Published on March 12, 2014
Climate Change and Agroforestry Management in Sri Lanka: Adverse Impacts, Adaptation Strategies and Policy Implications 1
Mangala De Zoysa University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka and Makoto Inoue The University of Tokyo Japan 2
Background 3 3
4 Increased rainfall intensity, amount per day and average per spell Mean rainfall projected decrease by 4% in quantity and distribution Increase mean air temperature by 0.9 to 4 0C by 2100 Projected sea level rise Sri Lanka falls under „vulnerable‟ small island nations
Farming and forestry threatened by weather- related phenomena Agroforestry adapt climate change through: – Diversified land-use practices, livelihoods and sources of income – Enhancement of agricultural productivity – Buffering weather-related production losses 5
Agroforestry are numerous and found in all climatic zones in Sri Lanka The paper reviewed literature and discusses: – Impacts of climate change on forest and agriculture in Sri Lanka – Agroforestry adaptation to climate changes and – policy implications required to promote the agroforestry adaptation 6
Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on Forest and Agriculture 7
Endangering Natural Assets 3.5 m drought affected people given emergency supply 2000 and 2005 Drought in 2001 worst hit water for agricultural and domestic needs Irrigation sector affected by drought Forests reduced 36% to 29% (1990 ~ 2006) affecting water for agriculture, power generation and drinking Sea level rise affected coastal ecosystems 8
Prevalence of Pests and Diseases 9 RRDI urgently producing rice resistant to pests and diseases Increased pest and disease on coconut increased investment in pest control Invasive Alien Species affecting agricultural lands Livestock with increased temperature more vulnerable to pests and diseases Famers susceptibility to dehydration, fatigue, hepatitis, typhoid etc
Crop Failures and Affect Livestock Monsoonal change fall paddy production by 20- 30% in 20 to 30 years Reduction of rainfall by 100 mm reduce productivity of „made‟ tea by 30-80 kg per ha Dry spells and cloudiness loss coconut production Increased sea water affect agricultural lands Livestock under pressure with competition over land and water 10
High Levels of Food Insecurity Decrease agricultural productivity in 15% by 2080 Dry Zone highly vulnerable to drought while Wet Zone at risk of recurrent floods Production in major and minor irrigation schemes has frequent shortfalls Sea water intrusion in coastal areas affect agriculture Farmers in vulnerable areas have lower adaptive capacity with: – Poor infrastructure and socioeconomic assets 11
Risk of Migration into Forest Areas Prolong droughts push chena (Slash and burn) into forest reserve to find livelihood Farmers affected by Tsunami south, north and east have moved to forest lands 12
Adaptation of Agroforestry to Climate Changes Impacts 13
Increase Tree Cover Outside Forests 14 Homegardens in 22% of land increase forest cover and connectivity Kandyan Home Gardens cover 40% of District PFP established 9,000 ha homegardens, 4,000 ha FWL, 1,500 ha PWT and 250 ha miscellaneous plantings Gliricidia as fourth plantation increase forest cover Green villages and Dayata Sevena promote agroforestry enhanced canopy cover
Enhance Forest Carbon Stocks 2 m ha of forest store 21 tons of CO2 per ha Homegarden is important carbon sinks for REDD+ Program – Tree density from 338 in DZ to 2108 per ha in WZ Agroforestry ensure fertile soil in long-run reduce emissions Biomass Energy comes from agricultural lands, and woodlots is cheap and less emissions 15
Conserve Biodiversity Most species in homegardends are indigenous with multi-purpose uses Kandyan Home Gardens contain more than 30 different crops, perennial trees, shrubs etc. Beverage crops successfully cultivate under leguminous and shade trees Perennial spices are cultivated in agroforestry farming systems Watersheds and wetland biodiversity adapt to climate change 16
Reduce Risk and Intensity of Damage “Let us grow, and uplift the nation” and “Livelihood Development program” established homegardens – Reduce living costs, enhanced food security, and environmentally friendly agriculture Dendro plantations in tea and coconut lands: – Reduce soil temperature 10oC – Maintain soil moisture 60 cm – Produced wood 15-30 mt per ha Strip vegetation reduce salinity in agriculture lands 17
