Published on December 31, 2013
Separation of Substances Holiday Homework Vi A Roll No:35 Spandan Bhattacharya
Contents • • • • Sedimentation and decantation Winnowing and threshing Filtration Sieving Advanced methods of separation • Fractional distillation • Crystallization • Sublimation
Sedimentation and Decantation • Sedimentation – Heavy impurities in water settle down after some time. • Decantation – The clear liquid above the impurities is poured in another container.
Winnowing and Threshing • Threshing – Mainly used to separate grains from other parts by beating free the grains. • Winnowing – Used to separate grains from impurities like husk by dropping it from an height. All light impurities are separated due to a fan or wind. Threshing Winnowing
Sieving • Used to separate impurities of different volume. • All impurities of smaller size fall down through holes in the container.
Filtration • Filtration – Used for separating different substances, usually solids mixed with liquids, with filter paper, funnel and container. • The substance collected is filtrate which is free of all insoluble impure substances.
Fractional Distillation A method in which a substance when kept in different temperatures ,different materials are formed, e.g.: Crude oil when heated at different temperatures forms petrol, naphthalene kerosene, diesel etc.
Sublimation A mixture of solid substances, such as camphor, benzoic acid, ammonium chloride, iodine etc. Containing non-volatile substances, when heated, change directly into vapour without passing through the liquid state.
Crystallization • Substances that get converted to vapors without passing through the liquid state on heating, e.g. naphthalene, benzoic acid and camphor, undergo sublimation. • The vapor on cooling, gives crystals of the pure solid compound. The crystalline material so obtained is called sublimate. • The sublimation process can be described by the equation. • The technique of sublimation is employed for separating (or purifying) volatile solid substances, which sublime on heating from the non-volatile substances.
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