Published on February 19, 2014
WORLD CONGRESS ON AGROFORESTRY 2014 10-14 FEBRUARY 2014, DELHI, INDIA Trees for Life: Accelerating the Impact of Agroforestry Why volunteer? Insights from a farmer to farmer extension program in Kenya and Uganda Evelyne Kiptot 1,*, Monica Karuhanga 2, Jane Kugonza 3, Ronald Wambire 3, Steven Franzel1 1 1 World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 2Makerere University, 3World Agroforestry Centre, Kampala, Uganda The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Outline Introduction Farmer to farmer extension Volunteer farmer-trainer approach in the EADD project Objectives Methodology Findings Conclusions and recommendations The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Introduction The decline in public extension services has led to development of alternative low cost extension approaches that are participatory, demand driven and farmer centred They place farmers at the centre of knowledge generation and sharing They deliver technologies, empower farmers to innovate and also facilitate collective action for service provision These extension approaches that are farmer led are commonly referred to as farmer to farmer extension (FFE) The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Farmer to farmer extension the provision of training by farmers, to farmers, often through the creation of a structure of farmer-trainers They vary from place to place in mode of operation, selection criteria and incentives FFE works on the assumption that farmers have the ability to spread innovations because of comprehensive local knowledge, use of local language and are known by their community members hence have their trust The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
The volunteer farmer trainer approach One such approach that is being used by the EADD to disseminate dairy feed technologies is known as the volunteer farmer trainer (VFT) approach. ICRAF’s role is to facilitate the spread and use of improved feeds and feeding systems among members of targeted dairy cooperatives through innovative extension approaches such as the volunteer farmer-trainer approach. The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Who are volunteer farmer trainers? They are volunteer farmers selected on the basis of being good communicators, interest, being an active dairy farmer and be willing to give part of his/her land for demonstration purposes. The selection is a participatory process involving farmers in DMGs, their representatives and the management committee of the chilling plant in each project site. They are trained in feeds and feeding methods by extension officers, researchers and service providers Rely on extension staff for training and for addressing problems that they cannot handle. Are given seed for setting up demonstration plots of various feed technologies on their farms. The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Bulking and selling milk Financing, Extension services (AI, Technical support, inputs) The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Justification of the study The project started in 2008 with its main objective being to double the incomes of 179,000 dairy farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda through improved dairy production and marketing While the project has been able to achieve its targets, the sustainability of this achievement is likely to depend on the continued commitment of VFTs. A key challenge is how to keep VFTs motivated, hence sustainability of extension activities The big question: why do farmers volunteer as trainers and what keeps them motivated? The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Objectives To get perspectives of VFTs about factors that motivated them to become trainers and to continue volunteering It is expected that such information will assist the project partners to design and implement strategies that will improve the effectiveness of this approach and also ensure its sustainability.The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Methods of data collection Qualitative and Quantitative methods of data collection were used Focus group discussions were held in each of the sites with 5-20 trainers A structured questionnaire was administered to 99 and 190 individual VFTs in Kenya and Uganda respectively The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of VFTs Variable VFT Kenya Mean VFT Uganda Mean Age (yrs) 46.8 47.5 Longest distance (km) 6.7 9.3 Dairy experience (yrs) 11.3 8.7 Education )yrs) 10.7 9.8 Times train/month/dry 2.5 3.0 Times train/month/wet season 2.3 2.2 No . of villages covered outside their own 4.8 5.5 The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Reasons for volunteering Kenya (% of VFTS N=99) To become trainers Uganda (% of VFTs N=190) To continue To become trainers To continue Gain knowledge and skills 93 87 96 94 Altruism 85 81 89 84 Social benefits 76 72 88 88 Project benefits 71 73 90 80 Income (Financial benefits) 64 88 70 76 Increased demand for training - 81 - 75 The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Pairwise ranking of social benefits Social benefits Kenya Uganda Rank Rank Exposure 1 1 Gaining confidence 2 2 Increased social networks 3 3 Improved social status 4 4 The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Financial benefits In Kenya 50% of VFTs receive income from selling seed/seedlings and providing services. Hay fodder (15%), calliandra seedlings (12%), chaff cutter services (14%), silage making (13%) In Uganda, only 8% reported receiving income from selling pasture seed The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
Conclusion and Recommendations Generally, VFTs are motivated by personal and community interests which are driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors The importance of the motivation however varies from VFT to VFT The interests are key to sustaining voluntary farmer to farmer extension programs They need to be encouraged and supported to invest in personal development, build social and financial capital from activities related to fodder innovations Linking VFTs to seed companies so that they can produce seed on contract basis in order to generate income and also ensure a reliable supply of seed to the community. Organizing training and exchange visits from time to time to improve their knowledge and skills Social benefits can be enhanced by involving them in exchange tours and giving them of scaling up and the trajectory The science recognition beyond subsistence
Thank you!!! The science of scaling up and the trajectory beyond subsistence
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