Session 15b - Temporal Lobes

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Information about Session 15b - Temporal Lobes
Education

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

PSYC 3390 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY UNIT 15B - TEMPORAL LOBES INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR THREE SECTIONS OF THE EAR • • • OUTER MIDDLE INNER OUTER • CAPTURING THE SOUND WAVE AND DIRECTING IT TO THE MIDDLE EAR • KEY STRUCTURES • • • PINNAE AUDITORY CANAL EARDRUM = TYMPANIC MEMBRANE MIDDLE • MAINTAINING GOOD VIBRATIONS • KEY STRUCTURES – TYMPANIC MEMBRANE – 3 LITTLE BONES (M,I,S) – OVAL WINDOW INNER • ENCLOSED IN THE COCHLEA • SITE OF TRANSDUCTION FROM SOUND WAVE TO NEURAL IMPULSE • KEY STRUCTURES – – – – OVAL WINDOW 3 FLUID FILLED CANALS BASILAR MEMBRANE HAIR CELLS

MAJOR STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR • VIDEO  HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=QGD QP-OPB1Q

FROM EAR TO CORTEX • THE AUDITORY NERVE  BIFURCATES INTO IPSI/CONTRALATERAL TRACT BEFORE ARRIVING AT THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS IN THE MIDBRAIN • FROM THE INFERIOR COLLICULIS, SOUND TRAVELS TO THE THALAMUS • PARTICULAR NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS, THE MEDICAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS (MGN) • FROM HERE, THE MGN PROJECTS TO THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX (AREA 41) – CONTRALATERAL PATHWAY IS DOMINANT • EVIDENCE - DICHOTIC LISTENING TASKS

DICHOTIC LISTENING TASKS • DICHOTIC LISTENING TASKS – – – • INVOLVE SIMULTANEOUS PRESENTATION OF AUDITORY STIMULI TO BOTH EARS SUBJECT THEN REPORTS ON THE PRESENTED STIMULI COMMONLY USED AS A TEST FOR CROSSED PATH DOMINANCE, SPATIAL ATTENTION, AND HEMISPHERIC DOMINANCE FACTORS – NATURE OF STIMULI • • – REPORTING VARIABLES • • FREE REPORTING VS. REPORTING ONLY ON STIMULI PRESENTED TO ONE EAR RESULTS – – DOMINANCE OF CONTRALATERAL (CROSSED) PATHWAY TO AUDITORY CORTEX LATERALITY • • • WORDS, DIGITS, LETTERS, ETC. – MEANINGFUL VS. NONSENSE WORDS  SEMANTIC ENCODING DIMENSIONS OF STIMULI – ENSURING EQUIVALENCE OF ONSET-TIME AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUND RIGHT EAR ADVANTAGE FOR REPORTING NUMBER AND WORD STIMULI LEFT EAR ADVANTAGE FOR MELODY, ENVIRONMENTAL SOUNDS, AND OTHER NON-SPEECH SOUNDS TRY IT YOURSELF  HTTP://WWW.LINGUISTICS.UCLA.EDU/PEOPLE/SCHUH/LX001/DICHOTIC/DICHOTIC.HTML OR HTTP://DICHOTICLISTENING.COM/INDEX.HTML (APP)

AUDITORY PROCESSING IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE • SPEECH PERCEPTION – SPEECH DIFFERS FROM OTHER SOUNDS 1. SPEECH SOUNDS COME FROM THREE RESTRICTED RANGES OF FREQUENCIES, KNOWN AS FORMANTS 2. SPEECH SOUNDS VARY FROM ONE CONTEXT TO ANOTHER, YET ALL ARE PERCEIVED AS BEING THE SAME 3. SPEECH SOUNDS CHANGE VERY RAPIDLY IN RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER

DISORDERS OF AUDITORY AND SPEECH PERCEPTION • AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS • IMPAIRED AUDITORY PROCESSING – HAVE TROUBLE DISCRIMINATING SPEECH SOUNDS • SPEECH DISORDERS – WERNICKE’S APHASIA • DISTURBED RECOGNITION OF WORDS

SNAPSHOT: IMAGING AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS • AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS ARE THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOM OF SCHIZOPHRENIA • PATIENTS HEAR FULLY FORMED VERBAL PASSAGES THAT MAY BE HOSTILE OR PARANOID • DIERKS ET AL., 1999 – ANATOMICAL CORRELATES FOR AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS: • OCCURRENCE OF VERBAL AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HEIGHTENED ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX, BROCA’S AREA, AND THE SPEECH ZONE IN THE POSTERIOR TEMPORAL CORTEX

IMPAIRED AUDITORY PROCESSES • UNILATERAL DAMAGE TO PAC REVEALS LATERALIZATION OF AUDITORY PROCESSING – KEY DIMENSION: SPEED – DAMAGE TO LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE  DECREASED ABILITY FOR IDENTIFYING ORDER OF STIMULI PRESENTATION • HEALTHY CONTROLS NEED ONLY A LATENCY OF 50-60 MS WHEREAS THESE PATIENTS REQUIRE UP TO 500 MS TO IDENTIFY WHICH SOUND WAS HEARD FIRST

PERCEPTION OF MUSIC

AUDITORY PROCESSING: MUSIC • MUSIC PERCEPTION – RELIES ON RELATION BETWEEN ELEMENTS • 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUND WAVES INTEGRAL TO MUSIC PROCESSING – LOUDNESS, TIMBRE, AND PITCH • ANALGOUS TO SOUND WAVE PROPERTIES: AMPLITUDE, WAVEFORM COMPLEXITY, AND FREQUENCY

