Session 16c - Frontal lobes - PFC ii

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Information about Session 16c - Frontal lobes - PFC ii
Education

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 3390 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY UNIT 16C - THE FRONTAL LOBES INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

NEXT LECTURE IS FOR REVIEW • QUESTIONS? – PLEASE SEND THEM TO FNELSON@TRU.CA BY 15:00 TOMORROW

DEBATES - MARCH 24TH • SURVEY LINK  HTTPS://DOCS.GOOGLE.COM/FORMS/D/1RZ8OCSEB1_W848EU9PXOGVSCRIVN9U H2WY3FADELYTO/VIEWFORM • PLEASE COMPLETE BY WEDNESDAY BEFORE LECTURE

A THEORY OF FRONTAL-LOBE FUNCTION 1. MOVEMENT 2. PLANNING AND SELECTION OF ACTIONS 3. SELECTIVELY RESPONDING TO INTERNAL, EXTERNAL, AND CONTEXTUAL CUES 4. IGNORING DISTRACTING STIMULI AND PERSISTING IN THE CURRENT TASK 5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO (TEMPORAL) MEMORY

Response- selection Internal Cues Contextual Cues Autonoetic awareness External cues

PFC: RESPONSE-SELECTION • INTERNAL CUES – TEMPORAL MEMORY: MEMORY FOR THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS THAT HAVE JUST TRANSPIRED

PFC: RESPONSE-SELECTION • EXTERNAL CUES – RESPONSE SELECTION AS FUNCTION OF INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE AND EXTERNAL CUES – SOMETIMES THE EXTERNAL CUES DIRECT OUR BEHAVIOUR, PARTICULAR IF WE FIND THE EXTERNAL CUE REWARDING – ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • BEHAVIOUR CAN BE MODULATED BY FEEDBACK ABOUT REWARDING PROPERTIES OF STIMULI – LEARNING BY ASSOCIATION • ANATOMICAL CORRELATE – ORBITAL FRONTAL CORTEX

PFC: RESPONSE SELECTION • CONTEXTUAL CUES – CONTEXT DETERMINES APPROPRIATE CLASS OF RESPONSES AND OUR CORRECT INTERPRETATION OF CONTEXTUAL CUES IS INTEGRAL TO CORRECT RESPONSE- SELECTION – ANATOMICAL CORRELATE • ORBITOFRONTAL LOBE • DAMAGE HERE IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPROPER BEHAVIOUR IN SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

PFC: RESPONSE SELECTION • AUTONOETIC AWARENESS – REFERS TO ‘SELF KNOWLEDGE’ • INCLUDING A RECORD OF CONSEQUENCES OF PAST RESPONSES – IMPORTANT FOR BINDING TOGETHER THE AWARENESS OF ONESELF AS CONTINUOUS THROUGH TIME – ANATOMICAL CORRELATE • ORBITOFRONTAL REGION

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • LOSS OF DIVERGENT THINKING – LOSS OF SPONTANEITY • VERBAL FLUENCY • NON-VERBAL/ DESIGN FLUENCY • REDUCTION IN GENERAL BEHAVIOUR – IMPAIRED CONTROL OF BEHAVIOUR IN RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CUES

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED DESIGN (NON-VERBAL) FLUENCY – DESIGN FLUENCY ASSESSMENT (GOTMAN & MILNER) • 2 PART TASK SIMILAR TO WORD-FLUENCY TEST • FIRST TASK – DRAW AS MANY DIFFERENT DESIGNS AS POSSIBLE IN 5 MINUTES • SECOND TASK – RESTRICT GENERATED DESIGNS TO AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING CONDITION(S) » EACH DESIGN CAN ONLY USE 4 ELEMENTS

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED RESPONSE TO EXTERNAL CUES 1. INABILITY TO FORM A STRATEGY 2. INCREASED PERSEVERATION 3. LOSS OF RESPONSE INHIBITION • ASSESSMENTS – WISCONSIN CARD-SORTING TASK – STROOP TEST

THE WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST Demo - http://www.millisecond.com/download/library/v3/CardSort/CardSortTest.web

STROOP TASK • RED • ORANGE • YELLOW • GREEN • BLUE • ROBIN’S EGG • PURPLE

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS (CONTINUED) 4. LOSS OF TEMPORAL MEMORY 5. INCREASE OF RISK-TAKING BEHAVIOUR 6. DEFICITS IN SELF-REGULATION 7. LOSS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • POOR TEMPORAL MEMORY – FIVE ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS INDICATE A ROLE FOR THE FRONTAL LOBE IN TEMPORAL MEMORY – ANATOMICAL CORRELATES • AREA 46 – ROLE IN PROVIDING AN INTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF SPATIAL INFORMATION – ACTIVE DURING DELAYED RESPONSE TEST • MEDIAL REGIONS – ROLE IN OBJECT RECOGNITION

EXPERIMENTS SHOWING DEFICITS OF TEMPORAL MEMORY

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • STUDYING TEMPORAL MEMORY IN HUMANS – MILNER, CORIS, & LEONARD - RECENCY MEMORY • TESTS MEMORY FOR THE ORDER IN WHICH THINGS HAVE OCCURRED • FRONTAL LOBE PATIENTS SHOW IMPAIRMENT ON THIS TASK

