Zac Tchoundjeu, Fredrik Nkeumoe *World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) & ASB Partnership for Tropical Forest Margins Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction Strong mitigation-adaptation synergy potential sectors: Land use sector, energy and construction (Klein et al. 2007). Strong segregation at higher levels (e.g. global and national level) which eventually decreases moving to the landscape and farm levels. Such segregations may be due to limited understanding of: the interdependencies between M and A the possible strategies to address the interdependencies Aim: To highlight how environmental services could be a basis for promoting synergies between mitigation and adaptation
The M A Interdependence [The Domino Effect] In economies relying on land resources: Failure in adaptation → mitigation efforts are in jeopardy. Failure in mitigation → expensive adaptation.
1. Weak adaptation → Poor mitigation: e.g. Forest exploitation in Suba, Ethiopia Consider forest carbon as a proxy for mitigation Crop failure due to shortage of rainfall (drought) Flooding in the low lying areas ADAPTATION Poor/No crop yield Need for alternative income/livelihood sources to survive Exploitation of nearby forests for extracting fuel wood and timber for sale Clearing forests to create new farmlands MITIGATION
1984 2004 Menagesha Suba state forest 9557 ha 3530 ha Each pale symbol is a FARM HOUSEHOLD
2. Poor mitigation→ Expensive adaptation As a result of poor mitigation: CO2 in atmosphere increases Plants close stomata early Limited release of H2O to atm. The surface T0 increases. Cloud reflectance diminishes ; sunlight hits directly Less cloud formation • • • • • Higher costs to cool our living spaces Drought Shortage of irrigation water… Poor hydrological functions as a whole Disease prevalence may increases e.g. Malaria • Migration • Social conflict – East African rangelands • Invasive alien species
Computer model calculation of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant physiology and global climate if CO2 concentration grows to 700ppm. http://studentresearch.wcp.muohio.edu/ClimateChangePrediction/studentarticles/Changingglo ballandsurface.pdf
Ecosystem services and vulnerability to CC Category Economy Vulnerability Proxies/variables Income Role of ES in addressing the vulnerability Health expenditure Calories intake Wild foods (fruits, honey, insects, etc.) Access to nutrition Health and Nutrition Sources of income e.g. fishing, ornamentals, tourism…. Biochemical and natural medicines Wild fruits, mushrooms, insects, fungi, meat, nuts Infrastructure Roads Access to sanitation and clean water Coastal risk Agriculture Agricultural self sufficiency Ecology Genetic resources (protected area) Ecological stress Flood protection, storm impacts and landslides risk minimization Water purification; sources of freshwater Biodegradation detoxification Storm protection by coral reefs Soil formation and retention, soil moisture retention, water regulation, pollination, pest and disease control, climate regulation,…. Habitat and reproductions sites; pollination; Population control e.g. prey predator balance, control of pests and diseases
Ecosystem services and mitigation Category Mitigation actions Land use Reduce deforestation and and forest agriculture degradation Role of ES in promoting the mitigation actions Regulatory and provisioning ES strongly boost agricultural productivity – less deforestation and forest degradation. Rehabilitation of degraded land Tree plantations Genetic materials for planting, growing medium, nutrient cycling, nutrient regulation, etc… Biodegradation of agricultural wastes Energy Sources of genetic materials e.g. soil seed banks, Detoxification; Air quality regulation; Hydroelectric supply Water supply; water regulation i.e. runoff and water discharge regulation Biomass energy Sources of biomass fuels
Selected Ecosystem Services crucial for mitigation and adaptation o Pollination (animal pollinators) 75% of leading food crops (Klein et al. 2007) 79% (~ 308,006 plants) of the total plant species on earth (Ollerton et al 2011) . West Africa produces 56% of global stimulant crops with 90% vulnerability to pollinator loss (Gallai et al 2009). o Nutrient cycling (Biogeochemical processes) Nitrogen cycle; carbon cycle; the food web o Hydrological functions (hydrological cycle) 80% of agricultural water use comes from rainfall stored in soil moisture – dependent on plant cover, SOM and soil microbial community (Power 2010; Molden 2007)
Concluding Remarks Climate change mitigation and adaptation are considerably interdependent in the land use sector. Mitigation-adaptation linkages are often through one or more ecosystem services. THEREFORE, 1. Targeting ecosystem restoration/ management for better ecosystem services provision could enhance the opportunities for synergies in the land use sector. 2. At a landscape level, actions/strategies that enhance multifunctionality could provide the right direction.
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