Services Oriented Infrastructure in a Web2.0 World

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Information about Services Oriented Infrastructure in a Web2.0 World

Published on August 3, 2007

Author: cbearman



Tom Maguire discusses applying SOA Web 2.0 technologies, and open standards to the problems faced by IT in an ever changing world.

This session was recorded at EMC World 2007 in Orlando Florida

Services Oriented Infrastructure in a Web2.0 World Tom Maguire EMC Corporation

Abstract The confluence of several mature architectural paradigms with new user-centric paradigms will drive the next generation of IT. Next generation IT will be based on the combination of model-driven architecture and service-oriented architecture applied to applications, information delivery, and IT resources alike. The agility gained in IT infrastructure coupled with highly configurable, lightweight, 'last mile' visualization technologies will dramatically increase the relevance and reactivity of IT to the business.

What You Should Gain Ÿ Attendees will leave with an understanding of the benefits of SOA, models, and Web 2.0 technologies and standards with regard to IT infrastructure. Ÿ Attendees will leave with a vision of how they can utilize SOA, models, and Web 2.0 technologies.

Agenda Ÿ Service Oriented Architecture Ÿ Event Driven Architecture Ÿ Web 2.0 Ÿ Potential IT Management Implications Ÿ Conclusions

‡ “Form ever follows function” Not the other way around….. ‡ Louis Henri Sullivan, Architect (September 3, 1856-April 14, 1924)

Service Oriented Architecture - SOA SOA is an architectural style whose goal is to achieve loose coupling among interacting components for the purposes of interoperability, composition, and orchestration. By loose coupling we mean: The ability to add, modify, and delete components from the system with minimal impact on other components. SOA is not Ÿ just about Web Services. Ÿ a rehash of J2EE, CORBA, DCE. Ÿ just another transport. SOA is about HOW – How to build composite distributed systems

Lest We Forget The 8 fallacies when building distributed systems: 1. The network is reliable. 2. Latency is zero. 3. Bandwidth is infinite. 4. The network is secure. 5. Topology doesn’t change. 6. There is one administrator. 7. Transport cost is zero. 8. The network is homogenous. Composite distributed systems built with SOA can fall into these traps but there are mechanisms in SOA that help to avoid some of these pitfalls. by Peter Deutsch, Sun Fellow

SOA: Core Principles Ÿ Loose coupling – Late binding – Interface to implementation (as well) Common interface – Interface fidelity § The more precise the interface, the tighter the coupling Ÿ Described interfaces Different protocol bindings – Decouple components – Separation of concerns Mediation Ÿ Implementation agnostic – Platform independent Connectors/adapters – Hidden implementation Ÿ Message oriented Native resources – Well-defined messages – Coarse grained – Asynchrony Ÿ Composition – Behavior is the sum of all behaviors in the system Ÿ Internet scale

So what is it really all about? It is about the messages defined in the interface. In SOA there are three distinct data models in every interaction 1. The consumer-side implementation data model 2. The provider-side implementation data model 3. The message data model The only data model of consequence in an SOA is the message data model; this is the agreed upon (contract) ‘data model’ for the consumer and the provider. All of the implementation data models are hidden.

SOA: Composition vs. Coding • public String getEmployeeName( long employeeID ) throws javax.ejb.CreateException, java.rmi.RemoteException • { Connection conn = null; PreparedStatement ps = null; • try •{ conn = this.getConnection(); • ps = vs conn.prepareStatement(quot;select name from employees_files where idnumber = ?quot;); ps.setLong(1, employeeID); • ResultSet rs = ps.executeQuery(); if ( { return rs.getString(1); • } return quot;Unknownquot;; } • catch (SQLException sqe) { return sqe.getMessage(); } finally { if (ps != null) { try { ps.close(); } § Metadata-driven configuration, composition, and business rules Application § For application specialists (requirements experts) not developers Composition § Apps composed from existing services built by developers

Web Services – An embodiment Ÿ Messaging Ÿ Security – Routing Addressing – Security Policy – Multiple Message – Secure Conversation Metadata Transactions Sessions Security Service State – Trusted Message – Events & – Federated Identity Notification – Reliable Messaging Ÿ Service State – Message Packaging – Resource Transfer Ÿ Transactions – Management Ÿ Metadata – Asynchronous Services – Policy Messaging – Transaction – Publication & – Orchestration Discovery XML XML XML XML – Base Service & Message Description – Metadata Exchange

Web Services Can be SOAP or REST Ÿ SOAP – Simple Object Access Protocol – Just SOAP, not Simple and not about Objects – Provides an extensible format and processing model § Allows components to be decoupled from other components (e.g., infrastructure components) – Standards – Lots of them and still evolving – Commercial-grade tools, big vendor support Ÿ REST – Representational State Transfer – HTTP, Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and XML – Simple use of GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE – Open tools, some resistance in commercial space

Event Driven Architecture - EDA EDA is an architectural style whose goal is to achieve loose coupling among interacting components through the production, detection, consumption, and reaction to events. By loose coupling we mean: The ability to add, modify, and delete components from the system with minimal impact on other components. EDA is Ÿ an asynchronous publish-and-subscribe model. Ÿ great for a federated or autonomous processing environment. Ÿ a declarative model; configuration not code. EDA is about EVENTS as Messages

SOA and EDA Synergies Ÿ SOA is about – Loose coupling at the interface level. – Contractual agreement on the messages. – Decoupling implementation from interface. Ÿ EDA is about – Loose coupling at the messaging level through configured publisher and subscriber connections via topics. – Connecting messages (data models) together. Ÿ EDA complements SOA by providing a rich asynchronous messaging capability. – Publish-subscribe interaction model is the inverse of request-reply. Ÿ Both architectures focus on messages (data models) and loose coupling. – The formalization of the message data model creates opportunities.