THREE PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF SOUND 1. LOUDNESS 1. 2. AMPLITUDE OF SOUND WAVE IMPLIES ‘INTENSITY’ 2. PITCH 1. FREQUENCY OF WAVE 3. TIMBRE 1. 2. IMPLIES ‘TONE’ REFERS TO ‘COMBINATION OF FREQUENCIES PRESENT IN THE WAVE 3. E.G. VIOLIN VS. GUITAR Image credit: http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/var/sciencelearn/storage/images/contexts/the-noisy-reef/sci-media/images/graphs-of-sound-waves/411506-1-eng-NZ/Graphs-ofsound-waves.jpg

PITCH: COMPONENTS OF FREQUENCY IN A NOTE • FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCIES – LOWEST COMPONENT OF THE NOTE • • E.G. MIDDLE C = 264 HZ OVERTONES – PARTIALS – HARMONICS • • WHOLE NUMBER MULTIPLES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY (528. 1056 HZ) SPECTRAL PITCH – DEDUCTIVE METHOD OF IDENTIFYING A (MISSING) FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY USING A – – SUBTRACTIVE METHOD WHILST LISTENING TO HARMONICS OF THE NOTE IN QUESTION CAN ALSO BE USED TO ASSESS THE DIRECTION OF CHANGE IN PITCH EXPERIENCE-INDEPENDENT EFFECT

AUDITORY PROCESSING: MUSIC • TIMING IN MUSIC – 2 DIMENSIONS • TEMPORAL GROUPING OF SEQUENCES OF PITCHES • METER – IDENTIFICATION OF TEMPORAL REGULARITY (RHYTHM) – ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THESE ARE TWO INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS SHOWING HEMISPHERIC LATERALIZATION

AUDITORY PROCESSING: MUSIC • PERETZ & ZATORRE (2005) – PATIENTS WITH TEMPORAL LOBE INJURIES ILLUSTRATE THAT THE LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN TEMPORAL GROUPING FOR RHYTHM, WHEREAS THE RIGHT HEMISPHERE PLAYS A ROLE IN METER – RIGHT TEMPORAL LOBE SPECIAL FUNCTION IN EXTRACTING PITCH FROM SOUND REGARDLESS IF THE SOUND IS SPEECH OR MUSIC • PROSODY - ‚TONE OF VOICE‛ OR PITCH IN SPEECH

AUDITORY PROCESSING: MUSIC • MUSICAL ABILITY <-> PARTICULAR DEVELOPMENT OF NEURAL STRUCTURES – NEURAL STRUCTURE IN QUESTION = HESCHL’S GYRUS • SCHNEIDER AND COLLEAGUES – MUSICIANS HAVE A LARGER VOLUME OF GRAY AND WHITE MATTER IN HESCHL’S GYRUS – FUNDAMENTAL PITCH LISTENER’S - LEFTWARD ASYMMETRY – SPECTRAL-PITCH LISTENERS - RIGHTWARD ASYMMETRY

AUDITORY PROCESSING: MUSIC • MUSICAL ABILITY <-> PARTICULAR DEVELOPMENT OF NEURAL STRUCTURES – NEURAL STRUCTURE IN QUESTION = HESCHL’S GYRUS • SCHNEIDER AND COLLEAGUES – MUSICIANS HAVE A LARGER VOLUME OF GRAY AND WHITE MATTER IN HESCHL’S GYRUS – FUNDAMENTAL PITCH LISTENER’S - LEFTWARD ASYMMETRY – SPECTRAL-PITCH LISTENERS - RIGHTWARD ASYMMETRY

MUSIC PROCESSING BEYOND THE TEMPORAL LOBE • FRONTAL LOBE – BROCA’S AREA • IMPLICATED IN ANOTHER FORM OF EXPRESSIVE OUTPUT BEYOND SPEECH…MUSIC – SLUMMING ET AL., (2002) • MUSICIANS SHOW GREATER VOLUME OF GREY MATTER IN THEIR LEFT BROCA’S AREA COMPARED TO NON-MUSICIANS

HEMISPHERIC SPECIALISATION IN MUSIC PROCESSING • ZATORRE (2001) – RIGHT TEMPORAL LOBE IS MORE INVOLVED IN EXTRACTING ‘PITCH’ INFORMATION FROM SOUND • EXTRACTION INDEPENDENT OF CONTENT OF SOUND (SPEECH OR MUSIC) • LESION TO RIGHT TEMPORAL LOBE  ELIMINATES PITCH DISCRIMINATION • ADDITIONAL STUDIES – RIGHT HEMISPHERE HAS BEEN MORE ASSOCIATED WITH MELODY PRODUCTION AND RETENTION OF MELODIES – LEFT HEMISPHERE MORE ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCTION OF RHYTHM

TEMPORAL LOBE DISORDERS • DISORDERS OF MUSIC PERCEPTION – RIGHT POSTERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS DAMAGE AFFECTS RHYTHM DISCRIMINATION – METER DISCRIMINATION AFFECTED BY ANTERIOR DAMAGE TO EITHER RIGHT OR LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE – CONGENITAL AMUSIA • TONE DEAF

SYMPTOMS OF TEMPORAL-LOBE LESIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. AUDITORY DISTURBANCE DISORDERS OF MUSIC PERCEPTION DISTURBANCE OF SELECTION OF VISUAL AND AUDITORY INPUT IMPAIRED ORGANIZATION AND CATEGORIZATION INABILITY TO USE CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION LONG-TERM MEMORY PROBLEMS ALTERED PERSONALITY AND AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR ALTERED SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

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