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session 15a temporal lobes

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Information about session 15a temporal lobes
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Published on March 1, 2014

Author: FraserNelson

Source: slideshare.net

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PSYC 3390 NEUROPSYCHOLOGY UNIT 15A - THE TEMPORAL LOBES INSTRUCTOR: FRASER NELSON

ANATOMY OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • GENERAL BOUNDARIES – TEMPORAL LOBE ENCOMPASSES ALL THE TISSUE BELOW THE SYLVAIN FISSURE – BOUNDED POSTERIOR BY THE JUNCTION OF THE PARIETAL AND OCCIPITAL LOBES WITHOUT CLEAR GYRI OR SULCI TO SERVE AS BORDERING STRUCTURES

ANATOMY OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • LATERAL FEATURES OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE – 3 GYRI • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS • MIDDLE TEMPORAL GYRUS • INFERIOR TEMPORAL GYRUS – SYLVIAN FISSURE • INSULA – 2 SULCI • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS • MIDDLE TEMPORAL SULCUS

ANATOMY OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • MEDIAL/SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES – LIMBIC CORTEX • UNCUS, ENTORHINAL CORTEX, PERIRHINAL CORTEX, AND PARAHIPPOCAMPAL CORTEX – AMYGDALA – HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE TEMPORAL CORTEX • LATERAL SURFACE – AUDITORY AREAS • BRODMANN’S AREAS 41,42, AND 22 – VENTRAL STREAM OF VISUAL INFORMATION • BRODMANN’S AREAS 20, 21,37, AND 38 • INFEROTEMPORAL CORTEX OR TE

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE TEMPORAL CORTEX • INSULA – AREA INFERIOR TO SYLVAN FISSURE – CONTAINS GUSTATORY CORTEX & AUDITORY ASSOCIATION CORTEX • MULTI/POLYMODAL CORTEX – AREA UNDER SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS • RECEIVES INPUT FROM AUDITORY, VISUAL, AND SOMATIC REGIONS

CONNECTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL CORTEX INPUT  TEMPORAL LOBE  OUTPUT • INPUT – FROM SENSORY SYSTEMS • INCLUDING AUDITORY AND VISUAL SYSTEMS • OUTPUT – EFFERENT PROJECTIONS TO • • • PARIETAL AND FRONTAL ASSOCIATION REGIONS LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL GANGLIA • INTER-HEMISPHERIC COMMUNICATION VIA: – CORPUS CALLOSUM – ANTERIOR COMMISSURE • FIVE DISTINCT CORTICAL-CORTICAL CONNECTIONS

CONNECTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • 1) HIERARCHICAL SENSORY PATHWAY – INCOMING AUDITORY AND VISUAL INFORMATION – STIMULUS RECOGNITION

CONNECTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • 2) DORSAL AUDITORY PATHWAY – FROM AUDITORY CORTEX TO POSTERIOR PARIETAL – DETECTION OF SPATIAL LOCATION/MOVEMENT

CONNECTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • 3) POLYMODAL PATHWAY – FROM AUDITORY AND VISUAL AREAS TO THE POLYMODAL CORTEX – STIMULUS CATEGORIZATION • 4) MEDIAL TEMPORAL PROJECTION – FROM AUDITORY AND VISUAL AREAS TO THE MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE, LIMBIC CORTEX, HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, AND AMYGDALA – PERFORANT PATHWAY – LONG-TERM MEMORY

CONNECTIONS OF THE TEMPORAL LOBE • 5) FRONTAL LOBE PROJECTION – AUDITORY AND VISUAL CORTEX TO THE FRONTAL LOBE – ASSOCIATED WITH • MOVEMENT CONTROL • SHORT-TERM MEMORY • AFFECT

THEORY OF TEMPORAL LOBE FUNCTION • THREE BASIC SENSORY FUNCTIONS – PROCESSING AUDITORY INPUT – VISUAL OBJECT RECOGNITION – LONG-TERM STORAGE OF INFORMATION