What does this describe?

‡ Architecture of Participation – Web 2.0 Ÿ Systems that are designed explicitly for user contribution Ÿ The current technology – AJAX – Asynchronous JavaScript and XML § Also called Rich Internet Applications (RIA) – RSS/Atom – published changes to information § Really Simple Syndication § Collectively called ‘feeds’ – Wikis – freeform collaborative authoring § User- or machine-contributed content § With history and syndication – Blogs – user-generated content § With Trackbacks, permalinks, syndication – Social tagging – public bookmarks – Presence – realtime collaboration ‡ Tim O’Reilly, Warburg-Pincus’ annual technology conference, May, 2003

Characteristics of Web 2.0 Ÿ Unstructured Ÿ Self-managed Ÿ Folksnomies Ÿ Freeform collaboration Ÿ User-defined metadata Ÿ In-system authoring

Wikis ‡ The simplest online database that could possibly work. Ÿ Software that allows users to freely create and edit content using any browser – A collaborative website – “Open editing” but easy to correct mistakes – Recent changes can be monitored actively or passively Ÿ At last count there were at least 80 implementations of Wiki Ÿ Provides communities and categorization Ÿ Freeform data model with tagging ‡ Ward Cunningham, Inventor of Wiki

Blogs User-generated content, in a journal style Ÿ Software that allows individuals to freely create and edit content using any browser – An “open mic” Ÿ Trackbacks, blogrolls, and aggregators create an understanding of experts Ÿ Freeform data model with tagging Ÿ Tagging provides the context for understanding area of expertise

AJAX Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Not a technology, a technique for creating highly interactive web pages utilizing a number of technologies. Ÿ AJAX utilizes – Standards-based presentation (XHTML & CSS) – Dynamic display manipulation using DOM (Document Object Model) – Data model interchange and manipulation using XML & XSLT – Asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest – JavaScript to glue it all together Ÿ To create RIA (Rich Internet Applications) – Web pages that feel more responsive – That only exchange small amounts of data behind the scenes – That do not have to be reloaded – Which improves interactivity, speed, and (hopefully) usability

AJAX – The “Global SOA”? Ÿ AJAX is the natural service consumer Ÿ AJAX allows users to interact dynamically with SOA-type services and their data models: – SOAP – REST – RSS – ATOM – XML – SQL

The Match ? Rich Internet Data Applications ? SOA User Interface

Mashups The combination of content from more than one source into an integrated experience Ÿ This is really about content repurposing and reuse Information and presentation are being separated in ‡ ways that allow for novel forms of reuse Ÿ Both SOA and Mashups are compositional models – SOA: think corporate, consultants, big budget… – Mashups: just the opposite Ÿ But that is changing…. ‡ Sho Kuwamoto, Adobe, Engineering,

Impact to IT Management

What if…. Ÿ you had access to all of the certified configuration information and could easily associate that with your infrastructure? Ÿ you could tap into a community that maintained content on events and alerts that they have seen in their infrastructures? Ÿ you had access to a huge community of experts on a wide range of infrastructure topics? Ÿ health, faults, and alerts were delivered to you anywhere you would like with RSS? Ÿ a chronological log of information of all changes in the infrastructure was available anywhere? Ÿ patches and software updates were delivered to you asynchronously as they became available? Ÿ the interface to resources mimicked a Wiki-style interaction?

Monolithic Products Business Process Manual Processes and Workflows Service Level Mgmt Manual Processes and Workflows Service Invocation Manual Processes and Workflows Functional Components NetWorker Replicat’n Disk Email Manager Xtender Xtender Resource Managers Resources

Decomposed into Service Oriented Infrastructure Content Mgmt Bus. Intelligence Collaboration Business Apps Business Process Manual Processes and Workflows SLOs / SLAs Service Level Mgmt Manual Processes and Workflows Security Performance Availability Compliance Web Services Service Invocation Manual Processes and Workflows Functional Components Backup Replication Archiving Data Movement Resource Managers Resources

Conclusions & Recommendations Ü Embark on the path to Service Orientation ² Create well-defined interfaces and message models ² Use Web 2.0 technologies to “mashup” enterprise data models with Internet data models ² Avoid tight coupling to implementation, interaction model, and data models Ü Encourage the use of new collaboration tools ² Establish communities for disciplines of interest ² Encourage internal experts to share knowledge through Wikis and blogs ² Harvest those data models and experts through mashups and realtime collaboration Ü Watch out for accidental architectures ² Command-and-control models (request-reply, point-to-point messaging) ² Fine-grained interactions ² Data model linkages

Backup slides

On Information Model and Data Models From RFC3444[i]: The main purpose of an IM is to model managed objects at a conceptual level, independent of any specific implementations or protocols used to transport the data. The degree of specificity (or detail) of the abstractions defined in the IM depends on the modeling needs of its designers. In order to make the overall design as clear as possible, an IM should hide all protocol and implementation details. Another important characteristic of an IM is that it defines relationships between managed objects. DMs, conversely, are defined at a lower level of abstraction and include many details. They are intended for implementers and include protocol-specific constructs. Stated another way: The IM includes abstract entities and their relationships to one another as well as operations that can be driven on those entities. The DM deals with the implementation details or protocol details, of the IM. For example, implementation object models and protocol/message formats. [i] “On the Difference Between Information Models and Data Models”,

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