Published on February 19, 2014
From Systems to Services: Creating a Service-Oriented, Space-Based Infrastructure Dr. ing. Marco Lisi European Space Agency Special Advisor to the European Commission Space Horizons 2014 Workshop Brown University - February 19, 2014
Objectives • • • • • 3 To recognize the importance of services in today’s world economy; To explain what a service-oriented, large and complex system means; To suggest the need for a radical conceptual paradigm shift in the space business, moving from technologies/products to capabilities and services; To describe some success examples towards a worldwide, integrated, service-oriented space infrastructure; To highlight some promising areas for further research and development and potential issues to be resolved along the way.
Towards a Knowledge-Based… 4
…and Service-Oriented Economy 5
What do we mean by "service"? • • • By the term “service” we mean the guaranteed and committed delivery of a capability to a community of potential customers/users; In the delivery of a service, the focus is more on the “commitment” (continued over time) than on the “technical performance” as such, which is though an essential prerequisite (but not an objective); NOTA BENE: services are not alternative to (or in competition with) technology and goods production. On the contrary, advanced, high value-added services need state-of-the-art technological products and systems to be provided. Examples: – – – 6 Internet Wireless communication networks Electric power distribution infrastructure
What is a Service System? • • 7 Service (or service-oriented) systems are systems meant to provide value-added services through the use of technology (mainly communications and computer technologies); A “service system” has been defined as a dynamic configuration of people, technology, organizational networks and shared information (such as languages, processes, metrics, prices, policies, and laws) designed to deliver services that satisfy the needs, wants, or aspirations of customers.
Characteristics of Service Systems • • • • • • Large and complex systems Software intensive (several million lines of code) Capabilities-based rather than platform-based Organization and governance (human factor) Technical performance is a prerequisite for production and delivery of services, not a final objective Requirements related to operations, in addition to technical ones, assume a very high relevance: Quality of Service (QoS) Reliability, Availability, Continuity Maintainability Safety Security 8 Flexibility Expandability Interoperability Resilience
Products vs. Services Cars Highways Trains Railways Stations Parking areas Aircrafts Airports Ships Etc. 9
Large and Complex Systems (1/2) • A large and complex system is a system composed of a • large number of interconnected elements, often developed and deployed worldwide, which interact dynamically, giving rise to emergent properties Examples of complex systems supporting services for civil applications include: 10 global satellite navigation systems air traffic control systems railway control systems space systems such as the International Space Station or space transportation and exploration vehicles surveillance, Earth observation and Homeland security systems electric power distribution systems telecommunication systems complex computer networks, including Internet.
Large and Complex Systems (2/2) • • • 11 A complex system often integrates existing systems (or parts of them) in an overall large-scale architecture containing a large number of interfaces and implementing multiple modes of operation, in a highly dynamic environment Large and complex systems require extensive logistics and maintenance support capabilities Large and complex space-based systems (e.g. GPS, Galileo) are conceived to be in service for a long time; in this case the evolution of the system (up-grades and modifications) has to be taken into account from the beginning.
A Service-Oriented, Space-Based Infrastructure • To achieve the goal of an effective service-oriented, space-based infrastructure a radical (mostly conceptual) paradigm shift is needed: from a technology/mission focused approach to a service approach • We need to start from the end, asking ourselves the following questions: – – – 12 What capabilities do the users need? How can we make an effective use of existing resources, on ground and on orbit? How can we plan for future more flexible and interoperable space infrastructures?
Success Stories: TDRS (3rd Generation) 13
Success Stories: ESA’s Artemis & EDRS 14
Success Stories: TT&C Ground Networks 15
Success Stories: NASA’s Interplanetary Internet 16
Future Developments and Issues • In order to achieve the goal of a truly interoperable, service-oriented space infrastructure, some key areas need further development: • Some open issues have to be addressed and resolved: 17 International cooperation, both in the public and the private sector; Standardization (interfaces, metrics, procedures, protocols); Modularity (modular system architectures, modular spacecraft design, plug-and-play subsystems, etc.); Flexibility (optical inter-satellite links, SDR payloads, active phased-array and reconfigurable antennas, etc); Integration (wireless networks and technologies, Internet). Security (encryption techniques, VPN approaches, government and commercial confidentiality, ITAR, etc.); Overall management & organization of shared resources; Liability issues.
Conclusions • • • • 18 Our economy is more and more depending on large, strategic and complex service infrastructures, based on large, strategic and complex systems; The design of a complex service enterprise requires a wide range of skills and expertise's, covering organizational, engineering, social, legal and contractual aspects; The advent of an effective service-oriented, spacebased infrastructure imposes a radical conceptual paradigm shift, focusing on capabilities rather than technologies; Research and developments in this area are well worth being pursued, but results will not be easy to achieve.
The Global Systems of Systems Infrastructure GNSoS ATM SoS 19 GEOSS
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