Maintain Health and Vitality UWMP apply soil conservation with homegardens Agroforestry in steep slopes increase climate resiliency, and reduce land erosion Kandyan Home Gardens prevent erosion and floods and increase carbon sequestration Gliricidia under Coconut – Leaf litter reduces soil temperature – Prevent soil erosion and enhance fertility 18
Scale Up ‘Multiple Benefit’ Homegardens provide alternative livelihoods Farmers select crops considering profitability, marketing and convenience PFP created employment, reduced poverty and rehabilitated degraded lands Gliricidia in mixed systems enhance soil, provide animal fodder, grass and biogas Wood-based production meet energy, alleviate poverty, save foreign exchange 19
Policy Implications 20
Amend Policy and Legislation Meeting REDD+ Expectations REDD+ based on lost opportunities Legislation on agroforestry: – Reduce unequal treatment for forests or crops – Compete with other forms of land use Dealing with market influences Forests disappeared conversing to valued crops Legislation for agroforestry management : – Incorporate forests and trees in production plans 21
Market relations and Social responsibility Buyers looking for products meeting specific environmental and social standards Participatory and consultative processes of designing and implementing Property rights Rights and tenure protected by legislation Well-defined land, tree and carbon rights: – Prevent dispute under defined rights – Provide poor people with legal access to land 22
Awareness and Capacity Building Improve community understanding: – Climate change and risk – Effectively manage agroforestry – Improve livelihoods on sustainable basis Advisory and training programs: – Help farmers to prepare for challenges – Adopt innovation and technologies – Communicate outcomes from research 23
24 Strengthening Capacity of Lands Revitalize degraded and fragmented forest and farm lands Improve capacity of species and ecosystems Strengthen agroforests to: – Maintain, restore and enhance forest and farm area, biodiversity, health and vitality Integrate crop and forest a hardy system: – Capable of coping with climate change 24
25 Planning for Climate-smart Agroforest Landscapes Rooted in agriculture, forestry and rural development Contribute agroforestry for Millennium Development Goals: – Reduce hunger and improved environmental management – Support food security and boost incomes – Increase productivity and resilience of agricultural landscapes Develop agroforestry strategies to sequester carbon and reduce GHG emission 25
26 Introduce ‘No-regret’ Options Maintain benefits with or without climate change: – Promoting crop diversity and biodiversity – Using integrated farming and forestry systems – Improving post-harvest management Priority for options: – Providing economic and environmental benefits simultaneously Incentives given for measures: – Reduce GHG emissions simultaneously 26
27 Appropriate Technology Development Needed for: – Monitoring and research – Adaptation to climate change Vary according to: – Geographic area – Objectives of management activity – Scale and intensity of operation – Local human and financial resources Complement conservation and sustainable use of: – Trees within agricultural landscapes 27
28 Create Climate Change Adjustment Programs Professional advice and training Agroforestry adjust to climate change: – Access business and management practices Adjust advice and training to producers, adversely impacted, or likely to be impacted – Set goals and develop action plans to improve financial circumstances Increase smallholders’ resilience to shocks Transitional income support for agroforestry businesses adjust to climate change New start allowance for participants of programs28
29 Form Agroforestry Network Formulate and implement agroforestry at landscape scale: – Work on environmental services – Implement community agreements Foster local governance and collaboration: – Voluntary participation of local stakeholders Tree planting in agricultural landscape: – Rehabilitate degraded lands – Increase yields of small holder farmers – Contribute CO2 sequestration 29
Conclusions and Recommendations 30
Climate change impacts by complexity and magnitude have threatened agricultural and forest ecosystems in Sri Lanka Agroforestry in Sri Lanka play important role in climate change adaptation and enhancing resilience Agroforestry management with cross-sectoral and landscape approaches can help local communities adapt to new conditions caused by climate change 31
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