THEORY OF TEMPORAL LOBE FUNCTION • SENSORY PROCESSES – IDENTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION OF STIMULI – CROSS-MODAL MATCHING • PROCESS OF MATCHING VISUAL AND AUDITORY INFORMATION

THEORY OF TEMPORAL LOBE FUNCTION • AFFECTIVE RESPONSES – EMOTIONAL RESPONSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR STIMULUS • SPATIAL NAVIGATION – HIPPOCAMPUS – SPATIAL MEMORY

PERCEPTION OF BIOLOGICAL MOTION • BIOLOGICAL MOTION – MOVEMENTS RELEVANT TO A SPECIES – ALLOW US TO GUESS OTHERS’ INTENTIONS – SIMILAR TO IDEAS OF SOCIAL COGNITION OR “THEORY OF MIND” • KEY STRUCTURE - SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS – STS CELLS SELECTIVELY RESPOND TO BIOLOGICAL MOTION

PERCEPTION OF BIOLOGICAL MOTION • DAVID PERRETT AND COLLEAGUES • RAN A SERIES OF STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF STS CELLS • FINDINGS • STS CELLS RESPOND TO FACES AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS FROM A VARIETY OF VIEWING ANGLES • STS CELLS MODULATE THEIR FIRING RATES IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULAR TYPES OF BIOLOGICAL MOTION • HIGHEST ACTIVITY RECORDED IN RESPONSE TO BIOLOGICAL MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE VIEWER

VISUAL PROCESSING IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE • IN ADDITION TO THE PROCESSING OF BIOLOGICAL MOTION, THE TEMPORAL LOBE IS INVOLVED IN IMAGE CATEGORIZATION AS WELL AS MULTI-MODAL CATEGORIZATION PROCESSES – I.E. CROSS-MODAL CATEGORIZATION

VISUAL PROCESSING IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE • HASSAN, NIR, LEVY, FUHRMANN, & MALACH (2004) – TASK • ‘FREE VIEWING’ OF A POPULAR FILM WHILE UNDERGOING FMRI RECORDING – FINDINGS: 1. SIMILAR ACTIVITY IN SENSORY PROCESSING AREAS ACROSS SUBJECTS – PARTICULARLY IN THE AUDITORY AND VISUAL REGIONS IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE, THE STS, AND CINGULATE REGIONS 2. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION TO SPECIFIC REGIONS, CONCERNED WITH PROCESSING SPECIFIC STIMULI DURING PRECISE MOMENT-TO-MOMENT FILM CONTENT AND IN STATIC IMAGE PRESENTATION – FFA, PPA, PST-CENTRAL HAND REGION, AND AUDITORY CORTEX 3. DISSIMILAR BRAIN ACTIVITY OBSERVED IN HIGHER-ORDER FRONTAL AND PARIETAL REGIONS

INTER-SUBJECT SYNCHRONIZATION OF CORTICAL ACTIVITY DURING NATURAL VISION (HASSON ET AL., 2004)

VISUAL PROCESSING: CATEGORIZATION • QUESTION: – WHAT IS THE NEUROANATOMICAL MECHANISM THAT UNDERLIES LEARNING STIMULI CATEGORIZATION? • TANAKA AND COLLEAGUES – FINDINGS • CELLS IN AREA TE REQUIRE COMPLEX FEATURES FOR ACTIVATION • CELLS WITH SIMILAR SELECTIVITY CLUSTER IN VERTICAL COLUMNS • SPECIFICITY OF NEURONS IS ALTERED BY EXPERIENCE

ARE FACES UNIQUE COMPLICATED VISUAL STIMULI THAT UNDERGO UNIQUE NEURAL PROCESSING?

ARE FACES SPECIAL? • HAXBY, HOFFMAN, AND GOBBINI, 2000 – MODEL OF THE DISTRIBUTED HUMAN NEURAL SYSTEM FOR FACE PERCEPTION

HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION: SPLIT FACES TEST

IS THE FUSIFORM FACIAL AREA EXCLUSIVELY FOR FACIAL PROCESSING?

END OF LECTURE

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