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS – RECENT FINDINGS ON TEMPORAL MEMORY • CRITICAL ROLE FOR THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX • FUSTER AND COLLEAGUES – SINGLE CELL RECORDING OF SENSORY ASSOCIATIONS ACROSS TIME

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS (CONT) • INCREASE OF RISK-TAKING BEHAVIOUR AND INABILITY TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS • MILLER (1985) – GAMBLING-TASK • GUESS WORDS BASED ON PARTIAL INFORMATION – EACH ADDITIONAL CLUE REQUESTED DECREASED THE POINTS TO BE WON BY GUESSING CORRECTLY – INCORRECT GUESSES RESULT IN LOSS OF ALL POINTS • FRONTAL LOBE LESION PATIENTS – CHOOSE TO GUESS ON THE BASIS OF SINGLE CLUES MORE OFTEN THAN HEALTHY CONTROLS AND OFTEN GUESSED INCORRECTLY • ANATOMICAL CORRELATE OF RISK-TAKING BEHAVIOUR – ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS (CONT) • THE ROLE OF THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX IN RISK-TAKING BEHAVIOUR • BECHARA ET AL. (2000) – IOWA GAMBLING TASK – RESULTS • PATIENTS WITH IFC-DAMAGE COULD NOT FIGURE OUT RESIST TAKING RISKS BUT WERE UNSUCCESSFUL AS THEY COULD NOT IDENTIFY THE WINNING STRATEGY

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS (CONT) • LOSS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • PETRIDES (1982) – TASK • DISPLAY THE APPROPRIATE HAND-GESTURES IN RESPONSE TO BEING SHOWN A CERTAIN COLORED STIMULUS – RESULTS • SUBJECTS WITH FRONTAL-LOBE LESIONS WERE UNABLE TO ASSOCIATE THE APPROPRIATE MUSCLE MOVEMENT WITH A PARTICULAR COLOUR • LOSS OF ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED SOCIAL AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – EXAMPLE: PHINEAS GAGE • BELIEVED TO HAVE SUFFERED DAMAGE TO HIS LEFT MEDIAL ORBITAL REGION • ALSO SUFFERED DIFFUSE DAMAGE TO THE WHITE MATTER PATHWAYS IN THE FRONTAL LOBE (VAN HORN ET AL., 2012) Van Horn JD, Irimia A, Torgerson CM, Chambers MC, et al. (2012) Mapping Connectivity Damage in the Case of Phineas Gage. PLoS ONE 7(5): e37454. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037454 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0037454

IMPAIRED SOCIAL AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR • CHANGES IN PERSONALITY – PSEUDODEPRESSION • APPEARS AFTER LESIONS OF THE LEFT FRONTAL LOBE • OUTWARD APATHY, INDIFFERENCE, LOSS OF INITIATIVE • REDUCED SEXUAL INTEREST, LITTLE OR NO VERBAL OUTPUT

IMPAIRED SOCIAL AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR • CHANGES IN PERSONALITY (CONTINUED) – PSEUDOPSYCHOPATHY • APPEARS AFTER LESIONS OF THE RIGHT FRONTAL LOBE • IMMATURE BEHAVIOR, LACK OF TACT AND RESTRAINT • PROMISCUOUS SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • COARSE LANGUAGE, LACK OF SOCIAL GRACES, INCREASED MOTOR ACTIVITY

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • IMPAIRED SOCIAL AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – DEFICITS IN SOCIAL AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • ORBITOFRONTAL LESIONS – REDUCE INHIBITIONS AND MAY INTRODUCE ABNORMAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOR – LEADS TO DEFICITS IN IDENTIFYING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS • DORSOLATERAL LESIONS – REDUCE INTEREST IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

SYMPTOMS OF FRONTAL LOBE LESIONS • BUTTER & SNYDER (1972) – REMOVED THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX OF A GROUP OF MALE RHESUS MONKEYS AND OBSERVED THE CHANGES IN SPECIES-SPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE AND AVERSIVE BEHAVIOURS – LESIONED MONKEYS DISPLAYED ATTENUATED AGGRESSIVE REACTIONS AND ENHANCED AVERSIVE REACTIONS IN A NUMBER OF SETTINGS, INCLUDING BEING REINTRODUCED BACK INTO THEIR COLONIES – THEY DID NOT LOSE THE CAPACITY TO EXECUTE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR BUT RATHER THEIR ABILITY TO INTERPRET WHEN IT IS APPROPRIATE TO RESPOND WITH AGGRESSION • STUDIES OF LESIONED MONKEYS IN NATURALIZED ENVIRONMENTS – FOLLOWING FRONTAL-LESIONS, MONKEYS REINTRODUCED INTO THEIR COLONIES QUICKLY FELL TO THE BOTTOM RANKS OF THE SOCIAL HIERARCHY – LESION LED TO AN IMPAIRMENT IN APPROPRIATE RESPONSE-SELECTION WITHIN COMPLEX SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

END OF LECTURE

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